Exam 3 biology 1305
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by star ornelas on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to biology 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Horacio O. Gonzalez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 485 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Biology 1305 3quotd TEST CONCEPTS KNOW THE DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS FOR THE FOLLOWING 1 Free energy G A is abouT 73 kcal 2 Adenosin TriphosphaTe ATP Adenosine TriphosphaTe is a nucleoside TriphosphaTe used in cells as a coenzyme ofTen called The quotmolecular uniT of currencyll 3 Adenosin DiphosphaTe ADP An organic compound ThaT is composed of adenosine and Two phosphaTe groups WiTh The addiTion of anoTher phosphaTe group iT is converTed To ATP for The sTorage of energy during cell meTabolism 4 OxidaTion is The loss of elecTrons or an increase in oxidaTion sTaTe by a molecule aTom or ion 5 ReducTion The gain of elecTrons or a decrease in oxidaTion sTaTe by a molecule aTom or ion 6 Redox reacTions a Type of chemical reacTion ThaT involves a Transfer of elecTrons beTween Two species 7 NAD key elecTron carrier in redox reacTions oxidized form 8 NADHreduced form 9 OxidaTive phosphorylaTion is The meTabolic paThway in which The miTochondria in cells use Their sTrucTure enzymes and energy released by The oxidaTion of nuTrienTs To reform ATP 10 Chemiosmosis The movemenT of ions across a selecTively permeable membrane iT relaTes To The generaTion of ATP by The movemenT of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiraTion or phoTosynThesis 11 ATP synThase is an imporTanT enzyme ThaT provides energy for The cell To use Through The synThesis of adenosine TriphosphaTe ATP 12 Cellular respiraTion The seT of meTabolic reacTions and processes ThaT Take place in The cells of organisms To converT biochemical energy from nuTrienTs inTo ATP and Then release wasTe producTs 13 PhoTosynThesis a process used by panTs and oTher organisms To converT lighT energy normally from The Sun inTo chemical energy ThaT can be aTer released To fuel The organisms39 acTiviTies 14 Glycolysis is The meTabolic paThway ThaT converTs glucose inTo pyruvaTe 15 PyruvaTe oxidaTion iT forms an imporTanT link beTween The meTabolic paThways of glycolysis and The ciTric acid cycle 16 CiTric acid cycle also known as Krebs cycles hTTps www youTube comwaTchvJPCs5pn7UNI 17 ElecTron TransporT chain a series of compounds ThaT Transfer eecTrons from eecTron donors To eecTron accepTors via redox reacTions and couples This eecTron Transfer wiTh The Transfer of proTons H ions across a membrane Electron Transport Chain I ntermembrane space n xi I all ii is a i ll Mill ll lI11 r 139quot iquot l i a Zapwf R w iliilli its g i is yiiimwi 2quot A Eur 74 5 3 I RAJ r J NADH H20 2H 11202 NAD H Mitochondrial matrix Inner mitochondrial membrane 18 AceTyl Coenzyme A ITs main funcTion is To convey The carbon aToms wiThin The aceTy group To The ciTric acid cycle To be oxidized for energy producTion 19 SubsTraTelevel phosphorylaTion in subsTraTeIevel phosphorylaTion The PO4339 from a phosphorylaTed subsTraTe is Transferred To ADP To form ATP 20 FADHz cofacTor ThaT is creaTed during The Krebs cycle and uTiIized during The asT parT of respiraTion The eecTron TransporT chain 21 FermenTaTion a meTaboIic process ThaT converTs sugar To acids gases or alcohol IT occurs in yeasT and bacTeria buT also in oxygensTarved muscle cells as in The case of acTic acid fermenTaTion 22 LighT reacTions in phoTosynThesis energy capTured from ighT by chlorophyll and iTs accessory pigmenTs drives The producTion of ATP The source of energy ThaT is laTer used To drive The producTion of carbohydraTes 23 Carbon fixaTion dark reacTions in phoTosynThesis caricriaf za tigii s a 5 961 i 3 Eng 24 PhoTon a parTicle represenTing a quanTum of lighT or oTher elecTromagneTic radiaTion A phoTon carries energy proporTional To The radiaTion frequency buT has zero resT mass 25 PigmenTs chemical compounds which reflecT only cerTain wavelengThs of visible lighT This makes Them appear quotcolorfulquot 26 Chlorophyll a A Type of chlorophyll ThaT is mosT common and predominanT in all oxygenevolving phoTosynTheTic organisms such as higher planTs red and green algae 27 chlorophyll b A yellowgreen chlorophyll pigmenT which occurs only in planTs and green algae 28 PhoTosysTem I The phoTosysTem ThaT makes use of lighT To Transfer elecTron parTicularly from plasTocyanin To ferredoxin 29 phoTosysTem II The phoTosysTem ThaT absorbs lighT for use To drive The oxidaTion of waTer and The reducTion of plasToquinone 30 Cyclic elecTron TransporT lighTdriven flow of elecTrons Through a phoTosynTheTic reacTion cenTer wiTh The elecTrons reTurning To The reacTion cenTer via an elecTron TransporT paThway 31 PhoTophosphorylaTion The use of lighT energy from phoTosynThesis To