Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 161-22
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Notetaker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 161-22 at La Salle University taught by David Rothblat in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3 Parts of A Cell 1 Plasma membrane 2 Cytoplasm gtOrganelles gtCytosol liquid portion 3 Nucleus gtChromosomes made of DNA the messages on the DNA are genes 46 chromosomes 23 pairs Sometimes called chromatin when DNA is threadlike at rest gtGenes Membrane Potential Creating an electrical charge across the membrane Glycocalyx combination of carbs and lipids glycolipids and proteins glycoproteins on outer surface Plasma Membrane is a exible yet sturdy barrier that surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of the cell Phospholipids made up of phosphate group glycerol and two fatty acids Triglyceride 3 fatty acids and a glycerol ATP Powered Transport requires energy ATP Moves substances against concentration gradient ATP gtADPPEnergy Concentration Gradient The difference in the concentration of a chemical between one side of the plasma membrane and the other Electrical Gradient The difference in the concentration of ions between one side of the plasma membrane and the other Electrochemical Gradient The combination of the electrical and the concentration gradient Genes Give info how to make a speci c protein Ligand something that binds speci cally to a receptor Ex Insulin Insulin binds to everything Attachment Protons How tissue is held together Peripheral proteins aren t rmly embedded in membrane Plasma Membrane gtls exible with uid like characteristic gtMade up of phospholipids cholesterol and proteins and is a lipid bilayer gtSeparation of intracellular vs extracellular materials gtProduction of charge difference membrane potential across the membrane by regulation of intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations gtOutside of membrane positively charged compared to inside because of gathering ions gtFatty Acid Tails are hydrophobic Example of plasma membrane Na K gtEverything moves down the concentration gradient gtWhen the ell is just sitting it s called resting membrane potential Membrane Lipids Cholesterol spread among phospholipids and amount determines nature of membrane Phospholipid Bilayer polar heads facing water in the interior and exterior of the cell hydrophilic nonpolar tails facing each other on the interior of the membranehydrophilic Membrane Proteins gtThey help determine many of the functions of the cell membrane Marker Molecules Glycoproteins and glycolipids that allow immune system to identify you intercellular communication and recognition of cocyte by sperm cell Ion Channel A pore that speci c ions can ow through to get into or out of the cell Enzyme helps with chemical reactions Cell Adhesion holds cell together Receptor responds to chemical messenger lon Gated Channel open or closed channel There are two types Ligand gated or voltage gated gt Ligand Gated Open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins gt Voltage Gated Open when there is a change in charge across plasma membrane Transport Proteins carries molecule from one side of cell to other side of cell gtHydrophilic region faces inward and the charge determines molecules that can pass through gtThe more substance you have the faster it will move But it has its limits There Is a saturation point so it can only go so far gt4 types of transport proteins channel carrier and ATP powered pumps gtCarrier and channel proteins don t require energy gtATP powered pumps require energy because it s going against concentration gradient Channel Proteins gtGate is closed when cell is at rest Nongated ion channels that are always open They are responsible for the permeability of the plasma membrane to ions when the plasma membrane is at rest Gated Closed until get stimulus to open Ligand Gated Open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins gtWhen ligand is removed channel is closed and stops the ow of the ion Voltage Gated Open when there is a change in charge across plasma membrane Extracellular Essa E 39 fluid 9 Receptor and 5ianehannel fI is El ail El 1 II t any I lr allquot l iquot i w a ii iii a is i ll ihanel El inns Illa w or mime through open ehannll l Cyteaul Change in electrical properties at cell Notice that when the messengers bind the gate is open but when they leave the gate is closed It represents the tertiary structure Carrier Proteins Carry only one molecule Also called