Study Guide For Exam 2
Study Guide For Exam 2 Life103
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Potter on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Life103 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Entomology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chapter 33 An Introduction To Invertebrates Invertebratesanimals without vertebrae does not mean they don t have some form of a skeleton o Aquatic invertebrates use water to counteract gravity 0 95 of all known animal species are invertebrates 1 Hydrostatic skeleton uid lled coelom which is surrounded by muscle Can move by using uid pressure and longitudinal muscles thrashing movement 2 Exoskeleton covers outside of body used for muscle attachment Apodemes indentations muscles can attach to 0 Have a ventral hollow nerve cord 0 Skeletons made out of calcium carbonate Phylum Porifera Sponges Sessile and normally asymmetrical no true tissues 0 Filter feeders 1 Ostia pores that allow water to enter into a cavity called the spongocoel 2 Choanocytes beat their agella to draw water from pores and out the osculum 3 Amoebocytes use pseudopodia take food from water and digest it Totipotent can become other cells if needed Manufacture skeletal bers in mesohyl spicules or sponging Gas exchange and waste removal by diffusion Hermaphroditic male and female gonads 0 Cross fertilization o Larval agellated swimming stage Phylum Cnideria Eumatozoans they have true tissues Diploblastic endoderm and ectoderm and radially symmetrical Gastrovascular cavity with one opening Cnidocytes stinging cells containing an organelle called a nemocyst that when triggered releases banned threads 0 Two body plans 1 Polyp cylindrical in shape sessile form that attaches aboral end to a substrate and uses tentacles to capture prey Examples hydras and sea anemones 2 Medusa free swimming form by drifting of contracting bell shaped body Example jellies Clade Medusozoa Class Scyphozoa jellies most time spent in medusa form 0 Class Cubozoa box jellies mainly medusa form 0 Class Hydrozoa hydras Obelias Portuguese Man O War alternate between polyp and medusa form Class Anthozoa Sea anemones and coral only found in polyp form Exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate Clade Lophotrochozoa o Bilaterian with triploblastic development Protostome development spiral cleavage and determinate cleavage mouth forms from bastophore OR Deuterostome development radial cleavage and indeterminate cleavage anus forms from bastophore Gastrovascular cavity with one opening 0 Alimentary canal complete digestive system with two openings Lophophore ciliated crown of tentacles for feeding Trocophore larva Phylum Pa tyhemin thes Aquatic Freeliving and parasitic species Triploblastic but acoelomates no body cavity 0 Respiration involves diffusion Protonephridia networks of tubules with ciliated structures ame bulbs pulling uid from outside through branch ducts can get rid of some nitrogenous waste Gastrovascular cavity with one opening no circulatory system Protostome development complex nervous system 0 Both monoecious and dioecious Class Turbellaria Flatworms 0 Most marine some freshwater and terrestrial o Predators or scavengers 0 Example planaria Class Trematoda Flukes o Parasites use two suckers to attach to host have an alimentary canal o Shistosoma mansoni adults live in human intestine eggs found in feces larvae nd snail and reproduce asexually intermediate host those larvae penetrate skin and mature in humans nal host 0 Evade detection by aky cuticle and mimic proteins of hosts manipulating their immune system Class Cestoda Tapeworms 0 Adults live and reproduce in vertebrates intestines eggs found in water or food of intermediate host eaten forms cysts in muscles muscle tissue eaten by nal host 0 Scolex anterior armed with suckers and hooks o No mouth absorb nutrients from host s intestine o Proglottids on posterior loaded with eggs Phylum Rotfera Aqua c Alimentary canal digestive tube mouth and anus Pseudocoelomate hydrostatic skeleton Lophophore trophi jaws grind food Reproduce sexually in high populations or by parthenogenesis females producing more females from unfertilized eggs Lophophora tes Lophophore horseshoe shaped feeding organ with ciliated tentacles No cephalization u shaped alimentary canal True coelom completely lined with mesoderm Phylum Ectoprocta o Colonial animals who resemble plants exteriorly o Exoskeleton reef builders 0 Gas exchange across Lophophore no circulatory system Phylum Phoronida o No heart vessels do peristalsis o Mesoderm derived closed circulatory system Phylum Brachiopoda 0 One or more hearts open circulatory system 0 Shells dorsal and ventral Phylum Nem ertea o Bilateral symmetry protostomic development triploblastic small uid lled sac was potentially a reduced coelom Chemoreceptors and photoreceptors complex nervous system Proboscis used to get prey operate by hydraulics Alimentary canal and closed circulatory system 0 No heart diffusion Phylum Molusca Snails oysters octopus squids clams slugs Soft bodied some have internal or external shells others no shell 0 3 Parts 1 Foot 2 Visceral Mass most of internal organs 3 Mantle tissue covers visceral mass secretes she Mantle cavity extension of mantle water lled chamber with gis anus excretory pores Radula picks up food rough tongue Trocophore larval stage 0 Class Polyplacophora Chitons o No cephalization 8 plated shell marine foot to move radula Class Gastropoda Snails and Slugs 0 Marine freshwater