ulTimaTely provide The energy To converT ADP To ATP Thus replenishing The universal energy currency in living Things 32 Calvin cycle The seT of chemical reacTions ThaT Take place in chloroplasTs during Calvin m 3122 Cycle 53 33333quot 315531quot Gcar on 0 Cycle ns again 3car on me e O quot57vquot Regeneration e splits Into 2 Reduction Phase Phase Chloroplast quotgrizzly mmm um 57 Carbohydrate l31l Formation is ghneamms carbohydrates sugars 33 Carbon fixaTion The conversion process of inorganic carbon carbon dioxide To organic compounds by living Why is carbon fixation important 02 mych C C carbon bonded to other carbon l V ant a Tier col H 20 l39 in uu Lulu xll m nub9n imirlr water organisms 34 Rubisco an enzyme involved in The firsT major sTep of carbon fixaTion a process by which aTmospheric carbon dioxide is converTed by planTs To energyrich molecules such as glucose 35 3phosphoglyceraTesignificanT 3carbon molecule ThaT is a meTabolic inTermediaTe in boTh glycolysis and The Calvin cycle 36 Glyceraldehyde 3phosphaTe G3P an imporTanT role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by reversibly caTalyzing The oxidaTion and phosphorylaTion of G3P To The energyrich inTermediaTe 13BPG NA D is a cosubsTraTe for This reacTion 37 AuToTrophs AuToTrophs are selffeeders and They geT Their energy from nonliving sources such as The sun and carbon dioxide AuToTrophs are called producers because They provide energy and food sources for all heTeroTrophic organisms 38 HeTeroTrophs Living Things ThaT need To eaT oTher living Things To survive 39 Biology 1305 Practice Test 3 1 2 3 4 5 Metabolic pathways a require energy b require highly specific enzymes 0 involve oxidation and reduction reactions d occur in consecutive reactions Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi releases energy b No ADP captures energy after ATP hydrolysis 0 Only in endergonic conditions d No the energy remains in ATP 6 Only after reduction of energy carriers What is the value of the energy change AG during ATP hydrolysis a 23 kcalmol b 2500 watts d 156 kcalmol c 103 kgmol Originally compound A is reduced and compound B is oxidized After an oxidationreduction reaction compound B was reduced by compound A Which of the following is true a Compound A created energy b Compound B liberated energy during the oxidation 0 Both compounds A and B gained electrons 6 Both compounds A and B were reduced NAD is an energy carrier Its main function during metabolic pathways is a It transfers phosphate groups from one molecule to another Page 1 6 7 8 9 b NAD breaks glucose in small monomers so the chemical energy stored in the sugar can be used c NAD ows through the ATP synthase channel and phosphorylates ADP d The function of NAD in metabolic pathways is unknown Glucose metabolism is an process photosynthesis is an process a Anabolic Catabolic b Anabolic Anabolic c Catabolic Catabolic e Metabolic Nonmetabolic Define chemiosmosis b The diffusion of water through a polar enVironment c Transfer of electron during cellular respiration d Formation of NADH during metabolic pathways e The control of osmotic pressure in cells What is an electron transport chain a The traffic of oxygen and carbon atoms during metabolic pathways c The transmission of electrical signals from the brain to mitochondria d The use of electricity to create energy in cells e The transfer of electrons from ATP to NADH ATP stores energy in its b Strong ionic bonds between adenosine and phosphate c Weak Van der Waals interactions in their lipid components d Strong hydrophobic interactions with the plasma membrane e Cationic interactions Page 2 10 Define oxidation b Gain of electrons is oxidation c Loss of neutron is oxidation d General reactions With oxygen e Oxidation is the transfer of coenzymes 11 Define reduction a Loss of electrons is reduction b Reduction is the synthesis of acetyl Coenzyme A c Loss of oxygen potential is reduction e Increments in the concentration of hydrogen ions 12 Is there oxidation Without reduction a Yes b Only in prokaryotes c Only in mitochondria d Sometimes 13 Which compound has more energy the reduced or the oxidized compound a Both have the same energy b The oxidized compound c None of them has energy e None of the above 14 Oxidation and reduction can be defined in terms of transfer of b oxygen and protons c ATP and NADH d neutrons and protons e atoms and molecules 15 Which of the following statements about ATP is true a It is an energystorage compound b It is the cell s principal compound for energy transfers c It stands for adenosine triphosphate d It is the molecule all liVing cells rely on to do chemical work Page 3 16 Phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is endergonic whereas the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is exergonic The two reactions are therefore said to be a substrates b endergonic c kinetic d activated