transporters because they transport from one side of the cell to the other gtHave speci c binding sites gtProtein changes shape to transport ions or molecules gtResumes original shape after transport gtDiffuse by passive transport Integral proteins Go through the membrane to move ions from one side of membrane to the other Firmly embedded in membrane Receptor Proteins They are proteins or glycoproteins in membranes with an exposed receptor site gtThey can attach to speci c chemical signal molecules and act as an intracellular communication system ILigand can only attach to cell with this receptor gtAttachment of receptorspeci c chemicals to receptors causes change in shape of channel protein A receptor is also a channel Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis gtTwo parts Translation and transcription Genes Give info how to make a speci c protein Transcription Occurs in the nucleus and the product is mRNA Genetic info encoded in DNA is copied onto RNA to direct protein synthesis In simpler terms it is the copying of genes or DNA Translation Occurs in the rough ER and the product is a protein It reads mRNA to determine the amino acid of the new protein It uses ribosomes to make protein and reads every 3 nucleotides gttRNA carries the amino acid and the peptide bonds pull the amino acids together m Every 3 nucleotides and are speci c for amino acids Complimentary base pairing AA UU TT Membrane Fluidity Fluid Mosaic Model Membranes are uid structures because most of the membrane lipids and many of the membrane proteins move easily in the bilayer The lipids and proteins can move in their half 05 the bilayer gtNot solid or liquid Cholesterol in the membrane stabilizes the membrane and reduces membrane uidity IStructure creates a barrier between intracellular and extracellular spaces gtThe more cholesterol there is the less uid the membrane Membrane Permeability Plasma membrane is selectively permeable gtThe lipid bilayer is always permeable to small nonpolar uncharged molecules gtTransmembrane proteins that act as channels or transporters increase the permeability of the membrane gtMacromolecules large molecules are only able to pass through the membrane by vesicular transport Transport across the Plasma Membrane Passive Processes Simple Diffusion Faciitated Diffusion Osmosis Active Processes requires ATP Active transport Vesicuar transport uses vesicles to move things out of cell Simple Diffusion Concentration moves from high to low Diffusion is in uenced by 1 Steepness of the concentration gradient 2 Temperature 3 Mass of diffusion substance 4 Surface area 5 Diffusion distance Facilitated Diffusion Transmembrane proteins help solutes that are move through the lipid bilayer Needs a carrier Processes involved Channel mediated facilitated diffusion a pore Carrier mediated facilitated diffusion something that has to pick it up and transfer is across the membrane It also puts more proteins in the membrane gtChanges shape of protein and tertiary structure and substance binds to glucose Saturation of A Carrier protein lSaturation point at point 3 copyright Thn McGirIwHlil Gurnpanlas line Parmlulnn mii di 10f lairdisplay a The tale all transport or molecules intoa call is plotted against the ooncerrlralian Plate at of these molecules outside the cell mlecuie minus the Danaanlratian of those Iranspon molecules inside the cell As the concentration clitl39er enoe increases lhe rate of transport increases and than Israels arr Molecule concentration difference across the plasma membrane Extracellular fluid 77 Molecule to be transported V Transporl protein a Cytoplasm 1 When the concentration of molecules 2 When more meleeules ark presant 3 The traitapart ram is quotlimii d by the outside the cell is low the Iransipbn uulsicle the cell as long as enough number of transport proteins and the rate is low because it is limited by the transport proteins are available more rate at which each transport protein can number of molecules available lo be molecules can be transported and Iranspart solutes When the number transported therefore Ihe transport rate increase Di molecules outside the cell is so large that Ihe transport proteins are all occupied the system is saturated and Ilia transport rate camel increase Os m 05 IS The net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane form an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration The solute can t move so the water moves because nature is trying to stabilize it gtVoume changes during osmosis Osmotic Pressure The amount of