Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 2070
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This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alma G on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Swartout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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PSYC 2070 Introduction to Human Sexuality Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 56 15 amp 11 All readings and lectures are fair game Chapter 5 0 Be familiar with the basic descriptions and functions of and be able to label a basic picture of the following female external sex organs vulva labia majora labia minora clitoris clitoral hood urethra introitus perineum mons veneris vestibule O Vulva entire region of external genitalia that contains the other parts 0 Labia majora outer lips that engorges in blood when exited covered with pubic hair and can be pigmented O Labia minora inner lips with small oil glands and no hair protecting the vagina and urethra O Introitus entrance of the vagina usually covered by the hymen O Perineum the small region between the anus and the introitus that can be stimulated O Mons verneris protective fatty tissue over the pubic bone 0 Vestibule area that contains the urtheral opening and vaginal opening 0 Be familiar with the basic descriptions of and functions of and be able to label a basic picture of the following female internal sex organs vagina ovary fallopian tube cervix 0s 0 Vagina Very elastic235 inches at rest not long I Lubricant secreted from vaginal wall when engorged I Outer 13rd contains many nerve endings and is tighter and more muscular 0 Penis does not need to be long for pleasure I 23rd have barely any nerve endings I Can have surgery performed without anesthesia I Has friendly lactobacilli that keeps things in balance in vagina I Women have cyclical hormones I Prevents many other bacteria from growing 0 Has fungi that can overgrow O No douching O No need for soaps and scented products I Vagina will clean itself 0 Ovary testes for women I Most important for the female hormone estrogen I Repository of oocytes or eggs 250000 per ovary 0 Girls born with all eggs they will ever have but you will never use all of them I Ovulation happens in one ovary or the other 0 Take turns but sometimes might have dominant ovary I Typically release one oocyte per ovulation period 0 Fraternal twins occur if release of two eggs occurs 0 Fallopian tubes I Inner surface has cilia hairs Connects to ovaries and where the egg travels back down to uterus O Beating motion that moves egg towards uterus O Cervix secretes mucus to help ovulation or impede sperm during infertile periods 0 Os opening of cervix that leads to the uterus dilates and softens during childbirth 0 What is the only human organ whose sole function is to bring sexual pleasure The clitoris that hides away until it is aroused 0 What is female circumcision genital mutilation What is its function Where does it happen most commonly What is the difference between infibulation and clitoridectomy O Primarily in Africa that spreads during migration 0 Not done by professional medics to keep it as a tradition in the community 0 Clitoridectomy removal of the clitoris glans hood and shaft with razor blades and sharp tools 0 Infibulation removal of the labia minora and fused to make a smaller opening for menses and urination and clitoridectomy 0 What is the hymen What is its function What happens to it during sex Be familiar with the historical context of the importance of the hymen O Hymen membrane that covers the introitus that will stretch during sexual intercourse however can be torn during varies activities I Virginity testing way to test of female is a virgin if there is blood I Hymenplasty surgery to recreate the hymen 0 What are the layers of the uterine wall What role does the endometrium play in the menstrual cycle 0 Perimetrium outer layer like most abdominal areas 0 Myometrium middle muscular layer that performs involuntary contractions O Endometrium inner most layer that sheds during menses if no fertilization site for fetal implantation 0 What organs are the female s most important producer of female seX hormones such as estrogen Ovaries 0 What are breasts made of Be familiar with the structure of the breast O Breasts modified fatty tissue that has sweat glands that produces milk I Nipples in center of areola darkened skin containing oil glands to keep skin lubricated 0 What is menstruation What is the typical length of a cycle Historically how has menstruation been viewed Is it dangerous to suppress the menstrual cycle Why or why not 0 Menstruation cyclical vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue monthly I Typically 2435 days I Historical view Men view it negatively 7080 Western people avoid sex as personal choice Traditional J udaicChristianMuslim no sex during menstruation I Can take pills to skip period and results as not harmful to the body I Stages Ovulatory Phase day 14 O Cervical mucus is thin and stretchy 0 Most fertile