e 17 Which are the linked biochemical steps of cellular respiration a Light dependent reactions and light independent reactions b Energy investing reactions energy harvesting reactions d Reduction of energy carriers electron transport chain and chemiosmosis e Acetyl coenzyme A reduction and oxygen oxydation 18 What is the main source of glucose for cellular respiration a exercise c ATP d respiration e anabolism 19 Some used of ATP produced by cellular respiration include a Active transport a Allosteric regulation of enzymes b Signalinf pathways c Cellular movements 20 Cellular respiration occurs in small steps The main explanation for this is a Metabolic pathways are very slow b There is a small amount of energy in glucose d Cellular respiration is catalyzed by a single enzyme e Water slows cellular respiration due to polarity Page 4 21 The process that converts glucose to pyruvate generating a small amount of ATP but no carbon dioxide is called a pyruvate oxidation b c the citric acid cycle d the respiratory chain e gluconeogenesis 22 Which of the following statements about NAD is true b It requires oxygen to function c NAD is found only in prokaryotes d NAD combines with an acetyl group to form acetyl CoA e NAD detoxifies hydrogen peroxide 23 The Citric acid cycle a Occurs after pyruvate oxidation b Occurs before the electron transport chain c Produces highly energetic reduced energy carriers d Produces carbon dioxide 24 During the citric acid cycle both NAD and FAD gain hydrogen atoms to become NADH and FADHz NAD and FAD were a Both were oxidized c NAD was oxidized and FAD was reduced d FAD was oxidized and NAD was reduced e Both of them evaporated 25 The citric acid cycle fully oxidizes acetyl coenzyme A to CO2 a before glycolysis b after the electron transport chain d in the cytosol e during the lightdependent reactions Page 5 26 In mitochondria the provides the compartments needed for the separation of H and formation of the Hgradientz a Golgi apparatus b Mitochondrial matrix c Mitochondrial lumen d Outer membrane 27 The electron transport chain contains four large protein complexes These proteins b change in a similar way When reduced c regulate the passage of water through the respiratory chain d oxidize NADH e complete oxidation of pyruvate to acetate 28 When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane into the intermembranous space the result is the a formation of ATP b reduction of NAD d restoration of the Na K balance across the membrane e reduction of glucose to lactic acid 29 The proton motive force is a ATP synthase c a metabolic pathway d a redox reaction e None of the above 30 In the cell the site of oxygen utilization is the a nucleus b chloroplast c endoplasmic reticulum e cytosol Page 6 31 Compared with fermentation the aerobic pathways of glucose metabolism produce b pyruvate c fewer protons for pumping in the mitochondria d less C02 e more oxidized coenzymes 32 Gluconeogenesis defined as b the synthesis of glucose from sunlight c the reduction of energy carriers d the proton motive force e a special organelle in which glucose is oxidized 33 Which of the following biological groups is dependent on photosynthesis for its survival a Vertebrates b Mammalia c Fishes d Plants 34 Plants are green because b chloroplasts transmit green light c energized chlorophyll a emits green light d plants do not possess green pigment e chlorophylls absorb green light 35 How do red and blue light differ from each other a They differ in intensity b They have a different number of photons in each quantum d They differ in duration e Red is radiant whereas blue is electromagnetic 36 Define photosynthesis a The synthesis of light in the sun using sugars as the main energy source b A catabolic pathway in which glucose is oxidized to produce ATP c An anabolic pathway in which a photon reacts with DNA in cells Page 7 d Synthesis of light from sugars in the chloroplast It is a catabolic pathway that feeds food chains in our planet 37 During photosynthesis the energy from sunlight is captured by b Acetyl Coenzyme A c Glucose d Rubisco e Oxygenase 38 The main function of NADPH and ATP during photosynthesis is a Oxidize the enzyme rubisco b Liberate carbon dioxide c Capture energy from sunlight in the chloroplast d Fix carbon 39 What is a photosystem a A large membrane in the interior of thylakoids that contains lipids c A signaling pathway that transfers light to DNA d A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum e The total solar energy that reaches our planet 40 Define the Calvin cycle b A metabolic pathway that uses glucose and C02 to produce ATP c A catabolic pathway that degrades proteins to produce aminosugars d The release of C02 from mitochondria after anaerobic respiration e The production of acetyl coenzyme A during photosynthesis Page 8
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