Detailed Study guide
Detailed Study guide His 104A02
Popular in History of East Asia
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to His 104A02 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Kennedy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see History of East Asia in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Premodern Japan Study Guide PreConfucian Japan J omon Culture rope pattern pottery slow development nomadic followed food little need for change since outside forces did not come and try to change them die from natural causes developing social hierarchy some are buried better than others with objects Amaterasusun goddess artifacts curved women with big eyes ourished in south central Honshu and northern Kyushu lived in circular huts mostly vegetarian discovered through refuse piles shellfish mounds pottery worn tools Gods traveled with them Yayoi Era became integrated with the J omon some J omon pushed out Yayoi is dominant no writing immigration and technology came from Korea could have been political refugees escaping brought culture religion technology political with them wet rice agriculture growing in patties permanent buildings settle down and farm also brought metal mirrors bells coins pottery horses mountain warrior samurai social structureruling class emerged dominant families who controlled natural resources ad was supported by farmers feel need to protect themselvesstockades moats metal tools weapons remains show evidence of violent deaths arrow injury head cut off injurycuts variation in tombs what buried with elite more elaborate tombs and buried with better stuff Queen Himiko Pimiko late ruler had connections to China and important to political legitimacy came from southeast Asia and southeast Chinese who ed from Han armies created sophisticated system of crop irrigation worshipped powers of nature Gods put down roots Himiko had connections to China and important to political legitimacy China recognized her as J apans empress Kofun Tomb period and Yamato Kings immigration brings beliefs technology people make population grow dominant familieselite known for tombs key hole shape did not leave writing behind tombs had figurines represented human form tombs located on farm land which demonstrated political power and wealth only house one body usually need human labor to build tombs were filled with foreign goods from KoreaChina mirror pottery textiles coins sword metal weapons and native goods Haniwa used as drainage and scare off robbers once it was a tomb could not be used for anything else Shinto distinct leadership class elite had connection with China political legitimacy no written record except history of Wei where talk about how China give gifts to ruler of Japan lived in thatched houses carried single edge iron long swords spears arrows iron helmets body armor Shinto pure and not pure the way of the Gods don t have sin correlation with nature harmony man identified with nature lacks holy scriptures and holy law what was appropriate and what was not impurity could be washed away prayers to soothe funeralsavoiding pollution of death than comfort relatives no organized priesthood or system for personal salvation no explanation of afterlife or how get there existed only in Japan worshipped own ancestral spirits kami formative religion lacked basic elements of religions sinviolate natural order of things Amaterasu sun goddess Ise shrine dedicated to sun goddess Amaterasu Yamato decedents imperial family How did Shinto ideology support early Japanese cultural and social organization Uji related to kami which is how they got power inherited Why are Chinese historical records important in the study of early Japan why are they potentially problematic What do they tell us about early Japanese society and culture Records are so important because Japan did not adopt a writing system until later and so we had to go off of Chinese primary sources problematic is that we do not have a primary source from Japan early Japan was not as sophisticated they developed slowly because they could since they were isolates so took awhile for them to get a writing system What do they tell us about political legitimacy in early Japan Got it from China recognized by China because give China gifts in return What evidence do they provide regarding the possibility that preConfucian Japan was a matriarchy China recognized Japan having empress women played roles and held positions in society they were able to inherit land they wrote a lot first novel was written by a women here How was Japanese society organized prior to borrowing from China Shinto religion with uji inheriting power through being related to kami Chinese cultural package and creative adaptation Buddhism more superior than Shinto philosophy and technologically life is an illusion life is painful caused by desire life continues through endless cycles of rebirth each determined by sum of ones actions in previous life karma freedom from pain realization of life s illusion release from the cycle of painful reincarnation could be attained by stop desire and obtaining nirvana should ride self of pain desire illusion through proper conduct meditation withdrawal from society religion without a God salvation accomplished independently when came to J apanchanged Mahayana Greater vehicle taught that salvation was too hard for humans to accomplish on their own good works so needed holy man boddistava who earned salvation but refused to leave world until help others attain nirvana funded temples and schoolsspiritual workgood karma Buddhist priests brought new technologies and medicine Tendai taught that all paths to enlightenment were