FULL Test 3 Notes
FULL Test 3 Notes HIST2110
Popular in U.S. History: A Comprehensive Survey
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Popular in History
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Re on Wednesday November 5, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to HIST2110 at Georgia Southern University taught by Dr. J. Woods in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 473 views. For similar materials see U.S. History: A Comprehensive Survey in History at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 11/05/14
THE AGE OF EXPANSION INDUSTRIAL TERRITORIAL AND GOVERNMENTAL 18771939 101 714 The New South 18771900 The South was devastated and broke No US help Economy moved from slavery to sharecropping debt peonage South is the poorest part of America until 1945 Texas prospered during this time Ruled by redeemers Conservative White Democratic Party Plessy vs Ferguson separate but equal 0 71 vote Separate facilities were ok as long as they were equal 0 Segregation By 1915 blacks in the South were reduced to second class status Booker T Washington rationality to achieve equality amp WE DuBois radical NAACP White supremacy grouplike actions start to arise The Settlement of the West Minors amp Cowbovs West was first settled by minors 18491897 GOLD 18581873 SILVER 18701890 COPPER 18661873 Cattle Frontier Era of the Long Drives open plains and cowboys 18701900 Rancheras Era Huge ranches led to Range Wars in the 1880 s 0 XIT largest in Texas Some cattle ranges are still big out west The Settlement of the West Farmer s Frontier Farmers came last 1862 Homestead Act Railroads were given huge amounts of land 0 18631869 Union Pacific 0 18711875 Northern Pacific 0 18801884 Southern Pacific Challenges included No wood No water No real weapons against Indians New inventions barbed wire fence windmill pump colt 45 shooter By 1890 no longer a frontier The Twilight of the Plain Indians 1864 Sand Creek Massacre 1866 Fetterman Massacre 1867 Treaty of Medicine Creek Lodge 18681874 Red River War 18751878 Sioux War Little Big Horn 18781879 Nez Perez 18831886 Apache Buffalo was murdered in the 1870 real death to the Indians 1889 Oklahoma was taken away from the Indians Dawes Act 1887 federal land around reservation given to Indian families Burke Act 1906 repealed Dawes Act All Indians were citizens of the US by 1924 Indians moved onto government reservations Unauthorized whites not allowed on the reservation White would provide education and other necessities for the Indians Indian journey to reservations were not easy They lost livestock and other valuables 1 ackson s Indians had to move off their land to make room for new settlers 102014 Industrial Transformation of the US 18601900 Origins of American Industry Samuel Slater the Father of Industrialization America s Industry in Comparison to the rest of the world 0 186024 0 18732m o 18931 5 REASONS FOR THE GROWTH OF INDUSTY IN AMERICA 18601900 Why did America industrialize Abundance of natural resources oil gold silver lumber coal Transportation by railroads by 1980 more railroads in American than anywhere else Civil War s Impact on Industry government spending to finance war Few government regulations and interference Governments broke up strikes You don t like your job You re fired No restrictions on immigration cheap labor and cheap votes New technologies and inventions typewriter electrical current airbrake Carnegie and Rockefeller TeXtile millsmass production of clothes really good with cotton Industry was going on before the Civil War it was the take off of industrialization Time zones were in uenced by railroads Industrial Advances 1833 oil discovery by George Featherstonhaugh there are oil reserves all over Earth 1853 steel industry Henry Bessemer 18591901 Andrew Carnegie and his steel company 1859 1 oil well Edwin Drake John D Rockefeller Standard Oil Company by 1900 a virtual monopoly Railroads increased from 18651916 35000 to 254000 Industry moved across America New England9Mid Atlantic9Great Lakes9Pacific Coast9South and Sunbelt Thomas Edison great inventor o 1877 recorded sound 1St song recorded Mary Had A Little Lamb 0 1879 light bulb o 1891 