and land 0 Cephalization 0 Shell snails no she slugs o Ciliated foot to move 0 Radula torsion anus and mantle are above head 0 Class Bivalvia clams mussles scallops oysters o Aquatic o Paired gis o No radula 0 Two sided shell adductor muscles 0 Class Cephalopoda Squids Octupi Nautiluses 0 Marine 0 Head surrounded by tentacles 0 Internal shell squidpen external or none 0 Radula 0 Jet propulsion by excurrent siphon pushing out water 0 Closed circulatory system 0 Poison in saliva carnivorous with beak Phylum Anneida o Bilateral symmetry protostome development triploblastic true coelomate diffusion closed circulatory system 0 Simple brain in anterior ganglia in segments chemoreceptors photoreceptors sense moisture Hermaphroditic sexual reproduction Setae and parapodia used to move 0 Class Polychaeta 0 Marine 0 Blood vessels function as gills o Paddlelike parapodia work as gills and to move Have chitonous setae o Jaws and sensory organs well developed 0 Class Hirudinea Leeches 0 Marine freshwater and moist land habitats o Parasite sucks on other organisms blood 0 Bladelike jaws use anticoagulant hirudin 0 Also use anesthetic to numb site of incision Class Obligochaeta Earthworms o Alimentary canal with mouth and anus 0 Repeated segments called septa each with excretory and locomotive organs Coelom Hydrostatic skeleton longitudinal and circular muscles Chatae to anchor Matanephridia ganglia closed circulatory system Hermaphroditic dioecious fragmentation OOOOO Clade Ecdysozoa Covered by cuticle Undergo ecdysis or molting Phylum Nematoda Roundworms 0 One millimeter to one meter Sheds cuticle as it grows Alimentary canal no circulatory system pseudocoelom Longitudinal muscle well developed nervous system pharynx o Bilateral symmetry protostomic development Reproduce sexually internal fertilization Free living decomposers and parasites hookworms 0 Plant parasites can make root cells grow to them and provide them nutrients by producing molecules 0 Trichenella controls muscle cell gene expression to house it and releases signals attracting blood cells to provide it with nutrients Phylum Arthropoda o Bilateral symmetry protostomic development triploblastic coeolomate Exoskeleton segmented body jointed appendages 0 Has two pairs of Hox genes 0 Respiratory organs land tracheal systems water gills Open circulatory system Sensory organs olfactory antennae touch and smell 0 Well developed brain and nervous system 0 Complex social structure 0 Sexual reproduction Hemocoel open circulatory system with uid called hemolymph is propelled by heart to short arteries and to sinuses around muscles and organs Subphylum Chelicerata 0 Sea spiders hoseshoe crabs scorpions ticks mites spiders Chelicerae pincers or fangs clawlike feeding appendages Cephalothorax head and neck fused together and abdomen Simple eyes Earliest were euryterids water scorpions ranging three meters long now extinct Class Arachnida scorpions spiders ticks mites Six pairs of appendages chelicerae pedipalps defense and reproduction feeding and four pairs of walking legs Book lungs stacked pateike structures in an internal chamber Subphylum Myriapoda o Millipedes and centipedes o Terrestrial 0 Head has antennae and three modi ed mouthpart appendages jawlike mandibles o Millipedes have trunk segments formed by two fused segments with two pairs of legs Eat decaying plant matter 0 Centipedes have one pair of legs on each trunk segment Carnivores with poisonous claws on rst trunk segment Subphylum Crustacea o Crabs lobsters shrimp barnacles etc Marine land and freshwater environments Two pairs of antennae Three or more mandibles Legs on thorax and abdomen Small gas exchange on cuticle large gills are used Males and females aquatic have larval stage lsopods pill bugs and wood lice 0000 O l OOOOOO 2 Decapods have carapace mostly marine 3 Copepods grazers on algae and predators Insects Abdomen thorax head heart open circulatory system cerebral ganglion Malpighian tubules tracheal tubules nerve cords Wings extension of cuticle on dorsal side of thorax Diverged by what they ate Incomplete metamorphosis young nymphs resemble adults but smaller molt until it reaches full size Complete metamorphosis larval stage pupil stage adult Dioecious Females have a sperm pouch called spermathecal Carries of disease pollinators food sources in some countries competitors for human food Clade Deuterostomia Bilaterian deuterostome development radial and indeterminate cleavage triploblastic Phylum Echinodermata 0 Slow moving or sessile marine animals 0 Thin epidermis over hard calcareous plates 0 Water vascular hydraulic canals branch into tube feet to help organism move and feed Dioecious o Larvae have bilateral symmetry adults radial Class Asteroidea Sea Stars and Sea Daisies arms come from central disk tube feet used to move attach and detach from substrates by secreting adhesive and then chemical to unbind adhegve spit out stomach through mouth and use digestive enzymes on prey then brings back stomach regrow lost arms 0 Class Ophiuroidea Brittle Stars Distinct central disk and long exible arms they use to move Tube foot lacks attened disks but secretes adhesive Suspension feeder predators scavengers Class Echinoidea Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars No arms ve rows of tube feet Muscles pivot on long spines for movement and protection Mouth on underside with complex jaw Sea urchins spherical sand dollars at Class Crinoidea Sea Lillies and Feather Stars Sea lilies attached to