Human Development Exam 3 Notes
Human Development Exam 3 Notes 232
Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan
Popular in Human Development
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by aubrey on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 232 at Arizona State University taught by foster in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Human Development through the Lifespan in Human Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Human Development Notes Exam 3 Middle Childhood Biosocial Ages 611 Physical Development Happens slower than before Usually gain 23 inches per year and 36 pounds per year 0 The brain is 90 the size of an adults brain 0 Gross and Fine Motor Skills are more ne tuned MidChildhood is a Healthy Time 0 Less picky eaters o Immunized 0 Better at taking care of teeth 0 More exercise neighborhood games PE athletic clubs and leagues Childhood Obesity 0 BMI a person s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters 0 Overweight Having a BMI above the 85th percentile according to standards for children of a given age Obese Having a BMI above the 95th percentile according to the standard for children of a given age a The percentage of children aged 611 years in the US who are obese INCREASED from 7 in 1980 to nearly 18 in 2012 o More likely to have asthma high bp high cholesterol diabetes Affects school achievement self esteem loneliness Causes of Childhtmd Obesity 0 Heredity more than 200 genes in uence weight by in uencing activity level food preference body type and metabolism 0 Parenting Practices breastfeeding lower rate of obesity later on TVhigher soda higher lack of exercise higher a Social ln uences food advertising parks food subsidies school lunch policies PE Brain Development Massive lnterconnections and coordination between parts of the brain during this time A utism Pre Frontal Cortei controls impulses Reaction Time how long it takes to react to a stimulus EX kick a soccer ball elective AttentLgtn ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others Automatization the process by which a sequence of thoughts and actions is repeated until it becomes automatic or routine EX reading ADHD a condition in which a person not only has a great dif culty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive impulsive and overreac ve 0 About 10 of kids are diagnosed with ADHD o 3 times more likely in boys 0 many children with ADHD continue to have problems into adolescence but many gure out ways to control it learningDisal3ilitJt a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability or by a stressful environment 0 Dyslexia Unusual dif culty with reading Thought to be the result of neurological underdevelopment speech and hearing 0 Dyscalculia Unusual dif culty with math Usually happens later and is more noticeable around age 8 o Autism Spectrum Disorder any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills impaired communication and unusual play 0 1 in 150 8year olds 0 3 times as many boys than girls 0 More Caucasian than Latino Asian or African American 0 Dif cult understanding the emotions of others Delayed in developing Theory of Mind 0 Most children with an autism spectrum disorder show signs in early infancy no social smileO 0 Some children improve by age 3 where as other children start to deteriorate at age 3 0 Too much neurological activity not too little They are very sensitive to noise light and other sensations Special Education 0 Education of all Handicapped Children Act 1975 mandated education of all schoolage children no matter what disability they have 0 Least RestrictiveEnvir9nment LREi A legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn Mainstreaming educating children in a quotregularquot classroom a Resource Rooms a room where a child is sent for targeted tutoring 0 Inclusion with Para Professional children are included in the general classroom but given a trained teacher to help them in that environment a Response to lntervention an educational strategy intended to help children in early grades who demonstrate below average achievement by means of special intervention 0 Individual Education Plan a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs Middle Childhood Cognitive Piaget Concrete Operational thought ldentity objects remain the same despite changes in their appearance Class lnclusion The idea that a particular object or person may belong to more than one class Seriation the ability to order items Transitive lnference the ability to gure out the unspoken link between one fact and another Vocabulary and Grammar Testing More analytical understanding of words Understand comparatives and metaphors Better understand the pragmatics of language such as code switching and telling jokes Sensory Memory stores information for a split second after it is perceived Working Memory current conscious mental activity occurs here Long Term Memory information from working memory may be transferred to long term memory for anywhere from minutes to years Knowledge Base a broad body of knowledge in a particular subject Storage Strategies Procedures for holding information in memory such as rehearsal and reorganization Retrieval Strategies Procedures for recollecting previously learned information o Achievement Tests designed to measure actual learning 0 