motion pictures Alexander G Bell telephone 1876 0 Led to other inventions ripple effect telephone9radio9television9internet Advances in Labor Wages increased 50 1860 and then another 37 1890 Work was long and could be dangerous Early labor violence and unions failed 0 Knights of Labor 18691889 0 American Federation of Labor 18861920 Samuel Gombers white men only o Radical Unions failed I International Workers of the World 1905 WI Urbanization amp Immigration 0 Urbanization increased by 17901990 due to domestic immigration amp foreign immigration o 1 wave Ireland Germany and Scandinavia 18401880 o 2nd wave Italy amp eastern Europe 18801920 0 3rd wave Mexico Central America South and Southeast Asia 1965 102214 Politics of the Gilded Age 18771897 Politics of regionalism religion and race North South Regionalism Republicans Democrats Religion Republicans protestants native born immigrants Democrats Catholics and Jews Race Republicans blacks Democrats whites Politics Evenly Divided 0 18771913 all presidents came from Ohio or NY one exception Indiana 0 VP from Indiana Illinois NY Ohio and NJ 0 18601912 Republicans controlled presidency except 8 years o 18761892 no presidential candidate got more than 50 o 18771897 Republicans controlled Senate except 4 years o 18771897 Democrats controlled the House except 4 years Issues and Policies 0 Patronage Civil Service Reform not that reliable 0 Protection should there be high Republicans or low Democrats tariffs 0 Printing should currency be printed based on gold or silver too o Affects money supply amp interest rates 0 18651901 most presidents preferred a divided Congress to run the country Politics 18771883 0 Election of 1800 o Republican James Garfield 49 214 0 Democratic William Hancock 48 155 o Greenback Weaver 3 0 Garfield is shot in July dies September 1881 0 Chester Arthur now President 0 Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 1 exclusion of immigration into the US 0 Pendleton Act 1883 Civil Service Reform The Election of 1884 0 Arthur denied Republican nomination 0 James Blain is picked spotty public background Democrats picked Governor Grover Cleveland draft dodger personal amp sexual scandals Rum Romanism Rebellion Cleveland 49 219 to Blaine 48 162 1St Democrats in 24 years From Cleveland to Harrison 1886 Cleveland marries in the white house 1St daughter born in 1887 1886 Dawes Act 1887 Interstate Commerce Act 1888 Cleveland tried to lower tariff government is actually making money amp Cleveland wants to give back to the people Election of 1888 0 Cleveland 49 168 to Harrison 48 233 Republicans take Congress and admit 6 states to the west Department of Agriculture Discontent Down on the Farm 18501890 Farmers feel victimized by o Banksloans and interest rates 0 Railroadscost of tickets 0 Governmentprotects everything but farmers 1866 The Grange o Grange laws in the rnidwest thrown out by government 1877 Texas Farmers Alliance by 1885 a southern farmers alliance 1887 Northern Farmer s Alliance December 1889 National Farmers Alliance The Populist Party is Born Some success but in 1890 it split People s party amp Populist s party Populists favored gold amp silver low tariffs bank amp railroad regulation Populists support Democrats and Republicans Populists strongest in far west and south real challenge to Republicans The Election of 1892 REP B Harrison 46 277 DEM Cleveland 43 145 POP J Weaver 9 22 took votes away from Republicans Southern Democrats used racism to keep whites with Democrats Cleveland s Difficult Second Term 18921896 Cleveland was the only president with 2 nonconsecutive terms 18851893 Panic of 1893 worst depression in 50 years 0 1894 real downturn in the economy Cleveland fails to lower tariffs Cleveland sends troops to break up Coxey s Army amp railroad strikes 1894 Republicans take Congress no help from Cleveland The Election of 1896 REP W McKinley 51 271 DEM W Bryan 48 176 POP W Bryan 1 Bryan was a popcrat 0 Cross of Gold speech earned in an onthespot nomination Why did Bryan lose 0 McKinley outspent him on campaign o His restriction on alcohol costs Irish votes 102414 US and the World 18651890 1862 France invades Mexico US pressures Mexico to pull out 