Exam 2 Study guide
Exam 2 Study guide BSC 2010
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This 53 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Cooper Mendes de Oliveira on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Steven Marks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Biological Science in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Exam 2 Study Guide BSC 2010 Dr Marks EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 1 Vocabulary Chapter 6 9 Actin protein that forms micro laments 9 Basal body organelle formed from a centriole and an array of microtubules 9 Cell fractionation dismantles cells and separates the major organelles from one another 9 Centrioles a set of microtubules arranged in a speci c way 9 Centrosome an organelle Where microtubules get organized 9 Cilia slender organelles that extend from the surface of almost all mammalian cells 9 Chloroplasts food producers of the cell found only in plant cells 9 Cortex layer of cytoplasm protein on the inner face of the plasma membrane 9 Cristae a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion 9 Cytoskeleton structure that helps the cell main its share and organization Helps the cell carry out division and movement 9 Dynein a motor protein Which converts energy in ATP into movement energy 9 9 Endomembrane system comprised of different membranes suspended in the cytoplasm only in eukaryotic cells 9 9 Endoplasmic reticulum ER network of tubules and sacs Within the cytoplasm of the cell that are involved in protein and lipid synthesis 9 9 Endosymbiont theory 9 Eukaryotic cells classi cation of cells including plant and animal cells have membranebound organelles and a nucleus EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 2 O 9 Flagella whiplike structure that allows a cell to move 9 Golgi apparatus organelle that packages transports and modi es proteins in eukaryotic cells 9 Granum stack membranous structure in chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll and is the sight of photosynthesis O 9 Kinesins motor proteins that move along microtubule laments O 9 Lysosome organelle in cytoplasm that break down waste materials and cellular debris O 9 Micro laments actin laments the thinnest laments found in the cytoskeleton O 9 Mitochondria organelle which controls respiration and energy production within the cell 9 9 Mitochondrial matrix gel like material in the mitochondria that contains the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes Where the citric acid cycle takes place 9 9 Motor proteins molecular motors that convert chemical energy into mechanical work 9 Myosin protein that converts chemical energy in the form ofATP to mechanical 6116ng O 9 Nucleus stores the cell s genetic information Q 9 Nuclear envelope a doublelayer that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm O 9 Phagocytosis EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 3 9 9 0 9 9 0 O 9 O 9 O 9 O 9 O 9 O 9 9 9 0 Plasma membrane phospholipid barrier that allows the passage of oxygen nutrients and waste to serVice the cell Prokaryotic cells classi cation of cells including bacteria and Archaea similar in structure to eukaryotic cells except they don t have membranebound organelles and a nucleus Pseudopodia temporary projections of eukaryotic cell membranes or unicellular protists Ribosomes particles made of RNA and protein Rough ER network of tubular membrane within the cell studded with ribosomes Smooth ER network of tubular membrane within the cell with a smooth surface Stroma the uid between grand where carbohydrateformation reactions occur Thylakoids membrane bound compartment inside chloroplasts Vesicles small structure in a cell consisting of a small lipid bilayer transport materials within and outside the cell EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O Chapter 6 Outline Overview All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive Cell structure is correlated to function Cell Hierarchy Six Concepts of the Cell Cell structure and function is explained Visually and experimentally Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells differ Genetic instructions are held in the nucleus Endomemhrane systems regulate proteins and performs metabolic functions Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Cytoskeleton organizes structure Cell Structure is explained Visually and experimentally Visual microscopy Bright eld Fluorescence EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O Confocal Deconvolution Super resolution Electron Microscopy Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation talltes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another Centrifuges fractionate cells into their component parts allows scientists to determine the function of cells Biochemistry and cytology help correlate cell structure with function All Cells are Surrounded by a Membrane The Plasma Membrane is a bilayer of phospholipids that allows for the passage of oxygen nutrients and waste to pass through ProkaryoticV Eukaryotic The basic structure and functional unit of every organism Bacteria and Archaea Prokaryotic Protists fungi animals and plants Eukaryotic Basic features of all cells Plasma Membrane EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 6 Semi uiol substance Cytosol Chromosomes Ribosomes Prokaryotic No Nucleus have a Nucleoiol No lVlembranebounol organelles No internal membrane outer membrane Eukaryotic