Scores are compared to other children that match a child s characteristics or to an objective standard Aptitude Tests designed to measure potential for learning 0 IQ Tests 0 Stanford Binet IQ Test tests attention memory reasoning mathematical skill vocabulary spatial perception Shows mental agechrono age x100 Weschler provides scores in four areasverbal perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed Different versions for preschoolers school aged children and adults Sternbergthree types of intelligence 1 Academic 2 Creative 3 Practical Gardener5e ven distinct intelligences Linguistic Logical mathematical Musical Sanal BodyKinesthetic Social understanding SelfUnderstanding NPWP IPSUN Middle Childhood Psychosocial Social Cognition the understanding of other people and groups 0 Emotional understanding 0 Importance of Peers 0 Aggressiverejected disliked because of their confrontational aggressive behavior Very immature in their understanding of social relationships They do not realize that other kids to not like them They do not pick up on social queues that other kids send Aggressive rejected kids tend to have Hostile Attributional Bias 0 Withdrawnrejected disliked because of their withdrawn anxious shy demeanor Extremely aware of their social status and isolation the experience loneliness they re unhappy low self esteem o Hostile Attributional Bias aggressive rejected kids have this tendency to misinterpret social situations as having hostile undertones EX drinking fountain 0 Kernel of truth hypothesis the idea that a lot of times they are the target of hostility from other kids a Bullying repeated systematic attacks intended to harm those who are unable or unlikely to defend themselves physical verbal relational cyber bullying 0 Victims are chosen because of their emotional vulnerability and social isolation 0 Bully victims are aggressive rejected They tend to have neither friends nor sympathizers 0 Many bullies are not rejected They have a few admiring friends They are socially perceptive but they lack empathy 0 Most bullies pick on their own sex 0 Cyber bullying becomes more common with age Consequences oDepression lmpaired social understanding Lower school achievement oRelational dif culties Kohberg s Theory of Moral Development 5t0ry of Heinz Three Levels of Moral Reasoning 1 Preconventional 2ConvenUona 3 Postconventional 0 Preconventional Level emphasis on getting rewards and avoiding punishment 0 Stage 1 obedience to authority in order to avoid punishment and advance selfinterest EX drunk driving 0 Stage 2 each person takes care of their own needs Look out for number one Do things for people so that they will do things for you 0 Conventional Level emphasis on social rules 0 Stage 3 Good behavior pleases other people Approval is more important than any reward 0 Stage 4 Law and order Right behavior means being a dutiful citizen and obeying the laws set down by society Postconventional Level emphasis on moral principles 0 Stage 5 Social contract Obey the rules because they exist for the bene t of everyone and are established by mutual agreement If rules become destructive the contract is no longer binding 0 Stage 6 Universal ethical principles General universal principles determine right and wrong These values may not match the social rules set by society Wont need to know all the stages for the exam just know the three eves Adolescence Biosocial o Puberty onset of puberty is triggered by a chain of hormonal effects that bring on a series of physical changes Timing of puberty is highly variable 0 jirls in this order L Emergence of the rst sign of breasts 810 Linitial appearance of pubic hair 1012 LPeak growth spurt 10 12 grow 3 inchesyear Widening of hips and menarche rst menstrual period 1213 iCompletion of pubic hair and nal breast development 1316 0 Boys in this order LGrowth of testes 1213 LPeak growth spurt 12 12 68 inches per year LGrowth of penis initial appearance of pubic hair rst ejaculation spermarche voice changes 1316 i Beard development and completion of pubic hair growth 1618 0 Primary Sex Characteristics sex characteristics that are directly involved in reproduction uterus vagina testes penis Secondary Sex Characteristics sex characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction breast hips facial hair pubic hair voice lowering What contributes to variability in timing of puberty 1 Genes and Gender about 23 of the variation is due to genetics a African Americans reach puberty 7 months earlier than Hispanics or Whites b Girls are 2 years ahead of the average boy in height 2 Body Fat most girls need to reach at least 100 pounds before they can have their rst period Age of puberty has decreased every century as nutrition and medicine have improved Secular Trend over the past 100 years the timing of puberty has gotten earlier and earlier 3 Hormones in the food supply may affect appetitie and therefore body fat 4 StressIncreases the hormones of puberty a Puberty arrives earlier if a child s parents are sick addicted or divorced or if their neighborhood is violent and impoverished b The stresspuberty links is established but are there other factors involved Genes Early and Late Maturing Girls and Boys 0 Early Maturing Girls lower selfesteem depression body image issues More likely to have older boyfriends which increases risk