substrate by stalk Feather stars use long arms to move Suspension feed Class Holothuroidea Sea Cucumbers Lack spines reduced exoskeleton Five rows of tube feet around mouth act as feeding tentacles Chapter 34 Origin And Evolution Of Vertebrates Phylum Chordata Bilateral symmetry deuterostome development not all groups are vertebrates invertebrates cephalochordate urochordata and myxini Four Key Characteristics 1 Notochord rst skeletal element not a backbone cartilaginous and exible place for muscles to attach 2 Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord derived from ectoderm not protected by notochord 3 Pharyngeal gill slits 4 Post Anal Tail 0 All of these characteristics need to be present at the same time in order for an animal to be considered a chordate o Notochord and dorsal hollow never cord are the only two characteristics unique to chordates o Invertebrates have a ventral hollow nerve cord Eary Chordata Evolution Ancestral chordates are thought to resemble lancelets Duplication of Hox genes body plan make body more complicated one s for brain expressed in nerve cord tip of lancelets 0 First time duplication of Hox genes happened was in the arthropods during the Cambrian explosion Tunicate genome shows 0 Genes associated with the heart and thyroid are found in all chordates o Ones associated with transmission of nerve impulses are unique to vertebrates Subphylum Cephalachordata Lancelets o Basal chordates 0 Marine suspension feeders o Invertebrates Subphylum Urochordata Tunicates 0 Marine suspension feeders o Larvae exhibit four derived characteristics of chordates o Invertebrates Craniates Cephalization skull brain eyes and other sensory organs Duplication of Hox genes forming two clusters verses one in lancelets and tunicates 0 Have a neural crest which is a cluster of cells near a closed neural tube that form bones and cartilage of skull arises from ectoderm invertebrates have shown that you don t need a neural crest to have a nervous system 0 Higher metabolism and more muscular than tunicates and lancelets Heart with two chambers red blood cells with hemoglobin and kidneys 0 Class Myxini Hagfishes 0 End of Cambrian Era feed on carcasses jawless 0 Flexible cartilage invertebrate can tie itself in a knot and secretes gelatinous mucus when threatened 0 Has a complicated digestive system Vertebrates Genes producing transcription factors and signaling molecules are doubled o Nervous system skeleton development of skull and a backbone with vertebrae 0 Three Parts Of Brain 1 Forebrain olfaction and chemical ques 2 Midbrain vision 3 Hindbrain respiration and metabolism 0 Class Petromyxontida Lampreys o Oldest vertebrates no jaw so instead they use hooks to attach to an organism and feed on their blood have an anticoagulant Cartilage made of proteins not collagen sheath around notochord cartilaginous extensions extend from it and close around the nerve cord Origins Of Bones And Teeth o Mineralization originated with vertebrate mouthparts Teeth associated with jaws hardest substance in body 0 Endoskeleton mineralized much later 0 Structures in order from least to most minerals cartilage bone teeth Invertebrates used calcium carbonate to mineralize structures calcium phosphate is used in vertebrates Calcium phosphate is much more stable in acidic conditions vertebrates need this because muscle movement and metabolism are acidic needed for evolution into more active lifestyle Gnathostomes Shared Derived Characters Jaws evolved from skeletal rods around pharyngeal gill slits moving forward 0 Developed to pull more oxygen in which in turn pulled more food in makes predators more active 0 Jaws were also found in arthropods o Enlarged forebrain which enhanced smell and vision 0 Four sets of Hox genes Aquatic have lateral line systems sense vibrations Paired appendages Class Chondrichth yes Sharks Skates Rays Cartilaginous sh paired appendages ns xed to side of animals body to provide lift pectoral and pelvic ns 0 Higher metabolic rates so they must continuously swim to get enough oxygen for metabolism 0 Lower metabolic sharks don t need to continuously swim Have dermadenticles No eardrums olfaction good at detecting electric elds Oviparous lay eggs hatch outside of mother s body 0 Ovoviviparous fertilized eggs hatched within uterus then birthed Supercass Osteich th yes 0 Class Actinopterygii Ray Finned Fishes 0 True bone making up endoskeleton 3100056000 are sh in vertebrate group Higher metabolism carry and make skeleton One opercular cover more gills placed together to support a higher metabolism by maximizing oxygen 0 Occupy every ecological niche where water is present 0 Class Sarcopterygii Lobe Finned Fishes o Ancestors of tetrapods move from water to land lead to amphibians o More skeletal structures to hold ns humerous o Coelocanths and lung shes 0 Slowly leads to formation of radius and ulna in amphibians COO Tetra pods Class Amphibia Jaws and paired appendages become thicker and more dense to counteract gravity Larval stage aquatic and eggs laid in water 0 Live in extremely humid environments because thin skin to respire dries out easily cutaneous respiration Order Urodela Salamanders O O O Aquatic and land habitats Tail Paedomorphosis Order Anura Frogs O O O O Amniotes Use hind legs to jump Catch prey with sticky tongue Skin glands contain poisonous or distasteful chemicals camou age Order Apoda Caecilians Resemble earthworms burrow in moist soil Amniotic egg CDCDCDLJLJII I O Amnion respiration Allantois