to hold the sperm Lateal Phase uterus prep 0 Cervical mucus is thick sperm negative I Acidic to kill sperm since time slot passed 0 Increases blood supply to receive the egg and if no fertilization occurs hormones signal to decrease production Menstrual Phase 37 days 0 Differ in lengths for different women 0 Endometrial slides off and expels dead tissue with blood causing cramps 0 What is amenorrhea Why does it happen 0 Amenorrhea absence of menstruation can take two forms I Primary woman never begins menstruation Caused by underdeveloped organs poor health emotional factors excessive exercise I Secondary stops before woman gets to menopause Caused by pregnancy disease hormonal imbalance 0 What is PMS How is it different from PMDD O PMS Premenstrual Syndrome physical and emotional symptoms that appear in some women 0 PMDD Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder severe cases of PMS in four groups I Mood depression sadness mood swings etc I Behavioral eating argumentative I Somatic bloating headaches hot ashes I Cognitive confusion poor concentration 0 What is menopause What are the primary characteristics What treatments are suggested for dealing with the symptoms What are their pros and cons O Menopause final menstrual period that occurs in women I Ovaries are less responsive to hormonal stimulation I Loss of libido you don t have the feeling of having seX Post menopause seX drives returns to few women I Changes in perceived femininity feeling of reproducing and having period as a woman decreases I Hot ashes night sweats symptoms feelings during stage I Vaginal dryness less selflubrication due to hormone uctuation I Hormone therapy way to balance hormones during changes in the body Controversial due to link with breast cancer I Vaginal estrogen changes of hormones during stage 0 What is endometriosis What is toxic shock syndrome 0 Endometriosis when cells migrate to places other than uterus unknown causes I Can affect menstrual cycle infertility and treated with hormone therapy or surgery 0 Toxic Shock Syndrome bacteria forming in the vagina when do not switch the tampon often I Can be fatal due to quick organ failure I Symptoms rash over hands and feet fever etc 0 Why do doctors recommend against using soap douche scented menstrual products etc near the vulva and vagina O Vagina has friendly bacteria that keeps the vagina in balance itself preventing other bacteria to form 0 Can cause more irritation 0 Be familiar with the genetic reproductive lifestyle and hormonal factors that in uence breast cancer risk What are the most common symptoms of breast cancer What are typical treatments of breast cancer 0 Breasts factors I Can be detected with a mammography No prevention but early detection is important Lumps mostly benignnoncancerous I Genes one 1St degree relative 2X risk 2 relatives 5X risk Mutations at BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes 80 risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer 0 Get tested if found in family for gene I Ag 85 are women over 50 Can still occur in women of any age 1 Reproductive History Early menarche increases risk Late menopause No children or 1St after 30 years Prolonged breast feeding reduces risk 1 Lifestyle 25 drinks per day 15 fold increases risk Obesity waist fat increases risk Exercise several hoursweek 12 half risk 1 Hormones Slight risk in young women on birth control pills Risk is gone 10 years after BCP stops No risk for older women Postmenopausal estrogen slightly increases risk 1 Treatment Mastectomy removal of breast External support or breast reconstruction Salinesilicone implants I Female sexuality impacted psychologically and with partners Grief fear of cancer saddens about something that can reoccur again Cancer treatment debilitating long process Hormonal effects on libido and arousal no seX drive Feel the lack of attractiveness feel bad about selfimage I But not for long Most report no change in seX life 80 happy with reconstruction 0 Be familiar with ovarian cancer Prevalence risk factors preventative measures treatments Why is it considered the most deadly of all gynecologic cancers 0 Ovarian Cancer 0 Causes more deaths than any other female reproductive cancer 0 22K year in US 0 Risk factors old age heredity early onset of menstruation late menopause no children obesity prolonged hormone replacement therapy 0 long term5 years use of oral contraceptives can decrease risk by 60 0 Treatment removal and chemotherapy I Causes hormonal imbalance 0 Usually detected late 50 survive 5 years after diagnosis 39 Ovarian cysts uid filled sacs 0 Usually unovulated follicle 0 Can be concern marker if found prepuberty and postmenopause 0 Usually benignnoncancerous Considered most deadly as a silent killer because warning signals show up in advanced stage when tumor is grown 0 Be familiar with cervical cancer Prevalence risk factors preventative measures treatments 0 Cervical Cancer 0 13K womenyear in US 4400 deathsyear in US 0 Predisposition via certain immune papillomavirus HPV infections chlamydia immune