lVlembranebounol Nucleus lVlembranebounol organelles Generally larger The Nucleus contains most of the cell s genetic material and is usually the easiest to see of the organelles the nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus separates it from the cytoplasm consists of a lipid bilayer olouble bilayer EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O houses DNA and the chemical interactions that occur Ribosomes made of RNA and protein sites of protein synthesis assemble proteins found in two locations In the Cytosol Free ribosomes On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope bound ribosomes The Endomembrane System internal membranes of eukaryotic cells Components of the Endomembrane system Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Plasma Membrane Components are either continuous or connected by vesicles EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O Endoplasmic Reticulum accounts for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryotic cells continuous With the nuclear envelope two distinct regions of ER Smooth ER lacllts ribosomes lipid synthesis detoxi cation Rough ER studded With ribosomes bound ribosomes which produce membrane associated proteins distributes transport vesicles membrane factory of the cell Golgi Apparatus consists of attened membranous sacs call cisternae lVlajor Functions modi es products of the ER Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles FedEx Lysosomes lVlembranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that digest macromolecules Hydrolyze proteins fats polysaccharides and nucleic acids EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O Lysosomal enzymes work in the acidic environment of the lysosomes digests organelles and recycles them Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles Similarities with Bacteria enveloped by a double membrane contain free ribosomes and circular DNA molecules Grow and reproduce independently endosymbiont theory Mitochondria cites of cellular respiration uses oxygen to breakdown ATP smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae two compartments are created by the inner membrane intermembrane space 39 mitochondrial matrix Chloroplasts cites of Photosynthesis contain green pigment Chlorophyll EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 1O Structure includes Thylakoids membranous sacs stacked to form a granum Stroma the internal space The Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton a network of bers extending throughout the cytoskeleton Organizes the cell s structure and activities Composed of three types of molecular structures Microtubules Micro laments Intermediate laments helps support the cell and maintain its shape interacts with motor proteins to produce motility vesicles travel along the cytoskeleton Recent evidence suggests that the cytoskeleton may help regulate biochemical activities Two types of motor protein Dynein minusend directed motor moves towards a minus end EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 11 Kinesins plusend directed motors moves toward a plus end Three main types of bers make up the Cytoskeleton we focus of two lVlicrotubules thiclltest of the three components Hollovv tubes maintains the cell shape cell motility Chromosome movements during cell division organelle movement Centrosomes and Centrioles microtubules grow from a centrosome In animal cells the centrosome has a pair of centrioles Cilia and agella locomotor appendages of some cells differ in their beating patterns A core of microtubules incased in a plasma membrane basal body anchors the cilium or agellum Dynein drives the bending movements of cilium or agellum EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 12 Micro laments actin laments nest components Tvvo intertwined stands of actin Functions Maintains cell shape changes cell shape muscle contraction cytoplasmic streaming cell motility cell division Micro laments are solid rods built as a twisted double chain of actin form a 3D network called the cortex to help support the cell shape Micro laments that control cellular motility contain a protein myosin thicker laments composed of myosin combine with the thinner actin bers localized contraction brought on by actin and myosin drives amoeboid movement Pseudopodia cellular extensions EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 13 extend and contract through the assembly and contraction of actin subunits EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 14 Review Questions for Ch 6 1 Which structures are included in both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells A Plasma Membrane Cytosol Chromosomes Ribosomes B Nucleoid Ribosomes Mitochondria Plasma membrane C Nucleus Chromosomes Cytosol Ribosomes D Mitochondria Nuclear Envelope Plasma Membrane Cell Wall 2 The Genetic material of the cell is housed Within the nucleus Which is surrounded by a L0 The Lipid Bilayer is composed of Which are both hydrophobic and hydrophilic or 4 What are the Components of the Endomembrane system A Nucleus Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Plasma membrane B Nuclear Envelope Endoplasmic Reticulum LysosomesVacuoles Plasma Membrane Cytosol C Nuclear envelope Golgi Apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum Plasma Membrane Lysosomes Vacuoles D Plasma Membrane Endoplasmic ReticulumVacuoles Nucleoid Ribosomes Lysosomes 5 What are the functions