collects waste Chorion protection by uid inside to cushion embryo Opened ability for vertebrates to colonize land Always present albumin proteins and yolk sac nutrients Shell not always hard not closed egg exchanges air with environment can drown in water RepUHa Tuataras lizards snakes crocodilians birds extinct dinosaurs Scales for waterproo ng lipids in skin to keep in moisture Ectothermic except birds temperature drops metabolic rate drops Temperature dependent sex determination in eggs Aves Birds 0 O O O O Mammals Endothermic higher metabolism due to use of energy to regulate inside temperature separate of outside Second time ight evolved the rst time in Pterosaurs Arms adapted into wings Wings are the only anatomical feature necessary to y hollow bones not necessary ies and bats are proof Feathers evolved for insulation Shared Derived Characteristics Widest variety of size and body types Mammary glands produce milk Differentiated teeth molars pre molars canines incisors Lowerjaw consists of a single bone Endothermic Presence of hair in at least one stage of life cycle Third evolution of ight in bats Secondary evolution of some mammals back to aquatic life Quadrate and articular bones become incus and malleus for hearing vibrations in air 0 law joint dentary and squamosal Monotremes Australia and New Guinea consists of four spiny anteaters and one platypus Lay eggs produce milk but have no nipples so it s secreted by a gland on their belly Marsupials Kangaroos opossums and koalas Produce milk and excretion through nipples hair Viviparous placental birth Babies underdeveloped when born kept in maternal pouch called the marsupium Eutherians Placental mammals Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function 0 Anatomy biological form naming body structures 0 Physiology biological function how structures work together 0 Comparative study shows that form and function are closely related Animal Form and Function Are Correlated At All Levels of Organization Evolution of Animal Size and Shape Physical laws can constrain animal form 0 Size and shape affect how an organism interacts with their environment 0 Body plan of animal programmed by genome Hox genes lay out body plan genetic material dictates what you are 0 Larger you become diffusion is limited need organ systems to help facilitate diffusion respiratory and circulatory system Muscles must be a bigger fraction of body mass in larger animals and they need thicker skeletons Exchange With Environment Nutrients waste products and gases are exchanged across cell membranes 0 Size cell layers and thickness get s bigger organism develops organs 0 Digestive system nutrients dissolve across intestine to circulatory system to lymphatic system 0 Need a respiratory system also 0 Still rely on diffusion taking place in their capillaries o Excretory system gets rid of metabolic waste urine 0 Advantages of complex animals helps them maintain homeostasis on land controlled release and storage of energy by the digestive system advanced sensory organs skeletons for protection 0 The challenge they face is it s harder to exchange with the environment 0 Simple animals one cell layer thick can just diffuse with the environment planaria bacteria etc Hierarcha Organization of Body Plans 0 Cells tissues organs organ systems 0 Tissue a group of specialized cells can belong to multiple organ systems 0 Organ specialized group of tissues performing a function 0 Organ System organs working together to complete a body process Epithelial Tissue covers the outside of and organism s body and also lines cavities and organs 1 UL b Strati ed Squamous Epithelium Has layers new layers form from the basal end Around areas of constant abrasion vagina anus mouth and skin Cuboidal Epithelium Cube shaped secretory cells Kidney tubules and glands Simple Columnar Epithelium Large brick like cells found where secretion of abrasion happens Intestinal lining Simple Squamous Epitheliem Thin cells use diffusion Blood vessels alveoli Pseudostrati ed Columnar Epithelium Single cell layer different heights and positions of nuclei Respiratory tract Connective Tissue O l OOOOO Holds tissues and organs together Collagenous bers strength and exibility Elastic bers allow tissues to stretch Reticular bers join connective tissue to adjacent tissue Macrophagesphagocytize foreign bodies and call debris Fibroblastssecret brin Loose Has collagenous bers reticular and elastic Holds organs and binds epithelia to tissue Fibrous Collagenous bers Tendons and ligaments Bone Osteoblastsmake collagen matrix Osteonsunits of matrix Central canal holds blood vessels and nerves Adipose Fat Blood Composed of plasma erythrocytes leukocytes platelets Cartilage Collagenous bers in chondroitin sulfate Chondrocytes make cartilage Muscle Tissue 1 Skeletal movement Muscle bers bundles of cells Sarcomeres contractile units Striated 2 Smooth involuntary Lines digestive urinary and arteries 3 Cardiac Combination of smooth and skeletal Sets its own rhythm Controlled by the nervous and endocrine system Nervous Tissue 1 Neurons Electric impulses come through dendrites cell body and to other nerve cells through the axons 2 Glia Nourish insulate and replenish neurons Coordination and Control Endocrine System 0 Hormones pass through blood and target speci c cells with the right receptors 0 Can last minutes to hours 0 Controlled by the nervous system Nervous System 0 Nerve impulses conducted along speci c pathways 0 Epinephrine from the endocrine system