efficient but salvation required many good works and education contemplation of Lotus sutras attain nirvana from wisdom and intuition and providing service for others included internal works esoteric and external works exoteric Shingontaught that Buddhist truth was impossible to understand and emphasized powers of secret ritual practiced by holy men focused on esoteric ritual chanting montra chant syllabal or string of them and vibrations of sound to enlightenment in meditation mudra poses energy from pose gets you closer to enlightenment 2 schools really for imperial house and rich nobles because farmers had little money and time Shinto and Buddhism survived because reached mutual accommodation Tendai preached that Shinto kami were local Japanese manifestations of the boddistava national religion saw as a powerful religion where elite would get more power in court thought to help gain political power Buddhist priests were economically strong not pay taxes on land elite competed in building monarchs monks and priestspowerful when moved capital to get away from them they followed them to the new capital Confucianism follow Chinese model of the Great Law national laws and penal code and institutions for justice new system of inherited ranks only sons of old uji military aristocracy could take civil exams had female leaders Fuijiwara family ruled behind the scenes basically had Mandate of Heaven descendants of the sun goddess everyone knew their place notions of Confucianismljgive Yamato family more stability aristocracy hierarchy said only elite could get an education and hold a position meritocracy Prince Shotoku member of the imperial family and was assisting aunt who was empress tied idea of moral officials in centralized state to moral statements 17 clauses of them but were never enforced look at ereserve believed would help centralize state and strengthen emperors position Shoen sons who would never become emperor or inherit leadership of various families get positions within leadership of army or Buddhist establishments and got granted tax exemptions but could not continue for long without endangering economic and political government these are semiindependent land holdings so many that more land was under control of religious or military leaders than taxed and controlled by government shown owners began to raise and maintain their own samurai and were forced to create systems od administration and wanted to consolidate them into larger units Regency person or group that rule in name of monarch exercises authority for emperor delegation of power to someone that is behind the scenes emperor gets respect and title but no true authority Matrilocal husband goes to live with the wife Matrilineal mothers name is passed down female line Patrilocal wife moves in with husband Patrilineal fathers name is passed down male line Samurai warriors that fight to get rewards out of it owned land at first one who serves fighting for militarypolitical dominance self interested expensive no social mobility fought for social advancement and personal glory move up in ranks of samurai women could be Tale of Genji Murasaki wrote worlds first novel called this illustrated court life about what the court did historical fiction but historians use as a source and they can verify it with court records How and why did the Japanese adopt and later adapt Chinese socialpolitical and religious systems Confucianism and Buddhism Immigrants brought it over saw Buddhism as a powerful religion where they would get more power in court more sophisticated than Shinto thought it would help gain political power higher up see as threat lower support it for elite not common people used Confucianism to try to have a central government What aspects of Confucian ideology did Prince Shotoku emphasize in his Constitution Harmony should be valued no one is above the law obey imperial commands correct wrong when you see it put people can trust and who are worthy in power need trust be open minded make it known what is good and badrewards and punishments only take orders from emperor don t be envious of others respect everyone care for others everyone does their own part in society mattersissues should be discussed not decided by one person only How did shoen lead Japan towards decentralized feudalmilitary government in Kamakura Relationships and alliances based on rewards no national unity if someone else had a better deal or land promised but never given then they would rebel were powerful in military and economy Feudal Japan through Sekigahara Mongol Invasions Mongols wanted diplomatic relationship with Japan and Japanese leadership ignored them so Mongols tried to invade to force them and the Japanese saw that they had more sophisticated technology and weapons typoon happened and blew them back later came back to invade and the Japanese expected them because Mongols demanded submission to them and the Japanese responded by sending Mongols heads cut off shogun needs to ask for help from vassals because military is not big enough no national army no national treasury because emperor could not collect taxes so cant collect taxes so just agree to help because expect reward and because their land is threatened but will not gain anything because just protecting what they already have emperor asked for assistance from ancestors and sun goddess and kami monks and priests prayed recited sutras asked for Buddha to help Mongols had larger army but typoon came again kamikaze shogun rewarded monks first because believed they called divine wind Samurai work for daimyo controlled by them and paid by them Daimyo shogun Ashikaga wanted to monitor them control marriages because