pressure required to stop the ow of water It is created by particles pulling water gtOsmosis slows due to ltration of water back across membrane due to hydrostatic pressure Tonicity The ability of a solution to affect uid volume and pressure within a cell gtlt depends on concentration and permeability of solute Hypotonic Solution Low concentration of nonpermeating solutes high water concentration gtCels absorb water swell and may burst lysis Hypertonic Solution Has high concentration of nonpermeating solutes low water concentration gtCells lose water shrivel crenate lsotonic Solution normal saline SW lllIEll39ll ellll Ion mnmntrati n in extramllular 5mm Hyperlinniic lllsnllm liic Hyputnmiic 3 mL gt 8 mL Which way is the water moving in the equann A Outside of the cell because it always moves to the higher number What happens to a cell with 4 mL of solution and it put in water A it will burst because water ows to the higher concentration Primary Active Transport Energy derived from ATP changes the shape of a transporter protein which pumps a substance across a plasma membrane against its concentration gradient Active Transport in Vesicles Receptor Mediated Endocytosis Process of bringing things into cell using particles It quoteatsquot the whole thing A ligand and receptor is required All endocytosis needs energy Phagocytosis cell eating Bulk Phase Endocytosis Pinocytosis cell drinking Exocytosis Membrane enclosed secretory vesicles come together with the plasma membrane and their contents into the extracellular uid Ex Nervous system Parts of cell Cytoplasm ls located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus In contains the cytosol inclusions and cytoplasmic organelles The granules are only present if there is excess glucose Cytosol mucous material that holds all the organelles in place Inclusions Nonessential structures inside the cell Ex pigments and glycogen Centrosomes cell centerquot near nucleus that generates microtubules and organizes mitotic spindle and meiosis It contains centrioles Centrioles Small tube formed by microtubes used for mitotic spindle and meiosis Cytoskeleton holds everything together and gives the cell its shape Contains micro laments microtubules and intermediate laments Micro laments involved in cell motility change shape endocytosis and exocytosis are involved Made of actin Microtubules determines shape of cell made up of tubulin hollow center need them for mitosis They also help with the formation of cilia and ageHa Intermediate laments Tough insoluble ropelike protein bers resist pulling forces on cells and attach to desmosomes Cilia Short hair like structures found in fallopian tubes and membranes that sweep and move in direction across cells Flagella Longer hair like structures found only in sperm Nucleus Hereditary headquarter Contains genes which are arranged in chromosomes It has two layers Rough ER is a direct extension of nucleus then smooth ER connects to rough Nucleolus is in center of nucleus Contains nucleolus pores envelope chromatin and DNAgenes and chromosomes are on DNA gtDNA and histones make up chromosomes Mitochondria Make their own ATP have their own DNA and RNA have a double membrane replicate contain cristae and matrix Respiration occurs here Cristae interfolding membrane in the inner mitochondrial membrane Matrix substance located in space formed by inner membrane Ribosomes made in the nucleolus read mRNA to make a protein protein synthesis There are three forms attached free and chainlike Cisternae space within ER Rough ER Makes proteins for protein synthesis Smooth ER Makes lipids and steroids Golgi complex The function is to produce lysosomes They package and send proteins to areas where they are needed and also nishes folding the protein It also concentrates and modi es proteins into glycoproteins or lipoproteins which is open channels Lysosomes open up glycogen granules Involved in digestion hydrolytic enzymes digestive enzyme break up bacteria and anything that is dead and they eat anything Chromatin Long back threads on inside of the nucleus In the presence of histones it shortens condenses and forms chromosomes Microvilli increase surface area for absorption Peroxisomes like lysosomes but are smaller and contain enzymes that use oxygen to oxidize organic substances They get rid of free radicals Proteasomes Barrel shaped structures that destroy unneeded damaged or faulty proteins by cutting long proteins into smaller peptides Cystic brosis hereditary disease where the chloride pumps fail to create adequate saline