speeds up nervous system activities 0 Short voluntary reactions 0 Invertebrates regulate speed by increasing diameter of axons o Vertebrates speed up impulses by surrounding neurons in myelin fat Feedback Control Maintains The Internal Environment In Many Animals Regulation Regulator uses internal mechanisms to maintain balance despite external factors Conformer internal condition changes as external does proportionately 0 Animal can be both reptiles can regulate by shivering and through moving but are also ectothermic Homeostasis Maintaining and internal balance Mechanisms o Setpoint maintaining a variable at a particular point o If anything changes a sensor sends a signal to the control center to regulate response 0 Feedback 0 Negative feedback used to maintain homeostasis reduces reactions by controlling them 0 Positive feedback ampli es a reaction continuously Homeostatic Processes For Thermoregulation Involve Form Function and Behavior 0 Thermoregulation animals maintain body temperature at a normal range Endotherm y and Ectotherm y Endothermic high metabolism to keep internal temperature separate of outside environment activity independent Ectothermic gain heat from external sources activity dependent muscles moving still generate heat no insulation 0 Cold blooded not a good term since if temperature rises so does their body heat Balancing Heat Loss And Gain 0 Heat exchange radiation evaporation conduction convection 0 High temperature to low heat travels o Conduction direct transfer of heat by touching o Convection movement of heat with air 0 Evaporation cannot gain heat only lose it In tegumen tary System 0 Skin 0 Epidermis dermis hypodermis Hypodermis found in endotherms adipose tissue Vasoconstriction reduce blood ow in blood vessels by constricting them to keep heat closer to the core lose heat in extremities Vasodilation blood vessels and capillaries dilate radiate heat to outside environment used to cool animal Countercurrent exchange heat is exchanged from arteries and veins as they go in different directions Endothermic invertebrates can shiver and some heat up by moving their wings Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production 0 Thermogenesis vary heat production to counteract rates of heat loss Shivering or moving 0 Non shivering thermogenesis hormones cause mitochondria to increase metabolism and create heat 0 Brown fat neck and shoulder fat rapid heat production Energy Requirements Are Related To Animal Size Activity And Environment 0 Bioenergetics overall ow and transformation of energy in an animal 0 How much food an animal needs and relates to size activity and environment Energy in energy out equilibrium Energy in gt energy out growth Energy inlt energy out lose body mass Chemical energy from food is used to make ATP to power cellular work 0 Extra is used for biosynthesis growth and repair storage of fat gamete production 0 Not all calories metabolized the same in different animals so energy measured by what food can be used and absorbed Metabolic rates amount of energy an animal uses over time 0 Measured by oxygen and carbon dioxide except in anaerobes 0000 Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoreguation Basal metabolic rate endotherms in a strict environment temperature not expending energy no digestion at rest lowest amount of energy an organism needs to survive Standard metabolic rate metabolic rate of an unstressed ectotherm resting at a speci c temperature while fasting 0 Metabolic rate typically higher in small animals because they work harder to maintain heat due to less area for heat to travel to reach environment Ectotherms have lower metabolic rates comparative to size in endotherms Torpor And Energy Conservation Torpor enables animals to save energy avoiding dangerous conditions by decreased activity and metabolism Hibernationlong term torpor in cold weather and less food in environment Estivation summer hibernation Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition 0 Nutritiontaking in food breaking it down and digesting is o Herbivoreseat autotrophs o Carnivores eat other animals 0 Omnivores eat animals and autotrophs An Animals Diet Must Supply Chemical Energy Organic Molecules And Essential Nutrients Three nutritional needs met by adequate diet chemical energy for cellular processes organic building blocks essential nutrients Dietary De ciencies Undernourishment not enough calories 0 Body uses up carbs and fat breaks down proteins loses muscle mass animal dies 0 Malnourishment not getting all essential nutrients from diet 0 Over nourishmentgetting too many calories 0 Having extra fat was an advantage long ago because food was not readily available like it is now Leptin suppresses appetite therefore controlling the amount of fat we let into our system Essential Nutrients Amino Acids 0 Others obtained from food essential isoleucine leucine lysine methionine phenylalanine threonine tryptophan and valine 0 complete proteins meat eggs and cheese have all the essential amino acids 0 Vitamins 0 Organic molecules required in diet in small amounts 0 Fat soluable readily dissolve into lipids can overdose stored in fat and when you lose weight vitamins are released into your system 0 Water soluable dissolved in water easily excreted Minerals 0 Simple inorganic nutrients 0 Too much can harm your health 0 Iron oxygen carrier of hemoglobin sodium potassium and chloride nerves and muscles maintain osmotic balance iodine thyroid calcium and phosphate bone 0 Fatty