system dysfunction early sexual activity long term use of birth control 0 75 drop in death rate since 1950s due to PAP TEST during pelvic exam looking for cancerous cells to easily track 0 Treatment hysterectomyremoval of uterus and radiation chemo therapy perhaps other organs I Leave ovaries for the hormones estrogen which is important for female body Prolapse sagging of uterus into vagina rare 0 Weakening of ligaments connection to pelvic oor muscles 0 Affects older women with one or more births obesity smoking 0 Treatment surgically or via insertion of ring Kegel exercises I Tighten up when urine to avoid since it can occur few times Chapter 6 0 Be familiar with the basic descriptions of and functions of and be able to label a basic picture of the following male external seX organsfeatures coronal ridge urethral opening glans frenulum shaft scrotum O Glans conelike expansion and the end of the penis I Coronal Ridge rim at the head I Frenulum underside fold of skin that can be removed during circumcision O Shaft the region that connects the root and the corona and head of penis I Root connected to internal muscles I Urethral meatus opening of the urethra covered by the corpus spongiosum common tube for urine and semen O Scrotum loose bad of skin that contains two testicles separated by tissue I descends down the body to the scrotum as boy develops I some hair and sweat glands vents scrotum to keep cool I one usually lower than the other normal for many men to help prevent crushing left is lower than right in most men I cremaster muscle contracts when cold and during orgasm raises temperature to keep testicles cool 0 when hot relaxes and testicles hang freely 0 Be familiar with the basic descriptions of and functions of and be able to label a basic picture of the following male internal seX organsfeatures corpus spongiosum copora cavernosa testicles Cremaster muscle seminal vesicle prostate gland Cowper s gland epididymis vas deferens seminiferous tubules Corpora cavernosa 2 lateral areas of tissue that fills with blood during an erection Corpus spongiosum 1 spongy area that surrounds the urethra for protection from collapsing during an erection Testes produces and store sperm I Cremaster muscle moves to keep sperm at a healthy temp Need to be 712 degrees below body temperature Secretes testosterone control hormone for males In testes Seminiferous tubules smallest tubes that produces sperm Starts at the beginning of puberty producing 150 million a day Site of sperm production spermatogenesis takes 72 days for sperm to form Epididymis as sperm begins to mature in seminiferous tubules will move to epididymis O Sperm maturation for 1014 days Vas deferens transports sperm to rest of reproductive system 0 Carries from testicles and propels sperm towards urethra O Seminal Vesicles2 adds thick secretion at ejaculation I Transportation adds proteins and enzymes as nutritional value in the semen along with sperm to keep them alive as they travel to the egg I Secrete a component of semen into ducts O Prostate Gland1 contains alkaline uid secreted at ejaculation I Nourishes uid for sperm and helps neutralize the acidic pH of vagina to keep sperm alive I Produces substances that aids sperm to fertilize ovum I Causes physical problems in older men 0 Cowper s Gland2 precum lubricates urethra and ushes urine prior to ejaculation gets urethra ready for semen and sperm to go through I No sperm but can mix with sperm from previous ejaculation unless urination occurred 0 Evolutionarily why is the penis shaped the way it is 0 It is shaped the way it is as long to get all the way through the vagina for reproduction purposes 0 What is involved in circumcision What are the pros What are the cons What is the prevalence of circumcision among men in the US Men around the world 0 Circumcision cutting around the penis of the foreskin I 2025 of world population not popular in many areas of the world I 55 of males in US population more popular than other places in the world Varies geographically within the US I Religious significance in Islam and Judaism Not really for Christianity tradition Due to religious tradition O Jew boys have 8 day old ceremony when they get their circumcision I Foreskin is retracted and cut off leftover goes over head and is sewn up with little blood Belief that babies do not feel circumcision I Male genital mutilation Not considered since it is normal in the society while female genital mutilation seen as inhumane 0 Double standards in society I No medical indication for it at birth wow it looks weird let him get circumcisedl foreskin retracts normally Inability to retract foreskin at birth is NOT reason to circumcise I PI OSZ Reduction of urinary tract infections in infancy still lt1 low risk to catch an infection Lowers risk of acquiring some STDs and HIV 0 In less clean countries can see a distinction in risk not so much in US Lowers risk of penile cancerincredibly rare cancer occurs in foreskin but cancer is generally rare Kid won t look different social excuse to look like other