layer under mucus Thick mucus plugs pancreatic ducts and respiratory tract It causes lung infections not enough absorption of nutrients and oxygen and the life expectancy is 30 Cell division When cells reduce themselves lnterphase Cell rests and grows 61 phase S phase 62 phase S phase where DNA replicates 62 phase creates enzymes and centrioles Mitotic Phases product is 2 identical daughter cells this is how 99 of cells in are created Prophase chromatin condenses into chromosomes nucear envelope disintegrates mitotic spindle forms has 4 chromosomes Arms of chromatids overlap which create genetic variability Metaphase chromosomes line up in middle of cell spinde bers attach to chromosomes spinde bers function is to drag to each part of cell 4 chromosomes Anaphase chromatids split up because of spindle bers and pulls the sister chromatids toward opposite sides of cell Telophase nuclear membrane reforms mitotic spindle dissolves chromosomes regain their chromatin appearance Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow forms cytopasm of parent ce fuy splits When this is nished interphase begins Control of Cell Density 1 Remain alive and function without dividing if they don t divide they stay in interphase 2 Grow and divide 3 Die Apoptosis Cell suicidequot programmed death if they don t make connections Happens in interphase before ce divides Meiosis 1 Product is 4 genetically different cells the cells produced are sex ces gametes which is sperm and egg there is always crossover of genes which is why cells are different This which is why no 2 sperm or eggs are like Which happens in prophase 1 pairs of chromosomes are together Meiosis 2 After meiosis most of time doesn t reenter interphase 2 cells turns into 4 cells cells are genetically different Which phase in mitosis does DNA replicate A S Phase What is a similarity and difference between active transport and facilitated diffusion They both have a carrier but facilitated goes with the gradient and active transport goes against the gradient IAII organelles divide equally between two cells except mitochondria because they divide on their own because they have their own DNA Aging Our cells deteriorate the number of our body cells decreases we lose integrity of the extracellular components of our tissues free radicals Chapter 25 Cellular Respiration Catabolism of food fuels and capture pf energy to form ATP in cells Phosphorylation Enzymes shift high energy phosphate groups of ATP to other molecules Phosphorylated molecules are activated to perform cellular functions ATP Synthase ATP is synthesized indirectly from the creation of a proton gradient and the movement of these protons back across the membrane through the protein channel Aerobic Respiration Breakdown of carbs in which oxygen is the nal product and electron acceptor in the ETC It s the breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide molecules water molecules and energy Anaerobic Respiration No oxygen present Provides cells with the energy required for the synthesis of proteins from amino acids and the replication of DNA Glycogenesis glycogen formation when glucose supplies exceed need for ATP synthesis Mostly in liver and skeletal muscles Glycogenolysis Automatic glycogen breakdown in response to low blood glucose Hypoglycemia When blood glucose levels are low Hyperglycemia When blood glucose sugar levels are high Hyperlipidemia too many lipids Gluconeogenesis Glucose formation from noncarbohydrate glucose and amino acid molecules that mainly occur in the liver It protects against effects of hypoglycemia Glucose transports energy from one part of the body to another since it can pass through cell membranes Stages of Metabolism Processing of nutrients 1 Digestion absorption and transport to tissues 2 Cellular processing in cytoplasm synthesis of lipids proteins and glycogen Catabolism glycolysis into intermediates 3 Oxidative mitochondrial breakdown of intermediates into C02 water and ATP Oxidative Reduction Reactions coenzymes act as hydrogen acceptors FAD comes from ribo avin and NAD Both with gain a quotHquot ion NAD H gtNADH reduced state which means its carrying energy FAD 2H gt FADH2 oxidized reduced state Coenzymes Electron acceptors that act as hydrogen They are organic substances essential to enzymes They loosely bind to certain protein and often contain either a vitamin or mineral An enzyme can t function properly without them and isn t active till it binds Because the addition of two electrons and H NAD is reduced in aerobic respiration and FAD