of the Smooth ER EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 15 6 What are the functions of the Rough ER 7 The Endosymhiont Theory is the theory that a prolltaryotic cell merged With a Eukaryotic cell What characteristics of the Mitochondria suggest this theory 8 A cell With a large number of free ribosomes is most likely A Producing primarily secreted proteins Producing primarily cytoplasmic proteins Constructing an extensive cell wall Digesting large food particles FCC Not doing anything productive EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 16 Vocabulary Chapter 7 9 Active Transport moving substances against their concentration gradient 9 Amphipathic molecules molecules exhibiting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic tendencies 9 Concentration gradients direction of molecular movement and the energy requirement 9 Cotransport active transport of a solute directly drives transport of other solutes 9 Diffusion the distribution of molecules evenly into available space 9 Dynamic equilibrium as many molecules cross the membrane in one direction as in the other direction 9 Electrogenic Pump transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane 9 Endocytosis cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 17 9 Exocytosis transport vesicles migrate to the membrane fuse with it and release their contents 9 Facilitated Diffusion transport proteins assist in moving molecules across the plasma membrane 9 Flaccid no movement of water across the cell wall 9 Fluid boundary the plasma membrane consists of lipids and proteins 9 Fluid mosaic model membrane is a uid structure with a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it 9 Glycoproteins transmembrane proteins with carbohydrates attached 9 Hypertonic Solution Solute concentration is higher than that inside the cell 9 Hypotonic Solution Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell 9 Integral proteins proteins that are able to penetrate the hydrophobic core partially Very Rare 9 Ion Channels mediate what passes across the plasma membrane 9 Ionic Pump form of active transport 9 Isotonic Solution Solute concentration is the same as what is inside the cell 9 Ligand any molecule that binds to a receptor site of another molecule 9 Membrane Potential voltage difference across a membrane 9 Osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 18 9 Passive transport Unfacilitated movement across the membrane down the concentration gradient 9 Peripheral proteins bound to the surface of the membrane 9 Plasmolysis hypertonic solution plant cell loses water 9 Phagocytosis cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole 9 Receptormediated endocytosis binding of ligands to receptors that encourages vesicle formation 9 Selectively permeable certain materials non polar can pass through easily while polar materials cannot 9 Sodiumpotassium pump type of active transport system very common 9 Tonicity ratio of solute concentration inside the cell vs outside the cell 9 Transmembrane proteins proteins that span the membrane 9 Turgid hypotonic solution will swell and become rigid EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 19 Chapter 7 Outline Chapter 7 Membrane Structure and Function Structure of membranes The plasma membrane is a uid boundary made up of a combination of lipids and proteins separates the living cell from its surrounding All membranes have two distinct sides With different functions how do molecules pass through membranes Membranes are Selectively permeable Membrane proteins aid in movement of certain molecules Concentration gradients dictate the direction of molecular movement and the energy requirement EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 20 Some molecules cannot pass through Cellular membranes are made of lipids and proteins uid mosaic model Phospholipids are the most abundant amphipathic molecules hydrophobic and hydrophilic uid mosaic model membrane is a uid structure With a mosaic of various proteins embedded in it Membrane Proteins and their function membrane is a collage of different proteins embedded in the uid matriX of the lipid bilayer proteins determine most of the membrane s speci c functions Types of Proteins Peripheral proteins bound to the surface of the membrane Integral proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core Very Rare Transmembrane proteins proteins that span the membrane in order for the protein to be transmembrane it has to be amphipathic hydrophilic and hydrophobic passes through the membrane is always odd SiX major functions of membrane proteins Role of membrane Glycoproteins in cellcell recognition cells recognize each other by binding to surface proteins Glycoproteins transmembrane proteins With carbohydrates attached EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 21 on the external side of the plasma membrane Synthesis of sidedness of membranes membranes have distinct faces inside and outside asymmetrical distribution of proteins lipids and carbohydrates is determined by the ER and Golgi apparatus when the membrane is built Selective permeability lVlembrane separates the cell into separate chemical environments Selectivity allovvs molecules to enter or eXit the cell hydrophobic molecules can dissolve in the lipid bilayer pass easily through the membrane Nonpolar Polar molecules do not cross easily Passive Transport diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy required Diffusion molecules spread out evenly into available space diffusion of certain molecules can be directional dynamic equilibrium as many molecules cross the membrane in one direction as in the other direction materials diffuse down the concentration gradient region in which the density of a substance chemical increases or decreases no work is done to move a substance down the concentration gradient EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 22 Passive transport diffusion of substances across a biological membrane that eXpends no energy Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion transport proteins assist in moving molecules across the plasma membrane o enin s in the lasma membrane that allow onl a s eci c molecule or ion to P g P y P cross are called Channel Proteins Channel Proteins Aquaporins diffuse vvater Ion Channels open or close with stimulus also called gated channels Carrier Proteins Osmosis effects on water balance Osmosis the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane vvater diffuses across the membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration until the solute concentration is equal Water Balance of Cells Tonicity ratio of solute concentration inside the cell vs outside the cell lsotonic solution Solute concentration is the same as what is inside the cell no net water movement Hypertonic solution Solute concentration is higher than that inside the cell cell will lose vvater Hypotonic solution Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell cell will gain vvater EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 23 Cell walls maintain water balance Turgid plant cells in a hypotonic solution will swell and become rigid Flaccid no movement of water across the cell wall of a plant Plasmolysis in a hypertonic solution plant cell loses water Active transport transport proteins move solutes against their concentration gradient requires energy Active Transport moving substances against their concentration gradient requires energy usually in the form of ATP Performed by speci c proteins allows cells to maintain concentration gradients Ionic pump typical form of active transport Sodiumpotassium pump type of active transport system very common How lon pumps maintain membrane potential membrane potential voltage difference across a membrane Voltage is created by differences in distribution of positive and negative ions across a membrane electrogenic pump transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane Cotransport Cotransport active transport of a solute directly drives transport of other solutes EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 24 this is active transport Bulk Transport exocytosis transport vesicles migrate to the membrane fuse with it and release their contents endocytosis cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane requires energy phagocytosis cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole vacuole fuses With a lysosome to digest the particle receptormediated endocytosis binding of ligands to receptors that encourages vesicle formation ligand any molecule that binds to a receptor site of another molecule EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 25 Review Questions for Chapter 7 1 The is a uid boundary made up of a combination of and 2 The Membrane is and molecules move their from areas of to concentrations 3 Which is a function of membrane proteins A Signal Transduction B CellCell Recognition C lntercellular Joining D Transportation of Molecules E All of the Above 4 Why do certain molecules need to be helped across the plasma membrane What is this process called Name one protein that assists in molecule transportation across the plasma membrane EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 26 5 Describe what would happen to an animal cell placed in a Hypotonic solution What would happen to a plant cell in a Hypotonic solution 6 What is the Difference between active transport and facilitated transport Name a protein that assists in active transport 7 A lipid bilayer in a human cell made of which of the following lipids would be the most uid A Phospholipids with saturated fatty acids B Phospholipids with unsaturated fatty acids 8 In order for a protein to be an integral membrane protein transmembrane protein it would have to be A hydrophilic B hydrophobic C amphipathic with at least one hydrophobic region D completely covered with phospholipids E eXposed on only one surface of the membrane EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 27 Vocabulary Chapter 8 9 Activation Energy the initial energy required to start the reaction 9 Active Site region where the substrate binds to the enzyme 9 Anabolic Pathways build complex molecules 9 ATP cellular energy 9 Catabolic Pathways release energy through the breakdown of large molecules 9 Catalyst chemical agent that speeds up reactions but are not included in the reactants or products of the reaction they are not consumed 9 Chemical Energy potential energy unlocked through chemical reactions 9 Competitive Inhibitors molecules that bind to the active site of an enzyme changing the shape of the active site and creating a less effective active site 9 Energy the ability to cause change 9 Endergonic Nonspontaneous reactions that absorb energy increasing the entropy 9 Energy Coupling the process within the cell of managing energy resources 9 Entropy the measure of disorder