of using drugs and alcohol 0 Late Maturing Girls not associated with poor outcomes 0 Early Maturing Boys more aggressive law breaking and alcohol abusing than later maturing boys earlier sexual activity 0 Late Maturing Boys anxious depressed afraid of sex Body Image a person s idea of how his or her body looks A teenager s assessment of their physical appearance is the most important determinant of their selfesteem Adolescence Cognitive Formal Operational Thinking o Hypothetical logical and abstract thought arises from maturation and experience 0 Can argue a point either way 0 Thinking in terms of possibility rather than reality 0 Question authority Adolescent Egocentrism thinking intensely about oneself and believing that others do not understand them especially adults 0 Imaginary A ience a concern that other people are as concerned with their behavior and appearance as they are 0 Personal Fable the belief that one is unique and destined for a heroic and fabled life 0 lnvincibility Fable belief that they will not be victims of the consequences of dangerous or illegal behavior CognitLgtn and Technology quotDigital Nativesquot Computers and cell phones are used as tools for learning Video games improve visualspatial skills and vocabulary Social networking speeds up the process of moving past egocentrism Reduces feeling of isolation Contact with likeminded people The Dangers Encourages rapid shifts of attention Multitasking without re ection Visual learning instead of invisible analysis Addiction to video games Cyber bullying Adolescence Psychosocial Major issue in adolescence is nding yourself and gaining a better sense of who you are Multiple Selves acting differently in different situations and around different people False Self behaving in ways that feel contrary to your core beingeven if you are not sure what your core being is 3 Reasons for Adopting a False Self 1 An adolescent may feel rejected by parents and peers Adolescents who adopt a false self for this reason tend to be depressed feel hopeless and engage in high levels of false behavior 2 An adolescent feels a need to impress or please others Very common These adolescents behave in false ways to achieve validation so they are not as debilitated as the rst type 3 An adolescent may just be experimenting trying out different behaviors to see how they feel They report the highest levels of selfesteem and selfknowledge James Marcia 4 Major Identity Statuses 1 Foreclosure when a young person accepts parental values and goals without exploring alternative goals Respectful to parents a Negative ldentity the exact opposite of what they are expected by parents to be 2 Diffusion very few commitments to goals and values and are often apathetic they do not care Withdrawn avoids parental contact 3 Moratorium a quottime outquot in which adolescents experiment with different alternative identities without settling on one EX college military Independent busy with their own interests no time for families 4 Achievement made a decision about who they are and feel good about it Good relationships with parents 4 Arenas of Identity Formation 1 2 Religious most adolescents accept the religious identity of their parents and culture unless unusual circumstances propel a crisis of faith Political most adolescents follow the political traditions of their parents 3 Vocational no longer relevant because rarely do people choose their career in adolescence and stick with it This is a lifelong task now 4 Sexual experience strong sexual drives but they are often confused regarding when how and with whom to express those drives Parents When adolescents feel connected to parents and other adults they are far less likely to abuse drugs quit school break the law or hurt themselves Parentchild relationships often involve bickering Both parents and teens balance the need for independence and closeness Parental monitoring is important and decreasing control is best Peers Peer Pressure not always negative Friends generally encourage socially desirable behaviors joining sports teams studying for exams applying for college Clique a cluster of friends who are loyal to one another and exclude outsiders Crowds a larger groups of adolescents who share common interests brains jocks skaters Goths Crowds can help teens that are establishing their ethnic identity Romance Sequence of malefemale relationships during childhood and adolescence 1 Groups of friends exclusively one sex or the other 2 A loose association of girls and boys with public interactions within a crowd 3 Small mixedsex groups of the advanced members of the crowd 4 Formation of couples with private intimacies Sexual Orientation the direction of a person s erotic desues Dif cult to determine samesex orientation because sexual orientation can be strong weak acted upon secretive or unconscious Many teens refuse to commit to an orientation A dip in selfesteem at puberty is found in ethnicity and gender Teens with very low selfesteem often turn to drugs early sex and disordered eating Clinical Depression A deep sadness that disrupts all normal regular activities affect 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 10 boys Rumination Talking about remembering and mentally replaying past experiences more common among girls
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