is reduced in the Krebs cycle and become NAD and FAD again ATP Synthesis Two mechanisms to generate ATP Substratelevel phosphorylation Occurs in glycolysis and Krebs It s the production of ATP from ADP by a direct transfer of a highenergy phosphate group Oxidative phosphorylation Occurs in mitochondria but carried out by electron transport proteins Energy is used to create ATP Nutrient energy is used to create H gradient across mitochondrial membrane and the H ows through ATP synthase Energy is captured and attaches phosphate groups to ADP Oxidative phosphorylation is the culmination of a serious of energy transformations that are called cell respiration Cell Respiration Formula C6H12066026H206C02ATPHEAT Glucose is catabolized in three pathways 1 Glycolysis 2 Krebs cycle 3 ETC and oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis 10 step pathway anaerobic and aerobic because it does not require oxygen If there is no oxygen it goes to fermentation instead of Krebs cycle which turns to lactic acid in humans and yeast in animals because NAD needs to be replenished occurs in cytosol nonoxidative process Substrate is glucose doesn t yield much energy and occurs in all cells Difference between glyceraldehyde and pyruvate is that glyceraldehyde has a phosphate Pyruvate is a 3 carbon molecule that binds with acetyl CoA Three major phases Sugar activation sugar cleavage sugar oxidation and ATP formation Step 1 Sugar activation gt fructose 1 6 biphosphate Step 2 Sugar cleavage gt 2 glyceraldehyde s Step 3 Sugar oxidation gt 2 pyruvate Also 4 ATP are formed by substrate level phosphorylation Glycolysis nalise quot dc EATP AP lfrw tzese lili phosphate PGAL PEEL MAID H m NADHg Enamel 2 lairquotax 4 AP EATP FgE Ka hg tr ii if pyruvic acid pyruvate and Products 2 pyruvate acid 2 ATP 1 NADH It uses 2 ATP and forms 4 ATP which is why there is a net gain of 2 ATP What is the result of glucose in glycolysis 4 pyruvate acid 4 ATP 2 NADH Transitional Phase occurs in matrix and starts with 2 pyruvate Each pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl CoA 1 Decarboxylation it loses one carbon on pyruvate which makes acetyl and C02 2 Oxidation H is removed from acetyl and picked up by NAD 3 Acetyl and coenzyme A make acetyl CoA Products 2 acetyl CoA 2C02 2 NADH Krebs cycle Citric Acid Cycle occurs in matrix of mitochondria does not directly use oxygen fueled by pyruvic and fatty acids substrate is acetyl CoA breakdown products of fats and proteins can also enter the cycle for every glucose made 2 pyruvate are made which are turned into CoA Products 2 C02 3 NADH H 1 ATP 1 FADH Kres Cycle Citric Aci Cycle iPymuicauid Hm an Citrii acid EC Electron Transport Chain occurs on cristae on inner membrane makes the most amount of ATP Substrates NADHH and FADH2 deliver hydrogen atoms NAD and FADH form water Oattracts H to form H20 Steps that occur in the ETC 1 NAD oxidizes loses electrons 2 Energy from the H going through ATP synthase makes ADP phosphate which equals ATP Released energy energy complexes LI and IV is used to pump H into the intermembrane space 3 Water is the last thing formed 4 Oxygen serves as nal electron acceptor Products water and ATP ATP synthase uses released energy to make ATP In the ETC ATP synthase diffuses H back into the matrix Cytoplasm I lwrialaaaaaamamy lkr m in Kii r I Jill A J W14 u quot Outer in mitochondriall 39 hf membrane o O7 Intermembrane Inner mitochondrial membrane Succlnate Flunarate ATP 7 y synthase H39 Iowa channel Mitochondrial Matrix Which is more ef cient Aerobic degradation or anaerobic metabolism A Aerobic degradation What two parts of the body can t perform aerobic respiration A The brain and Heart ATP is produced by what A Aerobic respiration What is the substrate for transitional phase A Pyruvate Chapter 25 Metabolism and Nutrition Metabolism Sum of catabolic and anabolic reactions Homeostasis no one call can perform all necessary homeostatic functions Lipoprotein Lipase Enzyme that breaks down complex lipids Digestion Processing and absorption of nutrients t Hydrolyzes carbohydrates starch proteins lipids and nucleic acids for absorption Phase 1 Begins in mouth with salivary amylase breaks starch into maltose which is a disaccharide Phase 2 Pancreatic enzymes continue digestion AFTER it leaves the stomach Phase 3 Absorption of monosaccharides occurs across the intestinal epithelia duodenum and requires facilitated diffusion Epithelia one surface always faces on opening Lipid ingestion and Absorption Lipid digestion utilizes Bile salts improve chemical