within the universe 9 Enzyme protein that catalyzes reactions 9 EnzymeSubstrate Complex The combined form of the substrate and the enzyme attached to it 9 Exergonic Spontaneous reactions that release energy decreasing the entropy 9 First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is constant in the universe therefore energy can be transformed and transferred but cannot be created or destroyed EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 28 9 Free Energy energy available Within the organism that is readily available to perform work Within an environment With a stable temperature and pressure 9 Induced Fit the process by which a substrate brings chemical groups to the active site in order to enhance its ability to catalyze the required reaction 9 Kinetic Energy motion energy 9 Metabolic Pathways totality of an organism s chemical reactions 9 Noncompetitive Inhibitors molecules that bind to a site other than the active site changing the shape of the enzyme and creating a less effective active site 9 Potential Energy energy locked into the molecule stored energy 9 Second Law of Thermodynamics every transfer or transformation of energy must increase the entropy or disorder Within the universe 9 Substrate reactant that the enzyme acts upon to begin the reaction 9 Thermal Energy a form of kinetic energy characterized by the motion molecules 9 Thermodynamics study of energy transformation EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 29 Outline Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Metabolism Overview the Energy of Life living cell is a miniature chemical factory with thousands of reactions cell extracts energy ATP and apple energy to perform work Organisms even convert energy to light four key concepts 1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy 2 Spontaneity of a reaction depends of the change in freeenergy 40 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions and endergonic reactions 4 Enzymes catalyze reactions by lowering required activation energy What is Metabolism the totality of an organism s chemical reactions a metabolic pathway begins with a speci c molecule ends with a product Catabolic pathways release energy through the breakdown of large compleX molecules into smaller simpler compounds cellular respiration is an example EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 30 Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones synthesis of proteins Forms of Energy Energy ability to cause change Kinetic energy motion energy a Windmill converts moving Wind into electrical energy Thermal energy heat kinetic energy random movements of molecules Potential energy energy locked in a molecule stored energy Chemical energy potential energy that can be released through chemical reactions Laws of Energy Thermodynamics study of energy transformation rst law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed energy can be transferred or transformed energy in the universe is constant EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 31 Second law of thermodynamics every energy transfer or transformation must increase the entropy of the universe Entropy disorder Order and disorder Within the cell Cells create order from disorder replace matter and energy that is ordered With a disordered form Energy Light exists in the form of heat Spontaneous and NonSpontaneous Reactions 39 EX l gO iC I Spontaneous reactions release 6116ng Endergonic NonSpontaneous Reactions absorb energy A Change in Free Energy AG Free energy is the energy an organism has available to perform work in a uniform temperature and pressure environment G Gibbs free energy of a system Free Energy Stability and Equilibrium EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 32 Free energy is the instability of a system will it change to a more stable state how likely is it to change Spontaneous changes will decrease free energy and the system will become more stable At Equilibrium the system is extremely stable the system will not change The process will only occur as a system is working toward equilibrium Free Energy and Metabolism How does Free energy relate to the Metabolisms Exergonic reactions release free energy from a system and bring the system closer to stability and equilibrium Enolergonic reactions absorb free energy into a system and makes the system more unstable Equilibrium and the Metabolism In a closed system reactions will eventually bring the system to equilibrium and will no longer do work Cells are never in equilibrium they are open systems metabolism is never in equilibrium Catabolic pathways release free energy ATP powers the cell by using both exergonic anol enolergonic reactions EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 33 Three main types of work Chemical Transport Mechanical Energy coupling how cells manage energy resources use exergonic reactions to run endergonic reactions Most is mediated by ATP Regenrating ATP It is a renewable resource regenerated by adding a phosphate group to ADP energy to regenerate ATP comes from catabolic reactions in the cell ATP cycle energy passes during transfer from catabolic to anabolic pathways Enzymes facilitate metabolic reactions Catalyst chemical agent that speeds up a reaction but do not get consumed by the reaction Enzyme catalytic protein Activation Energy Barrier EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 34 Chemical reactions between molecules