Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Microbiology 210
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Gause on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Microbiology 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elizabeth McPherson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapter 6 13 7 9 and 10 VOCAB FROM CHAPTER 6 Autotrophs make organic compounds from C02 not nutritionally dependent on other living things Heterotrophs dependent upon other life forms catabolize reduced organic molecules proteins carbs etc Chemotrophs acquire energy from redox reactions involving inorganic and organic chemicals Phototrophs use light as their energy source Requirements for Microbial Growth oxygen requirements nitrogen requirements and others trace elements etc temperature pH Singlet Oxygen rst type of toxic form of oxygen molecular oxygen with electrons boosted to higher energy state generated during photosynthesis Phagocytic Cells part of singlet oxygen use to oxidize pathogens occurs during photosynthesis so phototropic organisms have CAROTENOIDS only form that contains this Superoxide Radicals second type of toxic form of oxygen form during aerobic respiration and anaerobic metabolism occurring in the presence of oxygen so reactive that aerobes must produce superoxide dismutase to detoxify them Superoxide Dismutase enzymes that detoxify oxygen anaerobes lack this and die as a result of oxidizing reactions of superoxide radicals Peroxide Anion third type of toxic form of oxygen formed during reactions catalyzed by superoxide dismutase and other reactions aerobes contain either catalase or peroxidase to break down peroxide anion Hydroxyl Radical last type of toxic form of oxygen results from ionizing radiation and from incomplete reduction of hydrogen peroxide most reactive of the four not a threat to aerobes because of action of catalase and peroxidase from third type of toxic form Aerobes undergo aerobic respiration using oxygen as the nal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain Anaerobes undergo anaerobic respiration using molecule other than oxygen as nal electron acceptor Facultative anaerobes can maintain life is fermentation or anaerobic respiration or by aerobic respiration E Coli Doesn t need oxygen but can still have it Aerotolerant anaerobes do not undergo aerobic respiration but have some enzymes that detoxify oxygen s poisonous forms doesn t need oxygen but can still have it Microaerophiles aerobes that require oxygen levels from 210 and have a limited ability to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals found in stomach atmospheric levels of oxygen are 21 Nitrogen Fixation reduction of nitrogen gas to ammonia Phosphorus component of phospholipid membranes DNA RNA ATP and some proteins Sulfur component of sulfurcontaining amino acids disul de bonds critical to tertiary structure of proteins and in vitamins Trace Elements only required in small amounts Psychrophiles temp between 520 degrees C Mesophiles temp between 2050 degrees C Thermophiles temp between 5080 degrees C Hyperthermophiles temp between 80100 degrees C Neutrophiles pH between 6575 Acidophiles very low pH acidic Alkalinophiles very high pH basic Hypotonic Solutions have lower solute concentrations cells placed in these solutions will swell and burst Hypertonic Solutions greater solute concentrations cells placed in these solutions will shrink and shrivel this helps preserve some foods Osmotic Pressure restricts organisms to certain environments obligate halophiles adapted to growth is higher osmotic pressure facultative halophiles can tolerate salt concentration Barophiles organisms that live under extreme pressures very deep water this is why these can t grow in us Antagonistic relationships one organism harms or even kills another organism ex virus quotbad personquot antagonist Synergistic relationships individual members cooperate such that each receives bene ts that exceed those that would result I each lived by itself each could live separately but do better living together Symbiotic relationships organisms live in such close nutritional or physical contact that they become interdependent such that members never live outside the relationship Bio lms primary residence of microbes in nature cause chronic conditions mostly in 3rd world countries kidney infections on teeth etc cells with bio lms communicate and coordinate with one another many organisms become more harmful when part of a bio lm Matrix gooey extracellular bio lm slime stuff on teeth may allow members of the bio lm to concentrate and conserve digestive enzymes Quorum Sensing microbes respond to the density of nearby microorganisms the fans in the stadium example start off with one then add more Growth increase in cell numberpopulation Binary Fission grow asexually splitting into two identical daughter cells not by mitosis or meiosis Generation Time time it takes for 1 cell to become 2 etc the time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide or population of cells Lag Phase rst phase of microbial population growth cells are adjusting to their new environment cells dying cells most cells do not reproduce immediately but actively synthesize enzymes to utilize nutrients in the medium Log Phase second phase of microbial population growth cells begin to divide and enter period of growth cells greater than dying cells