they form alliances and may be strategic came from previous powerful families or risen up or moved up by making or breaking alliances has samurai army want to make sure they control them and make sure shogun do not take away their power built castles where they house a large army and have a castle town there to supply them with goods powerful private landowners stopped rewarding samurai with land get paid Primogeniture firstbest son receives all of the inheritance Onin War capital was destroyed and title of the shogun was irrelevant spent resources fighting each other and so daimyo sense loss of control and they fought over who will be next shogun Sengoku Period none of the daimyo were concerned about the shogun or emperor both were too impoverished so there was no point to attack them and no money in imperial treasury emperor died and was not buried for 6 weeks because did not have money to do a proper burial and emperor did not formally marrytoo expensive Oda Nobunaga military warlord goalreunification and national peace minor daimyo father overthrew feudal lord and son cruel military genius fought battles and won defeating larger armies other daimyo ocked to his side to avoid fate of his enemies but he refused military coalitionalliances only accepts surrender to his power men who became vassals were tested if they messed up then they were killed if succeeded then tested again and again trusted no one assumed everyone was as ambitious and dishonest as he was required to put entire families in his trust as hostages warlords who disappointed him watched their families get killed and then they were killed terror kept most daimyo in line new tactic to fire together in alternating ranks machine gun encouraged European Jesuit priests to practice and preach religion among troops used Christianity against Buddhist enemies and guarantee supply monopoly of weapons Christianity promised spiritual salvation in one single lifetimefearless army obedience created uniform measurements and taxation disarm peasantry to control them better and return them to land generous with rewards brutal with punishments forced to commit suicide by own generals to avenge mother who had been abandoned in hostage exchange son of minor daimyo rise up with skill and force controlled 23 of Japan known for military skill and brutalitycruelty enemiesldestroyed them even alliances he would not have equal partners they all had to submit to his will 1st to make use of weapons from Portuguese merchants and Jesuit priests did not convert to Catholicism but had relationship so can purchase these western weapons advantage known for military force committed suicide when allies turned against him started unification process had political institutions that would continue to set foundation of unificationset up system to tax daimyo treasury allowed villages under control of daimyo to remain independent as long as they paid taxes on time asserted right to assign daimyo below him surrounded daimyo with own enemies instead of allies so were not a threat did not want to be shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi Oda Nobunaga s best general family was so poor known for being ugly but brilliant and was rewarded by Nobunaga kept winning battlespromoted turned army against murderer of Oda Nobungaga was able to get everyone in alliance except Tokugawa Ieyasu in charge of all land except small pockets of resistance every daimyo sworn loyalty to him destroyed those who resisted him compromised allowed daimyo to commit suicide if did wrong instead of whole family killed kept hostages safe they feared but trusted him conciliator great administrator disarmed peasantry used NeoConfucianism said that heaven and nature said all men should remain in occupational social economic classes karma of previous lives determined present social station future incarnations depended on actions in this one forbade movement and marriage between classes to keep wealth and land from military and weapons away from peasantsmerchants master of divide and conquer kept daimyo in jealous opposition to each other self adopted by Fujiwara to be regent did not tax daimyo but made them do costly public works and only could have one castle failed to establish dynastic succession samurai in proportion to land holdings didn t have name in beginning cruel military genius willing to compromise attack any resistors accept loyalty oath hostages send son or daughter to live with him if alliance broken they would be killed continued Nobunagas institutions and expanded them dominated all of Japan moved daimyo around and required them to provide military assistance public works projects limited number of castles to one created sharp division between warrior and farmer disarm farmers why need weapons all need is tools to focus on fielding the land collected weapons would be made into nails for Great Buddha building project did not want to be shogun sonhier only 5 years old so made regent council to fill in for him for the time being fought with each other Tokugawa Ieyasu son of recently established minor daimyo house succeeded his father as daimyo not brilliant but patient observant quick thinker every action carefully considered got advice from subordinates encourage constructive criticism they were devoted to him rewarded loyal followers broke oath when found it necessary to change alliances pragmatist wife and sons suspected of plotting against him so to prove his loyalty he had to kill them between him and Hideyoshi as successor and didn t think he would win so he swore loyalty to assist him built castle away from Hideyoshi s power and made alliances with others when Hideyoshi died he wanted