Human Development Exam 4 Notes
Human Development Exam 4 Notes 232
Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan
Popular in Human Development
MATH 1000 - 120
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by aubrey on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 232 at Arizona State University taught by foster in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Human Development through the Lifespan in Human Development at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Human Development Notes Exam 4 Emerging Adulthood Ages 1825 Many people don t consider themselves adults until the age of 24 Tasks of adulthood occur later than they used to Marriage Parenthood Chosen Career Path Completed Education Every body system functions optimally at the beginning of adulthood digestive respiratory circulatory sexual reproductive Homeostasis a state of equilibrium maintained by interactions of all the body s physiological systems EX exercise Homeostasis works most ef ciently in emerging adulthood Organ Reserve an extra capacity of each organ that allows the body to cope with stress or physiological extremes EX heart rates Organ reserve starts to reduce at age 25 Sexual Activity Physiologically emerging adults are set up to have sex and have babies Emotional stress as relationships begin and end Attitudes about the purpose of sex 1 Reproduction more likely to marry young 2 Relationship dominant belief among emerging adults Dating falling in love deciding to be faithful having sex living together marriage and parenthood 3 Recreational ideally both partners achieve orgasm without commitment May be dif cult to sustain this attitude 4 Edgework occupations or recreational activities that involve a degree of risk or danger quotliving on the edgequot is compelling to many emerging adults Emergence in social settings like college increase edgework Use of illegal drugs peaks from 1825 Most marijuana and cocaine users stop using those drugs by the age of 30 0 Drug Abuse the ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user s biological or psychological well being 0 Drug Addiction a condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individual s system produces a drive to ingest more of the drug 0 Social Norms Approach an approach to reduce risk taking by conducting surveys of emerging adults and using the results to make them aware of the prevalence of various behaviors 0 Students tend to overestimate how much the average student drinks and underestimate how peers feel about the loud late talking behaviors of drunk students When results of surveys are revealed they are more likely to follow social norms PostFormal Thought The hallmark of postformal thought is flexibility 0 Time Management emerging adults struggle with this It is a skill built across all of adulthood 0 Delay Discounting the tendency to undervalue future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate grati cation Subjective Thought arises from personal experience 0 Objective Thought follows abstract impersonal logic Postformal thought involves an interaction between these two types of thought 0 Cognitive Flexibility allows adults to recognize their emotional biases and to change their behaviors o Stereotype Threat the possibility that one s appearance or behavior will be misread to con rm another person s oversimpli ed prejudiced attitudes Almost all humans are harmed by stereotype threat College Students attend College to 1 Secure betterjobs and to learn speci c skills 2 Get a general education In 2007 the average income of full time workers with a BA degree was 73000 compared to 36000 for people with only a high school diploma Thinking becomes more re ective and expansive with each year ofcoHege Intimacy v5 Isolation quotThe young adult emerging from the search for and the insistence on identity is eager and willing to fuse his identity with others He is ready for intimacy that is the capacity to commit himself to concrete af liations and partnerships and to develop the ethical strength to abide by such commitments even though they call for signi cant sacri ces and compromisesquot Erikson Self expansion the idea that each of us enlarges our understanding our experiences and our resources through our intimate friends and lovers 0 Friends provide companionship and critical support advice information sympathy 0 People tend to make more friends during emerging adulthood than in any other later period and rely on them more than people their age once did Gender and Friendship Research shows that female friendships are closer and involve more support and intimacy but men are more tolerant and demand less of their friends and thus have more friends Sternberg39s 7 Forms of Love Liking lnfatuation Empty Love Romantic Love Fatuous Love Companionate Love Consummate Love Newewwe Social Networking and Dating Websites lncrease incidents of disappointment Choice overload having so many possibilities that a thoughtful choice becomes dif cult Cohabitation living together in a romantic partnership without being married 0 Research shows that these people are more likely to get divorced o The younger the partners are the more likely they are to separate because intimacy is elusive until identity is achieved Successful Relationships Good communication Financial Security Minimal Stress due to addiction or illness Social Homogamy similarity in preferred activities and roles For any young adult less than 1 out of 100 potential mates share 3 favorite leisure activities and 3 role preferences Adulthood Ages 2565 Senescence a gradual physical decline related to aging Senescence affects every part of the body 0 Organ reserve and homeostasis allows normal functioning through the adult years The Aging Brain 0 Neurons re more slowly 0 Reaction Time Lengthens a Brain size decreases fewer neurons 0 Multitasking becomes harder Processing takes longer For 99 of adults homeostasis Within the brain makes loss of neurons insigni cant If Severe Brain Loss Occurs Btwn 2565 the Cause is Usualy Drug Abuse Poor Circulation high BP smoking Viruses HIVMad Cow disease kills neurons Genes 1 our 1000 inherit the dominant gene for Alzheimers quotMiddleage spread increase in waist circumference muscles weaken pockets of fat settle on the abdomen upper arms butt and chin Lose an inch in height by age 65cushioning between spinal discs becomes compressed o Joints lose exibility stiffness is more evident the aging of the body is most evident in sports that require strength agility