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PHYS exam 3 Muscular & cardiovascular study guide

by: Samantha Decker

PHYS exam 3 Muscular & cardiovascular study guide PHYS 205

Marketplace > Ball State University > Physiology > PHYS 205 > PHYS exam 3 Muscular cardiovascular study guide
Samantha Decker
Fundamentals of Human Physiology

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About this Document

Study guide for chapters 8 & 9 Muscular and Cardiovascular
Fundamentals of Human Physiology
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Decker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 205 at Ball State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Physiology in Physiology at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
PHYSL 205 Exam 3 Exam three focuses on just chapters 8 amp 9 muscle amp cardiovascular however because of this realize that you ll be required to understand these in greater detail While the exam will primarily focus on subjects discussed in lecture or lab please understand that you are required to also understand the expanded content regarding these subjects which is presented in your textbook The questions and items below are only intended to help focus your studying and it is recommended that you review and study utilizing a multitude of resources Things to focus on for Exam 3 o What are the functional characteristics of muscle What do all muscle types have in common Purposeful movement of the whole body or parts of the body manipulation of external objects propulsion of contents trough hollow internal organs and emptying the content of certain organs to external environment All muscles are either striated or unstriated and are either voluntary or involuntary Be able to able to identify all the components of a sarcomere titin actin myosin troponin tropomyosin H zone Z disc I Band M line A band I Band as well as the role they play in muscle contraction Hzone is the middle of the A band containing thick laments M line is down the middle of the A band which holds the thick laments together within each stack The lband consists of the remaining portion of the think laments that do not project into the A band The Zline is in the middle of the lband In between the Zlines are sarcomeres Myosin thick laments and Actin thin laments make up sarcomeres M line 2 line A band I hand Thick Thin 391 lament filament 9 7 Sarcomere A band I hand 5w 0 Cytoskele lal 59 components of V a myofibril Explain the sequence of event necessary to allow muscle contraction to take place starting from nervous system action signaling Receptor receiving signal from outside stimulus l afferent pathway l integration center spinal cord D efferent pathway D muscle contracts 0 Be able to compare and contrast the structural and functional differences amp similarities between skeletal smooth and cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle is striated and voluntary aows from movement of the body Cardiac muscle is unstriated allows for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body Smooth muscle is unstriated and allows for digestion in the body 0 Why does skeletal muscle appear striated while smooth muscle doesn t Skeletal muscle is striated because it has alternating stacked sets of thick and thin laments Smooth muscle doesn t have 0 Understand the excitationcontraction coupling system and the importance and function ofT tubules sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2 and ATP Excitation contraction coupling system recognizes an action potential coming from the brain TTubuIes where calcium comes into muscle and bonds with troponin Sarcoplasmic reticulum Why does rigor mortis occur Why does muscle fatigue occur Rigor Mortis occurs with lack of ATP Muscle Fatigue occurs with lack of calcium and ion imbalance What are the different ways that ATP can be resupplied to muscle How long do they typically last how many ATP can they supply what are the advantages or disadvantages of each 1 ATP is stored in muscle which lasts about 6 seconds 2 Creatine Phosphate boosts ATP with another phosphate and lasts about 10 seconds 3 Glycogen or anaerobic respiration generates ATP for about 40 seconds until lactic acid builds up 4 Aerobic respiration What are the differences between slow oxidative fast oxidative and fast gycoytic muscle Be able to identify each from image Sow Oxidative uses mostly aerobic respiration produce a lot of ATP has to be supplied constantly with Oxygen and Glucose via blood stream Cannot t as much actin and myosin can contract for hours but cannot generate as much force Endurance and ef cient but cannot generate as much force Fast Glycolitic acks blood supply has more actin and myosin has more force generation but doesn t last very long Fatigues in about 60 seconds 0 Be able to explain the different ways muscle contraction can be graded to regulate the resulting force generation Know what a motor unit is and how they impact muscle contraction The functional unit is a sarcomere A sarcomere is the smallest component of a muscle that can contract 0 How is muscle contraction stopped Must stop signals from CNS then breakdown the ACA either when it diffuses out of put ACAace into the cell 0 Be able to trace the heart conduction pathway and understand the function of each pointstage of the pathway Right Atrium via vena cavae partly deoxygenated blood D pulmonary artery via right ventricle l lungs fresh 02 supply l left atrium via pulmonary veins returns from the lungs D left ventrice D aorta D systemic circulation returns blood to rest of body 0 Be able to trace the basic ow pathway through all four chambers of the heart the valves the basic systemic circuit and the basic pulmonary circuit Right Atrium via vena cavae l pulmonary artery via right ventricle l lungs l left atrium via pulmonary veins returns from the lungs l left ventrice l aorta l systemic circulation Why is the left ventricle the largest and thickest chamber Most muscular valve has to pump blood to the rest of body and requires to be more forceful What causes blood to move from chamber to chamber What are the systolic and diastolic phases 0 What is the FrankStarling law and what does it say regarding heart function Frank Starling is wen blood resists coming out of the heart because of clogged arteries high blood pressure high salt intake etc What is the function of the heart valves What is the function of the chordae tendineae What do the heart sounds correlate with Right and Left ventricle let blood ow from the atria into the ventricles during ventricle lling and prevent blood ow back from ventricles into atria during ventricle emptying The Aortic and Pulmonary valves are forced open when the left and right ventricular pressures exceed the pressure nin the aorta and pulmonary artery during ventricular contraction and emptying Chordae tendinae prevents the valve from everting or from being forced by the high pressure to open in the opposite direction into the atria o The heart has a selfexcitatory electro cardiac system What are the components of this system and what is the function of each component Hint SA node What is the pathway of conduction through the system SA node 70 mph quotpacemaker D AV Node 50 mph back up D Purjunkie ber 30 mph if both SA and AV fail Be able to read a normal ECG what is happening at each stage and identify QRS complex P wave T wave Be able to identify common abnormalities of each P wave SA node is ring atriums in contractions QRS complex ventricular depolarization and repolarization ventricles contract AV node Dbungle D and bundle branches depolarization T wave repolarization What causes the heart to have a long plateau phase Why is this long plateau important Has longer refractory period and higher CA2 this means the NA channels stay open longer causing it to plateau This is important so the heart doesn t reach teta ny Why is tetanus not possible in the heart Refractory period is longer and calcium is higher 0 Know the difference between stroke volume and cardiac output What variables will cause and increase or decrease in cardiac output High heart rate means high cardiac output 0 Know how to calculate cardiac output given SV amp HR Know how to calculate stroke volume given CO amp HR Know how to calculate CO given HR amp BPM CO HR x SV SV COHR HR COSV What is the cardiac center that controls heart rate How does parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulus impact the heart and CO What nerve supplies parasympathetic input to the heart The Medulla controls the SA which controls the heart rate Sympathetic stimulation speeds up depolarization so that threshold is reached more rapidly Parasympathetic stimulus slows the heart rate down


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