little boys I Cons Surgical riskinfection hemorrhage low risk in hospitals Reduced sensitivity not a lot of difference between men that are and are not circumcised C I American Academy of Pediatrics no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn not needed a choice for parents to give baby boys 0 Be familiar with testicular cancer Prevalence risk factors preventative measures treatments 0 Testicular Cancer I 74K in US per year 400 fatalities Consistent but not the largest killer I Usually in 2535 year olds with few symptoms until advanced stages I Lump pain detected sudden increase in size Males should examine themselves to check for abnormalities I Family history frequent marijuana use increased risk I Treatment radiation and chemotherapyaffects fertility removal of testicle O prosthetic option for esthetic fake testicle in scrotum to make it look normal 0 Be familiar with prostate cancer Prevalence risk factors preventative measures treatments 0 Prostate Cancer I Most commonnonskin cancer in men 220K in US per year I 27K mortality in US per year 211d largest in cancer mortality Two times more common in African American men I Can block urination and if serious need to move prostate I Average age of diagnosis 70 years old Screening starting at age 45 0 Important to selfexamine I Detected by increasing prostatespecific antigen PSA 1 Treatment active surveillance if male is too old knowing it will be chronic and will probably die before the cancer kills them 0 let the cancer in body without treatment surgery radiation chemotherapy younger men willing to take treatment if have a while to live 0 risk I erectile dysfunction I urinary incontinence I Increased risk if smoke obese in family history eat red meat products 0 What is prostatitis What are the symptoms What are the risk factors 0 Prostatitis in ammation acute or chronic I Can occur once or chronic constant in ammation I Acute due to urinary tract infection Can occur in young men Not as common in men due to long urethra I Causes urge to pee burning vomiting fever forceful urination I STDs and anal sex can create infection due to close irritation 0 What is the difference in the internal and external anal sphincter muscles How are each involved when the anus is used as a sex organ What are the risks of using the anus as a sex organ 0 Applies to both males and females 0 Penetration or oral or manual stimulationtoys O Kept closed due to anal sphincter muscles 0 Holds everything in the rectum 0 External muscle under conscious control 0 Internal muscle under control of autonomic nervous system I Most sensitive here place Where can get sexual pleasure O Rectum lowest GI tract O O O O Fairly large less sensitivity Why people put toys there and can feel stimulation Not selflubricating no glands in anus and need to use lube for comfort What is the basic composition of semen Why is semen technically nutritious How much semen is involved in a typical ejaculation How much sperm is involved in a typical ejaculation Seminal vesicle uid 70 as sperm is moving from vas deferens that adds nutrients for the sperm to survive Prostate amp Cowper s uid 30 I prostate secretes uid to neutralized vagina for the survival of sperm to O reach the egg Cowper s gland secretes precum 96 water Translucent With White grey yellowish tint Tastes what the male drinks and eats Salty trace amounts of nutrients Fructose vitamin C sodium bicarbonate proteins magnesium potassium and zinc Volume 35 mL one teaspoon of liquid Sperm 200400 million sperm 1 of sperm Have to be extra careful and be protected even though it is still a small percentage of the semen 0 What is andropause Who experiences it What are the symptoms What are the treatments 0 Andropause testosterone concentration decrease in early 30s not necessarily in stages I Symptoms muscle loss lack of libido osteoporosis I Can get testosterone replacement therapy to increase bone density I Risks of therapy leads to prostate cancer Chapter 15 0 Who is at highest risk for contracting STIs ageraceethnicitysexual orientation Why 0 Approximately 50 occur in people 1524 years old 0 Highest risk racialethnic minorities men who have seX with men I Minorities tend to go to public clinic that will report information more than private clinics I Men who have seX with menMSM do not always identify as gay and will use less protection I Notion of casual seX common in the society increases risk of catching an infection 0 Women are at greater risk of longterm complications I Fragile vaginal tissue penis is less fragile I Semen stays in vaginal tract can keep the infection in place for a while increasing risk of STIs 0 Every year 19 million cases are reported 0 Education access to healthcare SES I Less education no access to healthcare and having no money I People will rather eat than get tested 0 Often asymptomatic no symptoms are visible mostly in women I Latency period infection not visible and spread infection during period 0 How do so many STIs spread so easily What factors make transmission likely How do attitudes about STIs