1866 US takes Midway 1867 US buys Alaska for 8million Treaty of Washington 1871 settles claims between US amp Britain over Civil War US fails to get Dominican Republic 1870 US stays out of Cuban revolt 18681878 1875 US signs trade treaty with Hawaii 0 People can buy land in Hawaii o Hawaiian sugar is free of tax 1886 Pearl Harbor built America and the World 18901897 McKinley Tariff affects Hawaiian sugar planters 1893 Planters with US help overthrow the Queen on Hawaii Cleveland will not annex Hawaii Cleveland threatens Britain over Venezuela 1895 Cuban revolt Cleveland keeps US out Desire for overseas expansion after 1890 naval stations more US markets missionary impulse After 1850 expansion amp divisionamp expansion of the US McKinley and Cuba 18971898 1897 McKinley comes to power amp allows US aid to Cuban rebels War becomes war of attrition by fall Nov 1897 McKinley intervenes Christmas truce and takes in Washington Jan 1898 Feb 1898 McKinley sends US S Maine to Havana but it is blown up on Feb 15 1898 Yellow Press amp Public call for war April 1898 US declares war on Spain McKinley suggestion rebels surrender Spanish rule for 5 more years Cuban pardons SpanishAmerican War May 1898 Dewey takes Manila US invades Cuba in June 6 weeks later Spanish surrenders July 1898 US takes Puerto Rico amp Guam July 1898 US annexes Hawaii This was a popular war Republicans had a big win in Congressional elections of 1898 December 10 1898 Treaty of Paris US gets Cuba Puerto Rico Guam and Philippines America After the War 18991901 0 What do we do with new possessions 0 January 1899 McKinley We will keep all except Cuba independent 0 Britain s new attitude to US after war antagonistic relationship ends 0 September 1899 Open Door Policy regarding China US wanted to stay open to China as a way to preserve it o Summer fall 1900 Boxer Rebellion in China all of China occupied by 11 countries 0 US gets most of the gold in Alaska Canada o 1901 Britain gives us permission for canal in Central America The Election of 1900 and McKinleV s Assassination 0 McKinley must have new VP Teddy Roosevelt 0 Democrats nominate Bryan again 0 Campaign free silver and anti imperialism 0 McKinley 52 271 to Bryan 46 155 0 McKinley is killed on September 6 1901 Teddy was the youngest President age 42 US Colonies After 1901 0 18991902 US fights in the Philippines Platt Amendment July 1901 We will pull out of Cuba but intervene when necessary 1916 Possessions made territories 1934 Philippines vote for independence given in 1946 1952 Puerto Rico a commonwealth 1959 Alaska amp Hawaii states 102714 WHAT IS PROGRESSIVISM WHO WERE THE PROGRESSIVES WHAT WERE THEIR GOALS The Progressive Movement 19001917 0 Progressivism a broad based yet mainly middle class movement to reform the social moral amp educational life of the US 0 WHO Middle class professionals journalists small businessman labor leaders social reformers 0 Before 1900 some antecedent reforms movements in the cities and states 0 National movement after 1900 The Goals of the Progressives More Democracy primaries initiative recall amp referendum Efficiency and Practically in Government Regulation of Business break the cozy relationship between big business and government Social J ustice help the poor and underprivileged labor safety and education laws Moral reform pass laws against drinking prostitution and birth control Theodore Roosevelt and Progressivism 19011904 0 February 1902 Trust Busting by 1909 40 broken up Elkins Act 1903 settles coal strike 1903 Wielding the Big Stick Diplomacy instigates revolution in Panama 1903 treaty to build the canal build maintain and profit from 19041914 canal built Roosevelt Germany and Dominican Republic 0 Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine US reserves right to intervene anywhere in Latin America The Election of 1904 and the Square Deal 19051906 0 Roosevelt 57 336 Parker 38 140 Debs 3 0 Square Deal proposed in 1905 fair to everyone o Hepburn Act regulate railroads o 1906 Meat Inspection Act USDA inspection o Food and Drug Act amp Administration food has to be inspected and approved by government before given to people o Conservation GREATEST ACCOMPLISHMENT more land