Acids 0 Used for phospholipid bilayer signaling molecules fat storage The Main Stages Of Food Processing Are Ingestion Digestion Absorption and Elimination Ingestion Filter feeding Substrate feeding live in or on food source Fluid Feeding parasites 0 Bulk Feeding Digestion Breaking down food into small molecules that can be absorbed Mechanical increasing surface area of food for enzymes to break down mammals chewing others gizzard Chemical digestion uses enzymatic hydrolysis adding water molecules to break apart macromolecules of proteins carbs phospholipids nucleic acids and fats lntracellular food vacuoles phagocytize food after engul ng it via endocytosis Extracellular breakdown of food outside of cells 0 Simple Digestion o Gastrovascular cavity digests food and food is then absorbed by cells across the body 0 Complex Digestion o Alimentary canal mouth anus and complete gut o Arthropods mouth esophagus crop area to store food begins digestion gastric juice digestive enzymes and midgut does most of the absorption 0 Reptiles mouth esophagus crop birds have a gizzard to grind since they don t have teeth stomach anus Compounds of Digestive System Carbs mechanical digestion in mouth and also enzymatic digestion by salivary amylase no further digestion in stomach small intestine breaks polysaccharides into disaccharides in the rst half and then disaccharides into monosaccharides in the second half 0 Proteins mechanical digestion in mouth stomach and small intestine break down chemically 0 Fat chemical digestion in small intestine goes to lymphatic system then dumps into hepatic portal vein which takes it to the liver packaged returned to the blood and sent to the body low intensity exercise works best to lose fat 0 Males testosterone burns fat 0 Females estrogen preserves fat Organs Specialized For Sequential Stages of Food Processing Form the Mammalian Digestive System Regulated by nervous and endocrine systems Glands salivary glands pancreas liver and gallbladder Food is pushed along the digestive tract by peristalsis sphincters keep the food moving in one direction 0 Sphincters can lose strength over time the one between the esophagus and the stomach can wear down allowing gastric juices to abrade it and causing acid re ux Tongue packages food in appropriate size to go down the esophagus Stomach Stores food and secretes gastric juice hydrochloric acid and pepsin parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions chief cells secrete pepsinogen mucus protects stomach from autoingestion o ulcers are caused by a breakdown in the stomach from helicobacter pylori coordinated contraction and relaxation to churn food into chyme sphincters keep acid from going into the small intestine Small Intestine o Digestion 0 First portion is duodenum which mixes chyme with digestive juices from the pancreas liver and gallbladder o Pancreas produces trypsin and chymotrypsin proteins as well as bicarbonate solution 0 Liver produces bile which aids in digesting and absorbing lipids Gallbladder stores the bile Absorption 0 Brush border composed of villi and microvilli increasing the surface area for absorption Active diffusion concentration gradient Passive diffusion o Hepatic portal vein blood with dissolved nutrients goes to liver to be processed Large Intestine Absorption of water Dental Adaptations Mammals chew food due to muscles in face 0 Carnivores sharpened o Herbivores attened o Omnivores both Digestive Adaptations Herbivores cecum is larger to store more bacteria to help break down plant material surface area and length of digestive tract is also longer to give the food more time to break down 0 Carnivores protein digestion mainly occurs in the stomach therefore they don t need as long of a digestive tract Fermentation In Herbivores o Hindgut fermentation happens after the small intestine Foregut four chambered stomach chew swallow regurgitate passes from osmasum to abosmasum to stomach then ferments in the small intestine takes a longer time to break down food Feedback Circuits Regulate Digestion Energy Storage And Appetite 0 Food stretches lining in stomach releasing hormone gastrin which signals release of gastric juice as chyme goes into the small intestine acid leaks in also this triggers the hormone CCK and secretin to activate the release of bicarbonate ions and enzymes from the pancreas and the release of bile from the liver as it goes further into the small intestine secretin and CCK go back into the stomach and stops the release of gastric juice negative feedback response 0 Energy rich molecules are stored when they are not needed for metabolism 0 Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscle cells of animals humans use water to store glucose which makes us heavier and lose more energy other animals use fat Glucose Homeostasis Oxidation of glucose generates ATP lnsulin allows glucose to enter the cell glucagon increases the amount of glucose in the blood 0 Type 1 Diabetes early on set autoimmune disease body breaks down the cells that produce insulin 0 Type 2 Diabetes diet is poor no exercise high blood sugar level cell won t recognize insulin heart disease atherosclerosis can be genetic overnourishmentgt obesitygtType 2 diabetes Humans glucose levels are maintained around 70110mg of glucosemL of blood Leptin PYY and insulin sends a message that you have enough food in your small intestine stops hunger Ghrelin stimulates hunger Chapter 42 Respiration and Circulation Circulatory Systems Link Exchange