and speed There is a huge amount of variability in how this happens to adults Vision Nearsightedness increases gradually from the 205 0 In the 405 the process reverses Farsightedness increases because the lens of the eye is less elastic and the cornea thickens Hearing most acute at age 10 sounds at high frequencies are lost earlier than sounds at low frequencies 0 Presbycusis quotaging hearingquot not diagnosed until age 60 Sexual Responsiveness Arousal occurs more slowly with age and orgasm takes longer BUT reduced anxiety better communication and being more familiar with your body counterbalances the aging effect a Most people are sexually active through adulthood Recent study found sexual intercourse stopped at 60 for most of the women and 65 for most of the men Many in good health had intercourse in their 70s and beyond Fertility peaks before 25 o Infertility unable to conceive after trying for at least one year In the US 15 of adult couples are infertile 0 Causes 13 of the time the problem traced to the man lt20million sperm per milliliter of semen 13 of the time the problem traced to the woman Fertility affected by anything that impairs physical functioning smoking obesity extreme dietying PID pelvic in ammatory disease scar tissue blocks fallopian tubes 13 of the time the problem is unknown Menopause ovulation and menstruation stop because of a decrease in several hormonessome time between ages 4258 Average is 51 HRT Hormone Replacement Therapy over the past 30 years many women take estrogen and progesterone supplements to decrease symptoms of menopause Latest studies seem to increase risk of heart disease stroke and breast cancer Midlife Crisis a supposed period of unusual anxiety radical self examination and sudden transformation Big 5 Personality Traits Opennessimaginative curious artistic creative open to new experiences Conscientiousness organized deliberate conforming selfdisciplines Extroversion outgoing assertive active Agreeableness kind helpful easygoing generous Neuroticism anxious moody selfpunishing critical Ecological Niche the particular lifestyle and social context that adults settle into because it is compatible with their individual personality needs and interests Adults choose vocations mates neighborhood etc More likely that a person will nd a job that ts their personality than the other way around Personalities can alter but new events bring out old personality traits On average agreeableness and conscientiousness increase as people get older and openness extraversion and neuroticism decrease Social Convoy the family members friends acquaintances that move through life with an individual Familism the belief that family members should sacri ce personal freedom and success to care for one another Fictive Kin someone that becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she has no real blood relation Marriage 0 Developmental perspective marriage is a useful institution 0 Adults thrive if another person is committed to their well being 0 Chidren bene t when they have two parents who are legally and emotionally dedicated to them 0 Individual perspectiveconsequences are mixed 0 Generally married people are happier healthier and richer than never married people but not by much 0 Personal wellbeing is affected by the quality of the marriage Divorce 0 About 13 of rst marriages end in divorce Odds of divorce increase with each subsequent marriage 0 Divorce is more likely within the rst 5 years of marriage Women with children are less likely to remarry but when they do their new husbands often have children from a previous marriage 0 About half of all US marriages are remarriages for at least one partner Kinkeeper a caregiver who takes responsibility for maintaining communication among family members Sandwich generation the generation of middle aged adults who are quotsqueezedquot by the needs of the younger and older members of their families Coping with Change 0 Between 25 and 42 the average worker in the US has ve different employers 0 People who frequently change jobs by age 36 are 3 times more likely to have various health problems by age 42 Older workers nd job changes particularly dif cult because 1 Seniority is lost 2 Many skills required for new jobs were not taught 20 years ago 3 Relocation is more dif cult when you have established family and friends job Satisfaction o Flextime an arrangement in which work schedules are exible so that employees can balance personal and occupational responsibilities 0 Telecommuting working at home and keeping in touch with the of ce via computer telephone and fax Late Adulthood o Ageism a prejudice whereby people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age 0 Primary Age the universal and irreversible change that occur to all living creatures as they grow older 0 Secondary Aging the speci c physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but are caused by health habits genes and other in uences that vary from person to person Theories of Aging 0 Wear and Tear Theory a view of aging as a process by which the human body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to environmental stressors Genetic Clock Theory a purported mechanism in the DNA cells that regulates the aging process by triggering hormonal changes and controlling cellular reproduction and repair 0 Cellular Aging Theory the cumulative effect of stress and toxins causing cellular damage and eventually the death of cells 0 Average Life Expectancy 76 years for men 81 years for women Alzheimer s Disease the most common cause of dementia gradual deterioration of memory and personality Parkinson s Disease a chronic progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors and rigidity and sometimes dementia Caused by a reduction of dopamine in the brain Disengagement Theory the view that aging makes a person s sphere increasingly narrow resulting in role relinquishment withdrawal and passivity Activity Theory the view that elderly people want and need to remain active in a variety of spheres and become withdrawn unwillingly as a result of ageism 4 73pe5 of Grandparents Remote emotionally distant from grandchildren Esteemed elders who are honored respected and obeyed Companionate quotfunlovingquot They entertain and spoil their grandchildren Involved active in the daytoday lives of their grandchildren They live near them and see them daily Surrogate Parents raise their grandchildren because parents are unwilling or unable
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