as packs and preserved I Roosevelt saved the Buffalo from extinction Roosevelt s Big Stick Diplomacy 19051909 0 Ends the RussoJapanese War in 1905 o Roosevelt gets Nobel Peace Prize for this 0 TaftKatsura Treaty 1905 0 Gentleman s Agreement with Japan 0 January 1908 RootTakahira Agreement Japan promises to acknowledge Open Door Policy amp not invade China 0 Roosevelt sends new navy around the world 19081909 The Recession of 1907 and the Election of 1908 0 Recession in 11907 o Business and Roosevelt blame each other o 16 Amendment Income Tax passes in 1909 ratified 1913 0 Roosevelt picks William Taft 0 Democrats pick Bryan 0 Taft 52 321 Bryan 43 Debs 3 1 02 714 Taft s Troubled Presidency 19091912 Busts more trusts ManElkin s Act 1910 Gets Congress to pass 17th Amendment popular election of US Senate Breaks up Standard Oil Company Mann Act federal crime to move women for immoral purposes Fails to lower tariff William Ballenger and Gifford Pinchot fight amp it eventually involves Taft amp Teddy Taft pulls troops from Caribbean o Favors more Dollar Diplomacy economic pressure than intervention Oval office in 1908 due to Roosevelt The Election of 1912 Teddy challenges Taft for Republican nomination o Taft barely wins and Roosevelt forms Progressive Party Democrats pick Wilson Socialist go with Debs Roosevelt s New Nationalism VS Wilson s New Freedom o Wilson 42 435 Roosevelt 27 88 Taft 23 8 Debs 6 Wilson s New Freedom 19131914 0 1st Democratic president in 20 years 0 1 to address Congress since John Adams in 1801 0 New Freedom 0 Underwood Tariff 1913 lowers tariffs 0 Federal Reserve Board 1913 modern day version of Hamilton s national bank 0 Clayton AntiTrust Act 1914 more power to federal government to control trust exempts labor unions 0 Federal Trade Commission 1914 Wilson s Resurgent Progressivism 0 1915 Roosevelt returns to Republican party 0 To obtain Progressive vote Wilson will have Congress to pass 0 Adamson Act 8 hour work day 0 Federal Road Bill 0 Home Economic departments for colleges 0 Laws to end child labor in 1916 amp declared unconstitutional in 1918 Wilson and World Affairs 0 Wilson will be primarily known for his foreign policy 0 Wilson is a democratic moralists tries and caj ole people to do right 0 Wilson will say he is against intervention 0 Intervenes in the Caribbean amp Mexican War 0 Wilson and Sec of State Bryan will support cooling off of treaties in 1913 0 Does not stop the outbreak of WI The Outbreak of the Frist World War 0 By 1908 Europe is divided into 2 opposing alliances 0 Triple Alliance I Germany Italy AustroHungarians Empire 0 Triple Entente I France Russia Britain 0 War explodes in Balkans amp by August 1914 war in Europe 0 Wilson says we must remain neutral 0 By 1915 0 Central Powers I Germany Bulgaria AustroHungarians Ottoman Empire o Allies I France Britain Russia Italy Greece Serbia Wilson and World War I 19141916 0 Nonneutrality Britain cuts transAtlantic cable amp most news from them paints Germany in the worst light 0 Blockades British surface blockades of Germany who uses unterseeboots 0 1915 US sells weapons to both sides 0 2 billion to Allies o 27 billion to Central Powers 0 May 1915 the sinking of Lusitania kills 128 Americans o Wilson demands apology and no submarine use for war I He gets both The Presidential Election of 1916 0 1916 Wilson passes progressive legislation to lure progressive voters to him 0 Republicans pick Charles E Hughes 0 Democrats run Wilson again o He kept us out of war o Peace and Progressivism 0 Wilson 49 277 Hughes 46 254 Benson 3 o Wilson like Cleveland is elected twice never getting more than 50Wilson 1 03114 Wilson s Peace Plan and the German Victorv Plan 0 Dec 1916 Wilson calls for a truce at Christmas go back to 1914 boundaries o All nations reject except Russia 0 Germany victory plan in January 1917 o Knock Russia out of the war by the end of 1917 o Most troops from east to west amp smash stalemate on western front o Total submarine blockade of Britain risking getting the US involved US Drifts to War 0 Once German blockade Wilson breaks relations with Germany Feb 1917 Papers filled with attacks on our ships Feb 1917 Zimmerman Note Germany tries to pull