Surfaces With Cells Throughout The Body 0 Diffusion is very slow for distances bigger than three micrometers o Adaptation of body plan bringing the cells to the surface to help facilitate diffusion Cniderians and Flatworms 0 Another adaptation is the circulatory system Circulatory Systems Gastrovascular Cavity 0 Hydras jellies 0 One opening uid on inside and outside layers to help with diffusion Three Basic Components 1 Circulatory Fluid Blood or Hemolymph 2 Blood Vessels or Cavities 3 Heart or muscular pump 0 Gets rid of waste distributes nutrients and hormones helps with diffusion of gases 0 Closed Circulatory System 0 Blood ows through vessels 0 Blood pressure tends to be higher because it is contained in vessels no cavity to slow it down so blood can ow faster to where you need it distributed 0 Found in some invertebrates and all vertebrates and chordates Open Circulatory System 0 Circulatory uid mixes with interstitial uid as it leaves the blood vessels and enters a cavity 0 Vast majority of invertebrates Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems 0 Cardiovascular system collection of heart arteries capillaries and veins 0 Arteriescarry blood from heart to organs Arteriolesgtcapillariesgtvenules Veins carry deoxygenized blood back to the heart Vertebrate hearts have two or more chambers Atria blood dumps into this chamber 0 Ventricle pumps blood 0 Single Circulation 0 Bony shes Rays Sharks OOOO 0 Two chambered heart atria and ventricle deoxygenated blood ows through heart to gills and ows to the rest of the body 0 Activity of marine vertebrates contracts skeletal muscle allowing the blood to be moved throughout the body in a low pressure setting 0 Double Circulation 0 Amphibians reptiles and mammals 0 Right side of heart pumps and delivers oxygen poor blood to capillaries of the lungs low pressure pump the left side distributes oxygenated blood throughout the body high pressure pump 0 Amphibians Three chambered heart two atria one ventricle Pulmocutaneous circuit oxygen poor blood mixes with oxygen rich blood from cutaneous respiration in the ventricle 0 Non Bird Reptiles left and right ventricle and another chamber either separated by an incomplete or complete septum 0 Four Chambered Heart deoxygenated blood pumps from inferior vena cava limbs and superior vena cava head to right atrium then to the right ventricle which pumps blood into the pulmonary artery becomes oxygenated by the lungs pumped back into the left atrium via the pulmonary veins then to the left ventricle to the aortic valves to the body Coordinated Cycles of Heart Contraction Drive Double Circulation In Mammals Mammalian Circulation 0 Pulmonary Circuit 0 Right ventricle pumps oxygen poor blood into the lungs by pulmonary arteries enriches in oxygen by capillaries in the lungs oxygen rich blood goes to the left ventricle from the pulmonary veins goes out the aorta to the arteries oxygen poor blood is brought back to the heart by veins enters the heart through the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava 0 Cardiac cycle one cycle includes contraction pumps blood and relaxation lls with blood 1 Systole contraction 2 Diastole relaxation 0 Cardiac output volume of blood each ventricle pumps per minute into systemic circulation determined by 1 Heart Rate bpm 2 Stroke Volumeamount of blood pumped by the ventricle in a single contraction o Atrioventricular valves lie between the atrium and ventricle tricuspid and bicuspid valves make the heart sound quotlubquot o Semilunar valves located by the exits of the heart pulmonary semilunar and the aortic make the heart sound quotdupquot 0 Pressure in the chambers of the heart close the valves to prevent back ow Heart murmur blood goes backwards due to defective valve 0 Myogenic hearts are maintained by their own pacemaker and neurogenic hearts are controlled directly by the nervous system 0 Maintaining the Heart s Rhythmic Beat Autorythmic cells located by the superior vena cava in the right atrium that are known as a pacemaker is the sinoatrial node 0 EKG electrocardiogram can sense the nerve impulses put out by the sinoatrial node and graph the stages of the cardiac cycle Atrioventricular nodegets signals from the sinoatrial node and delays them to give time for the ventricles to relax before sending them to the purkinje bers making the ventricles contract Patterns of Blood Pressure And Flow Re ect The Structure And Arrangement Of Blood Vessels Blood Vessel Structure and Function 0 Lumen cavity lined with endothelium Capillaries smallest blood vessel with thin walls endothelium and basal lamina Arteries endothelium surrounded by connective tissue layer and smooth muscle layer 0 Walls thick and strong can pump blood by dilating and constricting Veins endothelium surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle layer 0 Walls not as thick as arteries valves used to move blood in one direction Blood Flow Velocity Blood ow slows as it goes to arteriesgtarteriolesgtveinsgtvenues gtcapilaries Blood Pressure 0 Changes During Cardiac Cycle o Systolic pressure highest pressure from heart contractions 0 Pulse rhythmic bulging of artery walls 0 Diastolic pressure lowest pressure artery walls snap back 0 Regulation of Blood Pressure 0 Blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance due to constriction of arterioles o Vasoconstrictioncontraction of smooth muscle in arterioles increases blood pressure Peptide endothelin induces this 0 Vasodilationrelaxation of smooth muscles blood