BIOL-1020 Unit Two Study Guide
BIOL-1020 Unit Two Study Guide BIOl 1020-003
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOl 1020-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Unit 2 Exam Study Guide Compiled by Crystal Boutwell My guide to using this study guide 1 Do not go through and define every single word There s too many Only define the words you have either never seen before or couldn t give a verbal explanation for If you already know what it is you re good 2 Highlight the key points that you didn t understand before 5 Make flashcards if that helps you 4 Memorize everything about the diagrams They aren t just on here to look pretty They re seriously important Memorize the labels where something is what it does and what it doesn t do Be able to redraw that effer 1 CHAPTER 6 CELLS 11 IMPORTANT WORDS Golgi Apparatus Mitochondrion Chloroplast Rough ER Nucleolus Matrix Nuclear Envelope Vacuoles Plastids Chromatin Cisternae Cristae Intermediate filaments Microfilaments Flagellum Nucleoid Microtubules Ribosome Lysosome Smooth ER Nucleus Cell Wall Motor Proteins Stroma Cell Membrane Peroxisome NltltE FT39V PUDPOZZFFPTFEQTWPOPP AA Vesicles BB Thlyakoid CC Light Microscopy DD Scanning electron microscopy EE Cell fractionation FF Transmission electron microscope GG Eukaryotic Cell HH Prokaryotic cell Cell theory 12 IMPORTANTTHINGSTO KNOW A Protein synthesis ER9 cis Golgic cisternae 9 medial Gogi Cisternae 9 trans golgi cisternae 9 plasma membrane B Roles of the Endomembrane system Protein synthesis and transport metabolism of lipids detoxification C Roles of the Smooth ER poison detoxification lipid synthesis calcium in storage Roles of the Rough ER protein synthesis E The Golgi Apparatus is the post office of the cell It s polarity causes protein sorting and modification Cis face faces the nucleus The trans face faces the outside of the cell F Functions of the lysosome macromolecule digestion autophagy quotto eat The only organelles with double membranes mitochondria chloroplasts nucleus L Dynein and Kinesin microtubule based create the beating or flagella and cilia M Important things about a plant cell Microfilaments are respondible for cell a Cell wall strong protective locomotion and the cell s structural cellulose fibers characteristics b Central vacuole regulates Microtubules serve as intercellular cytoplasm composition creates highways for transporting vesicles and internal pressure and stores cell organelles also required for cellular compounds locomotion via flagella and cilia c Chloroplasts make sugar by Intermediate filaments are ropelike converting light to chemical structures that anchor organelles and energy intercellularjunctions called d Mitochondrion produce desmosomes They are specialized for chemical energy ATP bearing tension e Golgi Apparatus modifies and Myosin actin filaments that generate packages proteins cell surface contractions lMPOPTANT DlAGRAMS Nucleus Nuclearpore Nuclear envelope Golgi vesicles Chromatin 39 t L s s m Nuc39eOlus go 939 appara us y o o gentrioles Wall G lg E l l l ll vacuole Plasma membrane Cytoplasm VI 7 M mh g Mitochondrion End ha mm 7 Reticulum 39 Peroxusome U V Cytoskeleton LEED SE MB Free Ribosomes y y Mitochondria V 39 y 39 Gyl plaam Humane 39 Secretory veSIcle Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Hmrl mu y hl mpmst Rough endoplasmic reticulum Flagellum 2 CHAPTER 7 CELL MEMBRANE 21 IMPORTANT WORDS N X gT39WPUDPOZZFFPTFEQTWPDPP m39l39ll39l39l 0w mmmg w Fluid mosaic model Ampiphatic Integral proteins Peripheral proteins Glycoproteins Glycolipids Selective permeability Transport proteins Diffusion Concentration gradient Osmosis Hypertonic sotonic Hypotonic Turgor pressure Osmoregulation Passive transport Facilitated diffusion on channels Gated channels Active transport aquapo n Sodiumpotassium pump Electrochemical gradient Electrogenic pumps Proton pumps Cotransport Exocytosis Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Receptormediated endocytosis Plasmolyzed HH Flaccid 22 A quotquot IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOw Large polar molecules need proteins in order to enter the cell Small polar or nonpolar molecules can pass through easily The more unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane the more fluid it is The kinks in the fatty acid tails make it harder for the fatty acids to pack together and become solid Factors that influence diffusion are temperature concentration gradient sizeweight or molecules Water always moves from hypotonic to hypertonic Plant cells like hyptonic solutions Animal cells like isotonic solutions The kidney regulates how much water is in animal cells Diffusion of water is much quicker through aquoporins Pumps consume energy The sodiumpotassium pump leaves the inside of the cell negative The force driving simple diffusion is the concentration gradient while the energy source for active transport is ATP Cause of size limits for certain types of cells the need for sufficient surface area to support a cell s needs 4 CHAPTER 8 METABOLISM 41 IMPORTANT WORDS A Metabolism B Metabolic pathways a Catabolic b Anabolic C Energy a Kinetic energy b Thermal energy c Heat d Potential energy e Chemical energy First Law of Thermodynamics E Second Law of Thermodynamics a Spontaneous processes Competitive inhibitor Noncompetitive inhibitor Allosteric regulation Cooperativity Feedback inhibition b Entropy F Freeenergy G Exergonic H Endergonic ATP J Energycoupling K Phosphorylated intermediate L Activation energy M Enzymes N Active site 0 Substrates P Inducedfit Q R S T U 42 IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW A Metabolism transforms matter into energy or energy into matter depending on the type of pathway B The difference in freeenergy in a reaction Productsreactants tells us whether or not the reaction occurred spontaneously Does it need energy to be completed or not C ATP drives cellular work by putting exergonic and endergonic reactions intertwined with one another One releases energy that the other needs to have its reaction D Enzymes speed up reactions that ALREADY would have happened Enzymes don t make them happen They make them happen faster Regulating enzymes controls metabolism Membrane potential is created by a pump The high energy bond in ATP is between Phosphate groups When these bonds ar broken they release a large amount of energy and triggers and endergonic reaction H Heat is waste energy which means it cannot do any work For instance C6H1206 is very complex and therefore very ordered Conversely When molecules are split up into smaller simpler substances they become more disordered Think about a Jenga tower It is very ordered Some blocks run one way while other blocks run another way but it has its order and organization to it Once the tower falls however and splits itself into individual blocks scattered all over the table it has become disordered When a substance goes from ordered to disordered there is an increase in entropy Using our Jenga example that only makes logical sense If entropy is the measure of randomness there is much more randomness in the fallen scattered blocks than in the tower Living organisms have low entropy As they grow they increase the entropy in the environment The chemical reactions of organisms are constantly releasing energy as heat ce has less entropy than water Synthesizing reactions decrease entropy photosynthesis condensation protein synthesis Catabolic reactions increase entropy Free energy final energy initial energy a Positive free energy endergonic and requires energy If the products have more energy than the reactants the energy must have had to be put into the system but some outside force b Negative free energy exergonic and releases energy more spontaneous and stable 637quot zzrz 43 lMPOPTANT DlAGPAlVlS H Exergonic A w mm 3 reaction enzyme Activation energy Llaed Reacta nts Heleaaed Energy Free Energy Products 5 CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPRATON AND FERlVlENTATION C NADH and FADH2 are the source of high energy electrons in the ETC 51L lMPOlRTANT Woaps 02 IS the electron acceptor A F 39 