Mexico in the war March 1917 Russian Tsar quits Wilson s new view April 2 1917 Wilson asks for war gets in on the 6th o Make the world safe for democracy Mobilizing a Nation 0 May 1917 Draft Law fairer than the Civil War draft everyone was drafted War Industries Board production of war materials Food and Fuel Administration rations of food and fuel for the people Four Minute Men groups who spoke on the war to gain support Blacks drafted and many moved North Jan 1918 US government takes railroads War Labor Board amp Committee of Public Information AntiGerman and AntiRadical settlement Sedition Act May 1918 o Jails and deports IWW and Eugene Debs socialist and pacifist The War Effort 19171918 Aid to Allies convoy system used to fight German submarines Nov 1917 communist take power Dec 1917 1 troops in France March 1918 Russia leaves war German spring offensive breaks French and British lines o US thrown against the Germans 0 JuneSept US stops German offensive 0 By SeptOct pushing Germans back Wilson s Fourteen Points and Peace 1918 0 Wilson calls for war to end all wars o This in January 1918 his fourteen points 0 Wilson promises Germany a just peace prornises to more than he can deliver 0 Germany really through by November 1918 0 Kaiser resigns amp German socialist sign the armistice o 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month all quiet on the western front Wilson and the Peace Conference at Versailles 1919 0 Fall 1918 Wilson attacks Republicans who take Congress in November 0 Wilson takes no Republican to Paris with him 0 The Big Four o BritainDavid Lloyd George o FranceGeorges Clemenceau o ItalyVictorio Orlando o USWoodrow Wilson 0 No real just peace the moral blame clause 0 Wilson puts hopes on League of Nations created by the treaty signed June 1919 Germany had to take full blame for war and pay billions of dollars Postwar America 19191920 0 Wilson comes home to a divided nation Dec 1917 18th amendment prohibition ratified Jan 1919 June 1919 19th amendment women s suffrage ratified Aug 1919 Strikes amp riots throughout the US Sept 1919 Wilson suffers a stroke but remains president Wilson treaty in trouble defeated in March 1920 11314 The Presidential Election of 1920 0 Wilson could not run due to illness but Democrats pick James Cox Republicans pick Warren G Harding Harding scandal yet he wins Harding 60 404 Cox 35 127 Debs 4 939 Harding called a return to normalcy Cultural Changes in the US 1911929 0 New industries technologies and advertising strategies 0 The movies move to small town America 0 Impact of automobiles after WWI need for more places to go 0 Radio o The creation of broadcast networks o Popularity of professional sports 0 Prohibition s impact on crime and morals it made things WORST 0 The Klan was strongest in this decade o By 1925 5 million members o Anti black anti Jew anti Catholic and anti immigrant o Klan was located other places than in the South From Harding to Coolidge 0 Harding was a terrible hypocrite booze and affair in the White House 0 1921 US un declares war with Germany amp Debs is freed from jail 0 Teapot Dome amp other scandals 0 Aug 1923 Harding dies VP Coolidge becomes President o He cleans corruption of Harding administration 0 1924 Dawes agreement lessens pan on postwar Germany The Election of 1924 0 Republicans nominate Coolidge Keep Cool with Coolidge Democrats deeply divided choose John W Davis Progressives pick Robert La Foullette Coolidge 54 382 Davis 29 136 La Foullette 17 13 Coolidge and the Election of 1928 0 Coolidge does very little as Presidents 0 1927 0 Mississippi River ooded o Coolidge will not intervene in Mexico 0 Republicans pick Herbert Hoover 0 Democrats pick Catholic Al Smith 0 Hoover 58 444 to Smith 41 87 o Klan attacks Smith during the campaign losing states in South Hoover and the Causes of the Depression 0 Hoover was an orphan turnt wealthy engineer 0 Hoover headed Food Administration helped with ood relief and Sec of Commerce CAUSES OF THE DEPRESSION Loss of wage amp Loss of farm income 0 Wheat 216 9 38cents 0 Cotton 17cents 9 Scents o Corn190 9 31cents High tariffs of 1922 prevented us from buying foreign goods and selling abroad THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1922 WAS NOT A CAUSE BUT AN INDICATION Hoover Confronts the Depression 0 Hoover underestimates depth of the Depression 0 Unemployment rate o 1929 8 o 1932 24 0 March 1933 33 0 1931 Hoover s National Credit Corporation too little too late 0 1932 Bonus Army00Hoover sends in the troops The Election of 1932 1 0514 0 Democrats nominate Franklin Roosevelt Republicans nominate Hoover Roosevelt 58 472 Hoover 40 58 Thomas 2 20th amendment moves inauguration date 21 amendment repeals prohibition Know amendments 1621 16 Income Tax 17th popular election of the US Senate 18 Prohibition 19th Women s suffrage 20 Inauguration 21 repeals Prohibition The First New Deal FERA Federal Emergency Relief Administration welfare 30month FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation savings deposit insured AAA Agricultural Adjustment Administration farmers were paid to plant less NRA National Recovery Administration set wages prices and profits PWA Public Works Administration build roads and stuff CCC Civilian Conservation Corporation build parks and trees Nov 1933May 1934 CWA Civilian Works Administration 6 month employment to build stuff SEC Securities and Exchange Commission Wall Street regulation 1934 New Deal for Indians and Philippines Indians could own reservations amp Philippines were independent New Deals gave people money to stimulate the economy New Deal Critics Critics on the right Roosevelt and Regulation started America Liberty League Critics on the left Fr Charles Coughlan Sen Huey P Long Share the Wealth program Francis Townscend old age pensions Congressional elections of 1934 gave huge majority for Democrats Roosevelt moves against both sides of critics with Second New Deal The Second New Deal Wagner Act supports the rise of unions Soak the Rich higher tax on the wealthy people WPA replaces PWA and given more money Social Security Administration Rural Electrification Service government paid people to lay electric and utility lines in rural areas The Dust Bowl was fought with Soil Conservation Service people hired to plant trees NYA National Youth Administration Supreme Court and Roosevelt s Reelection 19351936 0 Supreme Court strikes down NRA and AAA 0 Roosevelt determined to change the court 0 Changes twothirds rule 0 Set up Roosevelt coalition Democratsmajority party Roosevelt is renominated Republicans nominate Alfred Landon Union ticket William Lemke Roosevelt 61 523 Landon 37 8 Lemke 2 Roosevelt and the Supreme Court 19371945 0 1 president to be sworn in on January 20th under 20th amendment 0 February 1937 Roosevelt wanted to expand the Supreme Court from 9 to 15 o Enemies called it packing the court 0 N Republicans and S Democrats fight this 0 October 1937 Roosevelt loses fight 0 Roosevelt loses the battle but wins the war 0 Roosevelt will replace all 9 justices either retired or died between 1937 and 1945 If Roosevelt would have succeeded he would have become too powerful He was already president and Democrats ran Congress The Third New Deal 19371938 BankheadJ ones Farm Tendency Act take care of tenets US Housing Authority urban projects Food Drug and Cosmetic Act but these industries under federal regulation 2nd AAA more farm control FAIR LABOR STANDARD ACT OCTOBER 1938 0 Minimum wage 25centshr 0 Maximum hours 48 hrswk o Ended child labor 0 Supreme Court approves AAA 1940 and FLSA 1941 The Waning of the New Deal Recession fall of 19371940 Roosevelt plans to purge southern Democrats who opposed him This fails 1938 Republicans gained 75 seats in the House and 8 seats in the Senate January 1939 Roosevelt warns of war in Europe within a year After 1939 no New Deal legislation Rise of Organized Labor 19351941 Unions use backing of Roosevelt to organize in Northern manufacturing centers AFL splits more as radical organizations form in 1936 AFL and Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO will battle until united in 1955 September 1936 The sitdown strike starts and spreads to other industries 0 Steel and automakers organized between 19361941 0 By 1941 most Northern industries unionized ANSWER TO 50 ON THE EXAM IS ISOLATIONISM
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