affect the likelihood of transmission I Signs of corrupted sexuality don t know how to have seX correctly or have a deviant sexuality I Punishment concept A person got what they deserved infections are for those who are bad I Beliefs interferes with testing and treatment because don t want to be judged for catching an STI I Bad stigma guilt depression shame 0 What are the risks of STIs during pregnancy What precautions should pregnant women take I Can decrease problems if use protection I Miscarriage I EX Chlamydia and gonorrhea create infections of the genital tract including the tubes endometrium I Infection of developing fetus I Through the placenta directly to the fetus I EX syphilis I Need to be treated to lower risks of fetus developing infections I Infection of newborn baby I During breast feeding I EX HIV I Can be contracted during vaginal birth 0 Be familiar with the basic features prevalence symptoms and treatments of the following STIs Ectoparasitic Infections Pubic Lice and Scabies I Pubic Lice Crabs 0 Bacterial infection that lives on the skin in the pubic hair 0 highly contagious visible to the naked eye 0 Symptoms III itching when lice bite leave saliva causing allergic reaction 0 Treatment III OTC creams and shampoo long process to kill babies III Clean sheets and clothes in hot water and dryer cycles I Scabies 0 Common among millions of people 0 Symptoms III Itching rash after 46 weeks of infection 0 Examination of rash and spreads without immediate treatment 0 Treatment III creams III hot water of clothes and towels Bacterial Infections Gonorrhea Syphilis Chlamydia Bacterial Vaginosis I Gonorrhea The Clap 0 Bacterial infection that lives in mucous membrane 0 EX eyes throat vagina cerViX 0 Spread through mucous contactvulvavulva vulva mouth Higher incidence among young Black men and women 0 26X more in AA men than White men 0 16X more in AA women than White women Higher rates in Southern states 0 Less seX education and promote abstinence instead of informing about infections and protection 0 Symptoms O urethral discharge painful urination increase in frequency urgency to urinate 0 Typically asymptomatic in women 0 Treatment 0 Antibiotics easy to get rid when getting treated I Syphilis 0 Bacterial infection that occurs in 55400 year 0 Higher incidence among young Black men 0 Three stages 0 1 Chancres sores around the genitals that show up 1090 days after infected 0 Not painful on the penis vagina mouth lips etc 0 2 Chancers disappear and invades CNS 0 Rash occur fatigue headaches fever etc 0 3 If not treated yet can be fatal neurological attack 0 Infection goes into remission but can still be contagious for a year 0 Psychological symptoms and attacks entire body 0 Facial deformity I Chlamydia 0 Most common bacterial STI in US 2860000 year 0 Higher in African American men and women in general 0 Rates higher in South 0 Usually asymptomatic silent disease 0 Symptoms 0 Burning during urination and during intercourse pain in lower abdomen 0 Discharge from penis pain in testicles 0 In women can cause infertility 0 Treatment 0 Antibiotics I Bacterial Vaginosis 0 Caused by overgrown of various types of bacteria in vagina most common cause of vaginal discharge 0 Asymptomatic 0 Or discharge with fishy smell 0 Risk factors multiple seX partners inconsistent condom use douching O Embarrassing and lower selfesteem causes women to avoid sexual activity 0 Treatment use of antibiotics Viral Infections Herpes Human Papillomavirus I HerpesHerpes Simplex Virus HSV 0 Viral infection will never get rid of it in life only can control it 0 Oral herpes and genital herpes O HSV1mouth and face reoccur when stressed sick asymptomatic most of the time I Usually transmitted before people are even sexually active because they don t experience blisters or ulcers 0 HSV2genitals 1 in 5 adults in America since most people don t realize that they have it and spread it 0 Highly contagious even if it is not visible skintoskin contact I Human PapillomavirusHPV 0 very common most common STI in US 0 more than 6000000 year 1 in 2 sexually active men and women 0 Most types have no symptoms some cause genital warts 0 Connection between cervical cancer 0 Preventative vaccines starting at age 11 O Gardasil 3 doses over 6 months both boys and girls I protects from 4 most common HPV 0 What is the primary difference between bacterial and viral infections Bacterial infections can be treated and gotten rid of with antibiotics Viral infections will stay in the body s system forever and can only be treated never rid of 0 Which bacterial infection is known as the Silent disease Why Which viral infection can easily spread via skintoskin contact Which viral infection is the most common in the US Chlamydia is the bacterial infection also known as the silent disease because it is usually asymptomatic I Herpes is the viral infection that spreads with skintoskin contact HPV is the viral infection most common in the US with every 1 in 2 sexually active people 0 What do HIV and AIDS stand for What is the relationship between the