ermentatlor ETC creates ATP and water B Cellular Respiration F The maIn purpose of fermentation IS to C Aerobic respiration generate NAD D Redox reactions G Fermentation doesn t produce more E OXIdatIon F Red Cfon ATPs but regenerates NAD u H Aerobic Respiration produces 3032 G NAD ATPs whereas fermentation produces 2 H Electron transport chain Substrate level phosphorylatIon takes I GlycolySIs place during glycolySIs and kreb 5 cycle J CItrIc aCId cycle K 0 d t h h r I t n J Products of glycolysls 2 ATP 2 L erta Ive pfosp o y a IO Pyruvatel 2 NADH M Argon 10 we orce K C02 is released in the Kreb s cycle and N39 Ch Sf ase acetyl CoA formation step Which m mosns e 3905 releases 2 C02 and 2 NADH 0 Alcohol fermentation P L t 0 m m t n L The products of the Kreb 5 cycle 4 139 Ba 39C 3 fe e a 390 C026 NADH 2 FADHZ n e a OXI a lo M The major but not sole energy accomplishment of citric acid cycle 52 IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW NADH and FADHZ A In cellular respiration glucose becomes N The function ofthe ETC accept oxidized and oxygen becomes reduced electrons and hydrogen ions B The total number of C02 that are 0 A high concentration of protons created during cellular respiration are 6 represents potential energy Important Diagrams Krebs Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Glycolysis GLYCOLYSIS i w 0 quotAD ocoa 391 Acoiyt CoA 8 CCC C 20A Acetyl CoA Formatio Clio acid A A HAD 0 PCCCCCC complex W w V W V synthase 2x PCCC Oxidative Phosphorylation ETC C Chemiosmosis C C C l electron transnort svstem l 65 6 CHAPTER TEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS 61 ltgtltgltC WWPPQZ FFTTFPTWPPPP 62 A IMPORTANT WORDS Autotrophic Thylakoids Photosynthesis Light reactions NADPH Calvin cycle Stroma Visible light Wavelengths Chlorophyll a Photon Photosystem Reactioncenter complex Lightharvesting complexes Primary electron acceptor Photosystem Photosystem Linear electron flow Cyclic electron flow G3P C3 plants Photorespiration C4 plants Bundlesheath cells CAM plants IMPORTANT THINGS To KNow Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy Light reactions take solar energy and make it into chemical energy ATP amp NADPH Hot arid climates have forced plants to evolve and form alternative mechanisms to fixate carbon The products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen Pigments that absorb light energy and drive photosynthesis chlorophyll and cartonoid Oxygen is the product of light independent reactions light reactions The calvin cycle occurs in the Stroma and the light reactions occur in the thylakoid Carbon fixation requires carbon dioxide and RuBP Green cannot be used by Photosynthesis it is reflected That s why plants appear green Carbon cycle has 3 steps Carbon fixation carbon reduction RuBP regeneration in that order Photorespiration releases C02 and produces no ATP or sugar C4 reduce photorespiration an adaption to hot dry climates CAM plantsopen their stomata at night and fix C02 into organic acids stomata closes during the day C02 is released IMPORTANT DIAGRAMS ON NEXT PAGE IIMIPORTANIT DMAGRAHMS Handy Moan Donn CIIII and Dam wowch Bounv Vlml Raoul lelY 39 In The man Hm Comonu Inc All m mowed Threedimensional Model of Chloroplast Membranes Outer membrane Inner membrane 6 02 h carbin xation nmA 000 6 ribulose 15bisphosphate Step 1 b Granum stack of thylakoids 6ADP RuBP 12 AD 6ribuose hos hate 39 I p p The Calwn Cycle Step 2 MI UZgNADPquot Step 3 ALu IM cwle 7 39 Ey39tmhr ume campex L Transported from A chloroplast to make glucose 1 r l u gt Calvin Smart Sugar Ehlz mphy a rChlDrnpghyil h El my Phuiu yat em I f Light Hill 39 raductasa 39 1 g HADP 2H Fhainsy em srnnmn Hquot T39n Ealvin cycle 39 II o 1 I IJIIIIMIJIJI IIIIM IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIlIJIIItIi THVLHKDID EPAGE 199 h i Jig ii I 39quot E H Iii I I I fin El quot quot llnTH quoti limitEHquotQ 39ii il39i l STFl M Gupyliml IE PEEFEEII39I ElzlucElliinjnI IFHZLI publishing as BEI39Iiamin umming EM Well eril mgef mm WEI 1F
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