are started by breaking bonds and forming new ones Activation energy the initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction supplied in the form of thermal energy Enzymes reduce the activation energy required for the reaction do not effect the amount of free energy speed up reactions that would have occurred without the enzyme being present Substrate Speci city of Enzymes Substrate reactant that the enzyme acts on Enzymesubstrate complex what is formed when the enzyme binds to the substrate active site region where the substrate binds to the enzyme Induced t a substrate brings chemical groups to the active site that enhances their ability to catalyze the reaction Enzyme s Active site the substrate binds to the enzyme s active site active site can lower an energy activation barrier by EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 35 positioning substrates correctly straining substrate bonds providing a favorable microenvironment bonding to the substrate Enzyme inhibitors Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme changes the shape of the enzyme less effective active site Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to another part of the enzyme not the active site changing the shape of the enzyme Questions for Chapter 8 EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 36 1 Name the four forms of energy and give an example 2 True or False the rst law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be destroyed but can be transformed created and transferred within the universe 3 Within a cell the can never be at equilibrium because is constantly owing into the cell 4 In the metabolism release free energy bringing the system closer to and reactions absorb free energy making the system more 5 What are the three types of work powered by ATP 6 What is the Activation Energy Barrier How does the cell compensate for the barrier and what are the components the cell uses EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 37 7 What is the active site Why does it exist How is it stopped or negatively effected 8 Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an organism How does this relate to the second law of thermodynamics A Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics which states that entropy must increase with time B Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is exactly balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe C Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics D As a consequence of growing organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth E Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 38 Vocabulary Chapter 9 Aerobic respiration the break down pyruvate into C02 uses electron 39UansportchanimudiCXZUJgenen eJXTP ATP synthase protein that drives the synthesis ofATP molecules Cellular Respiration the oxidation of glucose Chemiosmosis the use of energy to drive cellular work electron transport chain passes electrons through steps instead of through a single explosive reaction Fermentation passes electrons stored in NADH to 02 Pyruvate is not oxidized and no more ATP is produced Glycolysis the splitting of sugar Oxidation process by which the substance loses electrons protonmotive force showing its capacity to do work Redox reactions chemical reactions that transfer electrons between the reactants lRedtu jorlprocesslqyxvhichtluasuln arunganlsE chKndsgposnive dargeis reduced EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 39 Chapter 9 Outline Six Key Concepts Metabolic pathways transfer energy through redox reactions Glycolysis begins the oxidation of glucose cells make a metabolic decision after glycolysis based on 2 presence When there is no 02 present cell proceeds with fermentation When 02 is present cell can extract more energy from glucose The breakdown of glucose to C02 is completed by the citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation uses the breakdown of 02 to drive ATP synthesis Cellular respiration extracts energy from macromolecules in addition to sugars Metabolic Pathways oxidize organic fuels to extract energy There are several processes necessary to cellular respiration and pathways Cellular Respiration Redox Reactions Oxidation and Reductions The release of energy stored in organic molecules through the transfer of electrons during chemical reactions The energy released is used to synthesis ATP Redox Principle Redox reactions are chemical reactions that transfer electrons between the reactants Oxidation is the process by which the substance loses electrons Reduction is the process by which the substance gains electrons positive charge is reduced EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 4O Oxidation of Organic fuel molecules through Cellular Respiration During Cellular Respiration Fuel ex glucose is oxidized O2 is reduced Stages of Cellular Respiration 1 Glycolysis break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate 2 Oxidation of Pyruvate begins the break down of pyruvate 3 Citric Acid cycle completes break down of pyruvate into CO2 4 Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP synthesis Glycolysis harvests chemical energy Glycolysis the splitting of sugar breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glycolysis can occur whether or not O2 is present NADH and pyruvate what happens to it Aerobic respiration breaks down pyruvate into CO2 uses electron transport chain with O2 to