digestion by emulsifying lipid drops Lipids are not water soluble Lipases An enzyme that breaks down fat IT breaks triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids Micelles Enter lymph system They re spheres of lipids with protein attached that form in aqueous solutions In humans they form from bile salts The formation is that like oil not mixing with water and detergents break them down Amylase an enzyme that breaks down carbs Protein Digestion and Absorption Begins in the stomach Low pH in stomach destroys tertiary and quaternary structure Denaturation the process of breaking it down First step is unfolding and breaking down tertiary structure Absorption of other Nutrients Water absorbed by osmosis lons absorbed by diffusion and active transport Water soluble vitamins absorbed by diffusion Fat soluble vitamins absorbed as part of micelles Vitamin 812 requires intrinsic factor Cellular metabolism Cels break down excess carbohydrates rst then lipids to generate ATP They conserve amino acids and use them as a last resort 40 of the energy released in catabolism is captured in ATP Rest is released as heat Anabolism Synthesis reactions Necessary for structural maintenance and repairs to tissues and cells Production of secretions Support of growth Building of nutrient reserves Catabolism Decomposition Reactions makes ATP respiration is main catabolic pathway in human cells lst Glucose is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water Cell and Mitochondria Cels provide small organic molecules for their mitochondria ATP produced by aerobic respiration The chemical formula for this process is C6H1206 6 02 l 6 C02 6 H20 36 ATP Lipid Catabolism Lipolysis Lipids broken down into pieces that can be converted into pyruvate Triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids Generates more ATP than Carbs Beta Oxidation Breakdown of fatty acid molecules Lipid catabolism can t provide ATP in short periods of time so its only used when glucose reserves are limited Lipid Transport and Distribution Lipoprotein Protein shell that makes in soluble in an aqueous environment Chylomicrons Largest lipoproteins composed primarily of triglycerides Very lowdensity lipoproteins VLDLs contain triglycerides phospholipids and cholesterol Lowdensity lipoproteins LDLs Contain mostly cholesterol May form plaques in arteries Highdensity lipoproteins HDLs Equal amounts of lipid and protein Transport cholesterol to liver for degradation gtYou want more HDL and less LDL s Lipid Synthesis Also known as Lipogenesis Absorptive State it is the period following a meal about 4 hours after Constantly trying to maintain a glucose level Hypoglycemia is too much glucose insuin is the main hormone because to takes glucose out of liver to store as glycogen Lipemia marks this state Lipemia is high level chylomicrons in plasmablood Post absorptive State occurs from the end of the absorptive state to the next meal breaks down glycogen ipoysis increases Amino acids either converted to pyruvate lF NEEDED Gluconeogenesis Production of glucose from other molecules Fasting and Starvation Fasting going without food for many hours or even a few days Starving implies weeks or months of food deprivation or inadequate food intake humans can survive without food for 2 months if they have uid intake available gtin starvation mode the body does anything to supply the brain with glucose I Nervous system amp RBC s still need Glucose for ATP production They last several weeks cause body slows pace of protein synthesis Diet and Nutrition Nutrition absorption of nutrients from food Balanced Diet Contains all the ingredients necessary to maintain homeostasis gtlncludes nutrients vitamins minerals water and prevents malnutrition Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A D E K Hypervitaminosis occurs when you take too many fat soluble vitamins Water Soluble not stored in the body Avitaminosis Lack of adequate dietary intake gtYou can mega dose on water soluble but not fat soluble vitamins Metabolic components Liver Most of regulation of blood Neural tissue NEEDS glucose You can use carbs lipids and proteins for ATP Which is the worst and which is the best and why A Carbs are the best and proteins are the worst because it takes energy to convert proteins into a substrate They have to be converted to acetyl CoA rst They also lose ATP and NADH if they start in the Krebs cycle so the nal product will be less because they don t have products created from glycolysis
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