cannot stay in this phase forever because nutrients get used up oxygen is depleted etc Stationary Phase third phase of microbial population growth new cells dying cells happens because if not Earth would be overwhelmed by bacteria period of equilibrium Death Phase nal phase of microbial population growth new cells less than dying cells VOCAB FROM CHAPTER 13 Virus caused by acellular agents very simple no cell structure can t carry out metabolic pathway cannot reproduce independenUy cause most of diseases dif cult to get rid of us because they live in our cells lntercellular State capsid protein removed virus exists as nucleic acid Extracellular State capsid surrounding nucleic acid core Generalists infect many kinds of cells in many different hosts Bacteriophage virus infecting bacteria Viral Envelope similar to cytoplasmic membrane eitheror situation acquires it from host cell s cytoplasmic membrane composed of phospholipid bilayer and proteins play role in host recognition Lytic Replication 1 attachment random meetingattachment 2 entry viruses enzyme produced degrades cell wall 3 synthesis degrade bacterial DNA make more viruses 4 assembly viruses created 5 lysosome from entry nished degrading cell wall plaques area of disintegrating bacterial cells in lawn of bacteria Lysogenic 1 attachment same 2 entry same except cell doesn t blow up right away prophage inserted into DNA of host cell bacterial virus a may remain part of bacterial chromosome forever VOCAB FOR CHAPTER 7 Gene cs study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in an organism s genetic material Genome its genetic complement entire including its genes speci c sequences of nucleotides Structure of Prokaryotic Genome prokaryotic chromosomes main portion of DNA also have RNA in chromosomes haploid cells single copy of each chromosome typical chromosome consists of circular molecule of DNA located in nucleoid plasmids small molecules of DNA that replicate independently of the chromosome circular carry info required for own replication Structure of Eukaryotic Genome nuclear chromosome chromosomes all linear and sequestered within membranebound nucleus Extranucelar DNA of Eukaryotes DNA molecules of mitochondria and chloroplasts are circular and resemble circular chromosomes of prokaryotes Nuclear DNA codes for 95 of RNA and proteins DNA Replication occurs during polymerization allows a cell to make copies of its genome key to replication is complimentary structure of the two strands AT and CG for DNA and AU for RNA replication is semiconservative new strands composed of one original strand and one daughter cell Genotype set of genes in genome consists of all the series of DNA nucleotides that carry instructions for an organism s life Phenotype physical features and functional traits of an organism genotype determines phenotype by specifying what kinds of RNA and which protein molecules are produced Transfer of Genetic Info transcription info in DNA is copied as RNA translation polypeptides synthesized from RNA central damage DNA transcribed to RNA RNA translated to form polypeptides Mutation change in nucleotide base sequence of genome almost always deterious evolution mutation is actually good Point Mutation single base pair affected either pair substitutions or frameshift mutations Pair Substitutions silent mutation AAA becomes AAG but it doesn t change the protein missense mutation change in genotype AND change in phenotype amino acid name changed nonsense mutation stop codon gets inserted when it s not supposed to Frameshift Mutation affect proteins much more seriously than substitutions because frameshift affects all codons insertion or deletion Insertion AAA becomes CAAA and this changes the whole sequence Deletion AAA becomes AA and this changes the whole sequence as well Spontaneous Mutations results from error Vertical Gene Transfer process by which prokaryotes and eukaryotes replicate their genomes and supply copies Horizontal Gene Transfer donor ce contributes part of genome to recipient ce not very common Transformation type of horizontal gene transfer recipient cell takes up DNA from environment it s like their hungry Transduction type of horizontal gene transfer transfer of DNA from one cell to another via replicating virus generalized carries random DNA segment lytic specialized only certain pieces of donor DNA ysogenic Bacterial Conjugation donor ce remains alive requires physical contact between donor and recipient EXTRA INFO prokaryotes for mRNA start with fMet while eukaryotes start with Met antibiotic resistance developed by one pathogen can spread to other pathogens VOCAB FOR CHAPTER 9 Cide and Cidal destructionkilling Stasis and Static not killing Pasteurization heat used to reduce number of spoilage organisms not sterilization Sanitization removal of pathogens for health standards Sterilization destruction of all microorganismsviruses in or on an object VOCAB FOR CHAPTER 10 Selective Toxicity effective antimicrobial agent must be more toxic to a pathogen then to the pathogen s host Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action inhibition of cell wall synthesis inhibition of protein synthesis disruption of cyopasmic membranes inhibition of metabolic pathways inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis prevention of virus attachment and entry BroadSpectrum may allow for secondary infections or superinfections