generate ATP Fermentation passes electrons stored in NADH to O2 Pyruvate is not oxidized and no more ATP is produced occurs when oxygen is not present Types of Fermentation EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 41 Consists of glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD NAD can be reused by glycolysis Two common types Alcohol fermentation lactic acid fermentation Pyruvate is oxidized in the presence of 02 In the Presence of 02 Pyruvate enters the mitochondria Where glucose oxidation is completed Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA To begin the citric acid cycle pyruvate must be converted into acetyl Coenzyme Carried out in three separate reactions Release of C02 Reduction of NAD to NADH Attachment of Coenzyme A The Citric Acid Cycle Completes the break down of pyruvate into C02 Genergates 1 ATP 3 NADH and FADHZ has eight steps each are catalyzed by a speci c enzyme Step 1 The acetyl group of CoA combines With oxaloacetate forming citrate Step 28 decomposes the citrate back to oxaloacetate During oxidative phosphorylation EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 42 after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle NADH and EADHZ have the most energy extracted donate electrons to the electron transport chain this powers ATP synthesis Electron Transport The inner membrane or cristae of the mitochondrion Most of the components are proteins existing in multiprotein complexes carriers alternate between reduced and oxidized states accept and donate electrons Electrons reduce free energy as they move down the chain Energy Harvest via NAD glucose and organic molecules are broken down in cellular respiration electrons are transferred to NAD NAD functions as an oxidizing agent Each NADH the reduced form of NAD stores energy to synthesis ATP NADH passes electrons through the electron transport chain the electron transport chain passes electrons through steps instead of through a single explosive reaction 02 pulls electrons down the chain The energy created is used to regenerate ATP Why is there so much stored energy in Hydrocarbons CH bonds are unstable Carbon and hydrogen are not very electronegative EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 43 loose grip on their shared electrons Electrons attached to an atom with more electronegativity are more stable less potential energy Electrons are transferred from NADH to FADHZ Proteins like cytochromes pass electrons to 02 No ATP is directly generated by the electron transport chain What are the manageable amounts of energy used for the electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H into the inter membrane space from the mitochondrial matriX H moves through the protein ATP synthase a transmembrane protein that harnesses the energy released when H ions move across the mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradient ATP synthase drives phosphorylation of ATP Example of chemiosmosis the use of energy to drive cellular work Energy that is stored in the PH gradient couples the redox reactions to ATP synthesis H gradient is called protonmotive force showing its capacity to do work ATP Production by cellular respiration during cellular respiration the majority of energy ows glucose 7gt NADH 7gt electron transport chain igt protonmotive force igt ATP EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 44 About 34 of energy from the glucose molecule is transferred to ATP making approximately 32 ATP Fermentation Vs Aerobic Respiration Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and gather chemical energy NAD is the oxidizing agent in both processes Different nal electron acceptors organic molecule pyruvate or acetaldehyde Fermentation 02 Cellular respiration Cellular respiration produces 32 ATP Fermentation produces 2 ATP Evolutionary importance of Glycolysis Ancient Prokaryotes believed to have used glycolysis before there was oxygen present used only glycolysis to generate ATP Evolutionarily cellular respiration is more recent Glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle connections to other metabolic pathways Major intersections to multiple catabolic and anabolic pathways Used the catabolic pathway of glucose oxidation but applies to other pI OCGSSGS EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 45 Chapter 9 Questions 1 06H1206 6 02 6 002 6 H20 A The two processes are similar because they both involve oxygen and carbon dioxide B The oxygen and carbon dioxide in both processes are literally the same molecules C The two types of respiration have nothing to do With one another D Cellular respiration is the opposite reaction to organismal respiration 2 Why do our muscle cells perform fermentation to produce lactic acid during strenuous exercise When more ATP can be generated by cellular respiration A Fermentation is a quicker process B Muscle cells don t need energy they just want to get rid of excess glucose C Lactic acid has a positive effect on muscle cell function D There is not enough 02 in the cells to perform cellular respiration 3 Through the rst three stages of cellular respiration only 4 ATP molecules have been produced from the initial glucose molecule In Which of the products of these stages is the potential energy to produce more ATP molecules stored A The 6 molecules of 002 EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 46 B The TH ions produced C The 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules D The 4 molecules of ATP 4 During oxygen debt Why would muscle cells choose lactic acid fermentation Which produces no ATP over sending the pyruvate molecules to the citric acid cycle 2 more ATP molecules cow Muscle cells do not have mitochondria The ATP produced in the citric acid cycle cannot be used for cellular work The production of C02 in the citric acid cycle is detrimental to the cell The citric acid cycle does not provide a mechanism for oxidizing NADH back to NAT EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 47 Chapter 10 Vocabulary 39 Autotrophs sustain themselves without consuming anything that comes from other organisms Calvin Cycle process that uses ATP and electrons to build sugars Chloroplasts structure in which photosynthesis occurs glyceraldehyde 3phosphate G3P sugar produced in the calvin cycle from C02 Heterotrophs obtain organic material from other organisms Lightdependent Reactions reaction occurring in photosynthesis that requires sunlight or light energy to function LightIndependent Reactions reaction occurring in photosynthesis that does not require light Pigments substances that absorb visible light Photosynthesis the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy photophosphorylation the generation of ATP from ADP EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 48 Chapter 10 Outline Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Overview Photosynthesis the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy photosynthesis in uences almost the entire world either indirectly or directly reactions involved in photosynthesis are the opposite of those involved in cellular respiration Autotrophs sustain themselves Without consuming anything that comes from other organisms the producers create C02 and other inorganic molecules Heterotrophs obtain organic material from other organisms the consumers Broad summary of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy LightDependent Reactions convert light energy into ATP and NADPH 0Xidize H20 and releases 02 LightIndependent Reactions or the Calvin Cycle Reduce C02 to produce sugar Use energy stored in ATP and NADPH by lightdependent reactions Converts light energy to the chemical energy of food EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 49 Chloroplasts are structurally similar to photosynthetic bacteria and most likely evolved from these bacteria The chemical reactions of photosynthesis occurs because of the structural organization of chloroplasts Photosynthesis can be summarized as 6 C02 6 H20 Light energy C6H1206 6 2 Two Stages of Photosynthesis Light Reactions Split H20 Release 2 Reduce NADP to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation ClaVin Cycle forms sugar from C02 using ATP and NADPH begins With carbon xation Light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy chloroplasts form ATP and NADPH similar to formation of ATP and NADPH in mitochondria Pass highenergy to lower energy acceptors Electrons must rst be excited into a high energy state using energy from sunlight Light Receptors Pigments substances that absorb Visible light different pigments absorb different wavelengths EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 50 If a wavelength cannot be absorbed it is re ected leaves look green because light re ects off of chlorophyll and transmits green light Calvin Cycle Builds sugar from smaller molecules uses ATP and reducing power of electrons being transported by NADPH ATP and NADPH needed to power the cycle comes from light reactions Calvin Cycle has three steps Carbon xation catalyzed by rubisco Reduction Regeneration of the C02 acceptor BuBP for synthesis of 1 GSP the cycle must repeat 3 times glyceraldehyde 3phosphate 331 sugar produced in the calvin cycle from C02 Importance of Photosynthesis Light energy entering the chloroplasts get stored as chemical energy sugar made in the chloroplasts supply chemical energy to synthesize the organic molecule Plants store excess sugar as starch stored in roots tuber seeds and fruits photosynthesis produces the 02 in our atmosphere EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 51 Chapter 10 Questions 1 A small acorn over time can grow into a huge oak tree The wood in such a tree can weigh many tons even after it has been cut into logs and dried Where does most of this mass come from as the tree grows A Minerals in the soil B Organic matter in the soil C Gases in the air I Sunlight E ATP 2 To slow down global warming scientists believe it is crucial to stop cutting down the Amazon rain forest mainly because A Many plant and animal species Will disappear if the rain forest ecosystem is destroyed B Removal of the forest Will lead to Widespread erosion and degradation of the environment C Living trees remove carbon dioxide C02 from the atmosphere D The decay of cut trees Will release C02 into the atmosphere 3 When donating its activated electron the chlorophyll in photosystem ll P680 is said to be a very powerful oxidizing agent This is best shown by its ability to EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 52 make use of a proton electrochemical gradient to drive the formation of ATP force the oxidation of oxygen in water to oxygen gas C donate an electron to plastoquinone Pq absorb light energy to power redox reactions force the reduction of NADP to NADPH EXAM 2 CH 6 7 8 9 1O 53
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