Popular in Analytical Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Litz on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem315 at St. John Fisher College taught by Dr. Chichester in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Analytical Chemistry in Chemistry at St. John Fisher College.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Analytical Chemistry Exam 1 Chapter 1 0 Classical Method a method of testing using no instruments ex titration Instrumental method methods using machines ex spectroscopy 0 Classical v Instrumental methods Advantages Limitations Classical Method 0 Simple 0 lack of speci city Accurate Procedures are time 0 Based on absolute consuming measurement 0 Accuracy falls 0 inexpensive 0 Matrix critical 0 Lack of versatility Instrumental 0 Can handle complex 0 Calibration Method samples 0 Initial cost and upkeep 39 High senSitiVity Specialized training 39 Small samples 0 Sensitivity and accuracy 0 Reliable measurements depends on method 0 Concentration range limited Analytical Process 0 Identify and state the problem Selection of the analysis procedure Obtain a sample Prepare the sample Analyze the sample Interpret and Report the Results Make conclusions OOOOOO Chapter 2 0 Standard Operating Procedure SOP set of guidelines everyone follows no shortcuts o Instrument speci cations 0 Maintenance calibrations o Gives details about how to store how to prepare solutions and things of the sort 0 Chemical hazard any substance that can cause harm primarily to people 0 Flammable explosive oxidizers water reactive compressed gas o Radioactive acute toxin chronic toxin poison biohazard etiological agents irritants corrosives allergens asphyxiates carcinogens reproductive toxins Routes into the body 0 Inhalation gases or volatile liquids also small particles use hood or mask 0 Skin and eye most common use safely glasses proper goggles clean space 0 Ingestion chemicals on hands or vapors enter drinks wash your hands before leaving 0 Injection dealing with sharps be careful and properly dispose immediately NFPA Four color diamond 0 Blue left health hazards Ogood 4bad 0 Red top re hazard 0will not combust 4bad 0 Yellow right reactivity 0stable 4may detonate 0 White bottom speci c hazard symbols 0 Safety Data Sheet SDS 0 Converted from MSDS Identi es hazards Safety precautions First aid and spill handling Reactivity chances Disposal procedures Fireexplosion information Chemical and physical properties 0 Chemical Labeling 0 Name of chemical 0 date prepared andor opened 0 your name 0 Chemical Disposal 0000000 0 Expensive o OHSA handles rules and regulations 0 Label waste bottles properly 0 Store bottles in same fashion as chemicals 0 DO NOT MIX Chapter 3 0 Water terminology o Distilled boiled water removes particulates dissolved solids microorganisms and pyrogens o Deionized DI cartridges remove ions dissolved gases 0 Distilleddeionized dd both processes 0 UV ltered and sterile water 0 Weight vs Mass 0 Weight measure of the pull of a force on an object usually gravity 0 Mass quantity of matter 0 Mass Measurements electronic balances use an applied current to move reference weights that is proportional to displayed mass 0 Maximum load largest mass capacity 0 Readability smallest division 0 Resolution capacityreadability should be high 0 Taring taking the mass of the empty container into account electronically Burets o Read at eye level Dislodge bubbles below stopcock Avoid washing and drying by doing several rinses Burets are set to deliver with or without blow out Liquid must ow evenly slow down clean with soap and water clean with acid never base 0 Digital precision is lacking but useable o Massing is the best but time consuming Volumetric asks o Dissolve solids in less than total volume 0 Volume 1 and volume 2 won39t always add up 0 Pipets 0 Transfer pipets volumetric best accuracy 0 Measuring Pipets like a buret 0 Wash off sidesdrips 0 Do not blow out unless pipet says 0 Clean after use Micropipets o 01 microliters to 10 mL 0 tips can39t handle strong solvents 0 best for measuring small volumes Synnges 0 05500 microliters o gases or liquids o no strong acids due to corrosion 0 accuracy and precision near 1 0000 Chapter 11 0 Types of GA 0 Precipitation gravimetry Volatilization gravimetry Electrogravimetry Gravimetric titrimetry Atomic mass spectrometry no calibration or standardization step Traditional precipitation Combustion methods Thermogravimetric controlled heating monitor change in mass as heat is ramped Steps of GA OOOOOOOO 0 Preparation of the solution Want low to no solubility of the precipitate Suitable ltration solution Want to eliminate interferences o Precipitation Want large pure crystals that are easy to lter Supersaturation too much leads to smaller crystals and rapid crystal growth Nucleation spontaneous or induced Crystal growth slow addition of more particles If nucleation wins small crystals will form but if crystal growth wins large crystals will form which is good To x dilute precipitate slowly with stirring low Q hot solutions uses low pH increases S o Digestion Precipitates in mother liquor allows large crystals to grow Small crystals will redissolve Can decrease imperfections Do at high temp Improves lterability and purity of crystals Impurities and imperfections Occlusion electrostatic interactions impurities get trapped in crystals to x redissolve and reprecipitate washing and digestion will not help 0 Inclusion other ions get trapped in crystalsto x little can be done but rare occurrence try a more selective reagent 0 Surface Adsorption solvent or ions stick to crystal surfacesto x washing and digestion can help Coprecipitation to x better solution preparation washing 0 Filtration Slow and warm Many different techniques Isolates analyte 0 Washing Do not use water Test for completeness ltrate tested for precipitation by adding ions Do several small washes and collect each for further precipitation o Drying or igniting Drying Heat to remove water solvent 0 110112 degrees for one to two hours Ignition i Use porcelain lter crucible due to higher temperatures o Weighing Many times after heating steps until mass stops changing Tedious time consuming o Calculating Generally an extension of stoichiometry Relates moles of product to moles of reactant Gravimetric factor moles of analyte in weighed form x FMformula weight of weighed form analyte mass analytemass sample x 100 OR analyte weight of ppt x GF weight of sample x 100
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