his son to be next ruler but he was only 5 so made council or regents until he was of age won battle of Sekigahara created system of land divisionhostages social political economic controls and national seclusion showed power but the fact he had to do this was an indication of his weakness understood power and risked very little and refined a lot used what worked from Nobunaga and Hideyoshi wanted title of shogun made emperor appoint him shogun began regime bakufu some what centralized when son of Hideyoshi came of age he became a threat and so he surrounded the castle and forced him to commit suicide Sekigahara battle between the council of regents Ieyasu won In Japan what was the relationship between the military government and the imperial governmentemperor Shogun needs emperor for title and shogun gives financial support to emperor because no treasury shogun have emperorimperial family under house arrest so not a threat to his power What was the relationship between land ownership and power Owned more landmore power could raise larger army Other than the obvious threat to Japanese sovereignty what effect did the Mongol invasions have on the Kamakura government and Japan in general Based on alliances and when shogun did not reward daimyo for defeating Mongolsl got a new shogun How did the Mongol invasions expose weaknesses in the Kamakura government What were the weaknesses Mongols had better technology and strongerlarger military based on alliances How and why did the role of women change in the course of premodern Japanese history Dividing landsmaller land and less power so women no longer inherited only the firstbest son inherited it all very competitive between sons women seen as a threat military violence so saw as men as more superior 1 The History of the Kingdom of Wei provides insight into the political system and political legitimacy in early Japan According to the Wei record what role did women play in the political system what role did China play in the political system What historical andor archeological evidence supports the Wei record on these two points Thesis Women played a huge rule in the political system with Japan being a matriarchy Recognition from china was important 0 Himiko 1St known ruler of Japan 0 When man put on thronechaos 0 Peace restored when women put on throne 0 China gave her title to be queen and own people recognize and accept that Japan recognized Chinas superiority and gave gifts in return China gave Himiko title and political legitimacymirrors and swords 0 Himiko got huge tomb with valuables in it mirrors swords and other imports from China archeological evidence 0 Active in court 0 Taught to read and write contribute to literature openly 2 In the 6th century CE the elite in Japan adopted the socialpolitical ideology of Confucianism from China Why did the Japanese elite borrow Confucian ideology In what way did Confucian ideology con ict with Japanese culture Was the con ict resolved If so how Identify and explain one con ictresolution Why borrowed Prince shokoku meritocracy talent vs aristocracy matriarchy vs patriarchy Thesis Confucianism was borrowed in order to centralize the nation and give the Yamato family more stability but it was remade to fit Japanese culture and values pick one 0 Korea sent Chinese cultural package 0 Hierarchical society Decedents from sun goddess Amaterasu were emperors had own kind of Mandate of Heaven Inherit place did not need to be good at it Matriarchy Uji and Yamato kings did not want anyone to be able to move up Said only elite can get an education and hold a position and take exams Women played major role in political system active in court empress No centralized tax no written laws no officials no state ceremonies Yamato family had no control over land and people of other uji independent Yamato ruled indirectly 0 In titles of the officials clothes that they wear texts that they read architecture more Chinese surface filial piety because already fit with the hierarchy and then adapt them in political system 3 Although the Kamakura government maintained domestic peace initially there were weaknesses built into their political systemadministration Identify and explain a weakness of the Kamakura government Explain how that weakness was exposed by the Mongol Invasions 0 Decentralized 0 Relationshipsalliances based on rewards so when Mongols came they expected rewards when they just protected their own land so shogun had no victory land to give them and did not want to give them their own 0 Shogun needed to ask for help from vassals because their military was not big enough no national army or national treasury because emperor cannot collect taxes so no money to raise army without alliances fall apart 0 Mongol invasion was catalyst for the fall and fall was because of the system structure in place not strong central government just rule through alliances government was founded on alliances and promise of reward and when reward did not come the government weakenedlords and imperial people were frustrated and began to shift loyalty to different leaders so power shifted away from Kamakura government 0 Civil warpowerful military families Ashikaga emerged at top of new hierarchy won rose to power with military force and creation of strategic alliances and broke them Both China and Japan had hierarchies BuddhismMahayana fit in Shinto deities No social mobility educated elite no mandate of heaven not centralized matriarchy inherit place they are in no tax or written laws Yamato dominant but indirect rule Shintonative Japanese religion formative religion Wei record is Chinese primary source
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