pressure drops Gravity 0 Animals with longer neck have a higher blood pressure to keep head supplied with blood prevents fainting 0 Blood is drawn downward when standing or sitting valves in the veins help bring it back to the heart also the contraction of skeletal an smooth muscles help Capillary Function 0 Contraction of smooth muscle in the arteriole constricts it Precapillary sphincters control the blood ow between arterioles and venules Exchange between blood and interstitial uid occurs across the endothelial walls 0 Difference between blood pressure and osmotic pressure drives uid out of the capillaries Fluid Return By Lymphatic System 0 Four to eight liters of uid is lost to tissues from capillaries as they go to the lymphatic system 0 Lymph diffused uid lost by capillaries Dumps into cardiovascular system at the neck Lymph vessels valves preventing back ow skeletal muscles and contractions of walls push the lymph o Edema uid accumulation Lymph nodes storage centers for white blood cells Blood Composition and Function Plasma45 cellular elements ions and proteins 0 Blood electrolytes inorganic salts 0 Proteins buffers against pH changes and help maintain osmotic balance 0 Antibodies or immunoglobulins o Clotting factors Erythrocytes red blood cells transport oxygen biconcave no nuclei anaerobic respiration o Hemoglobin iron containing protein transporting oxygen 0 Sickle cell anemia erythrocytes shaped like sickles get lodged in blood vessels preventing oxygen delivery and removal of carbon dioxide Leukocytes white blood cells interstitial uid lymphatic system Basoths Neutrophils Eosinophils Lymphocytes form T and B cells 0 Monocytes Platelets cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow Stem Cells and Replacement of Cellular Elements 0 Stem cells multipotent replenish red blood cells 0 Erythropoietin in kidneys stimulates generation of erythrocytes 0 Located in red bone marrow o Anemia low red blood cell count or hemoglobin levels 0 Blood Clotting 1 Endothelium of blood vessel damaged platelets adhere to collagen and release a sticky substance 2 Platelets form a plug 3 Releasing clotting factors thrombin formed brinogen turns to brin 4 Fibrin clot o Hemophilia missing step in clotting process excessive bleeding 0 Thrombus clot in blood vessel 0000 Cardiovascular Disease Atherosclerosis hardening of arteries by accumulation of fat cholesterol 0 Low density lipoprotein delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane production 0 High density lipoproteinexcess cholesterol returned to the liver 0 Heart attack myocardial infarction damage of muscle tissue due to blockage of one or more coronary arteries 0 Angina pectoris chest pain normally signi es an oncoming heart attack 0 Statins can lower LDLs o Aspirin can be used to stop in ammation 0 Stroke death of nervous tissue in brain due to blockage of arteries in head 0 Hypertension high blood pressure Gas Exchange Occurs Across Specialized Respiratory Surfaces Gas exchange uptake of molecular oxygen from environment and discharging carbon dioxide Partial Pressure Gradients In Gas Exchange 0 Partial pressure pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases 0 Diffusion occurs from higher to lower partial pressure Respiratory Surfaces o Moist diffusion fast when area for diffusion is large and the path to the outside is short 0 Sponges Cniderians Flatworms gas diffuses through their cells Gils In Aquatic Animals Outfoldings of body surface suspended in water 0 Ventilation moving medium for respiration over surface maintains partial pressure Countercurrent exchange exchange of substance or heat between uids moving in different directions Tracheal Systems In Insects Network of air tubes around the body 0 Trachea largest hole to outside 0 Diffusion occurs across moist epithelium of tracheal branches 0 Spiraclesgttracheaegtair sacs 0 Respiratory and circulatory systems are separate Lungs Spiders land snails and vertebrates o Mammalian Respiratory Systems Nostrilsgthair filtersgtwarmed and humidi ed in nasal cavitygtpharynxgtlarynxgttracheagtbronchigt lung gtbronchiolesgtalveoli gas exchange occurs White blood cells patrol alveoli Surfactant reduces surface tension keeps alveoli from collapsing Respiratory distress syndrome alveoli collapse due to surfactant de ciency Breathing Ventilates The Lungs Amphibian anol Reptile Breathing 0 Positive pressure breathing in ating lungs with forced air ow pushing air Mammalian Breathing 0 Negative pressure breathing pulling air into lungs o Diaphragm sheet of skeletal muscle forming the bottom wall of thoracic cavity Lungs have two membranes one connected to the outside of lungs and one connected to the thoracic cavity Inhalation rib cage expands as muscles contractgtdiaphragm contracts moving downgtlungs expand Exhalation rib muscles and diaphragm relaxgtlungs de ate o Tidal volume air inhaled and exhaled with each breath o Vital capacity maximum tidal volume 0 Residual volume air left behind in lungs after forceful exhalation Adaptations For Gas Exchange Include Pigments That Bind And Transport Gases 0 Respiratory pigments transport oxygen bound to proteins 0 Hemocyanin copper arthropods and molluscs o Hemoglobin four polypeptides with a heme group four binding spots for oxygen Bohr Shift low pH decreasing the affinity for oxygen 0 Carbon dioxide transported by plasma or diffused in erythrocytes H binds to hemoglobin diffuses in the alveoli of the lungs
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