two What is the time course between the two Be familiar with the prevalence risk factors and basic treatment of HIV HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus transmitted through bodily uids semen pregnancy and breast milk I Attacks T Helper cells which impairs immune system that protects body from bad infections No cure only treatment I Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyHAART drug cocktails I AIDSAcquired Immune De ciency Syndrome 1 If HIV positive and not in treatment AIDS in 810 years 0 fatal I If treated does not always develop into AIDS if take pills properly 0 Body will resist pill effectiveness if not taking properly I 11 million people in US 5000060000 year I Out of those with HIV 55 are gay men 40 African American men 0 How does HIV work What does it mean to say that most people with AIDS don t actually die of AIDS What do they typically die of instead What are opportunistic diseases I HIV impairs the immune system where the body can be attacked by other diseases I Attacks the T Helper cells and injects its RNA into uid taking over and changing into DNA to manufacture more HIV I Opportunistic diseases diseases that compromise and attack the body when the immune system goes down I Can kill you before the actual HIVAIDS virus kills you O STIHIVAIDS prevention what vaccines are available What is the best form of protection Testing is critical why do so many people avoid it Be familiar with the basic advantages of female and male condoms and dental dams Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy HAART drug cocktails slows down progression With conjunction of HIV RNA testing to monitor the amount of HIV in bloodstream Can kill children before age 5 if not treated Forms of protection Female condoms Male condoms not 100 protection but can protect from many STIs and pregnancy Dental dams small thin pieces of lateX used for oralvaginal seX to prevent STDs Getting tested people avoid getting tested because they are embarrassed to have an infection Widespread and if don t know you are infected then can easily spread to other people Where in the world is HIVAIDS the biggest public health issue About how many people in subSaharan Africa are living with AIDS About how many children Why isn t everyone in subSaharan Africa on HAART treatment What are the pros and cons of medical treatment versus education as preventiontreatment strategies Africa has the largest problem with the spread of HIVAIDS by intercourse seX work Men sexual intercourse with Men many children are born into the disease 90 for those younger than 15 years old Has been declining over the years IIIIO If people are educated then there is less worry to see it spreading instead of focusing on stopping the disease Very expensive to get everyone on treatment because it is money consuming and have to use it daily Chapter 11 What factors determine sexual orientation Behavior Romantic feelings Attraction Selfidentification What are the pros and cons of each of these methods Sexual Orientation can be difficult to measure Definition the genders that a person is attracted to emotionally sexually physically and romantically Heterosexual attracted to opposite sex Homosexual attracted to same sex Bisexual attracted to both sexes Belief that does not exist because indecisive about sexuality Not accepted in heterosexual or homosexual communities Behavior is it only if you perform gay behaviors Fantasy is it about people you think about Romantic Feelings who you have feelings for SelfConceptselfidentification is It based on how you look at yourself 39 What is the Kinsey continuum What is the KSOG What are the O advantages and shortcomings of each Kinsey Continuum 7point scale from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual with a range in between I Advantages 0 First scale to suggest sexual orientation a continuous variable 0 Traditional belief that sexual orientation was binary I Problems Emphasis on behavior excluding fantasies thoughts etc Static in time not taking account of other periods of life 0 What were you on the scale at 15 30 O Klein Sexual Orientation Grid KSOG expansion of continuum l Seven dimensions attraction behavior fantasy emotional preference social preference selfidentification lifestyle I Advantages Takes to account a broader picture of sexual orientation Not static in time including other stages in life 0 Includes past present and ideal What are our current estimates for categories of sexual orientation today 0 Kinsey s Statistics 1948criticism that he wanted to normalize homosexuality I 37 men 13 women had at least one adult homosexual experience I 4 men 3 women live as lifelong homosexuals O Laumann et al Statistics l994trying to follow Kinsey method I 4 of women had sex with woman as an adult lt2 in past year I 5 of men had sex with man as an adult 2 in past year 0 How many are gaystraightbi I Most people say heterosexual 0 How do you selfidentify I Most people say heterosexual 39 What is the genetic explanation for sexual orientation The prenatal explanation The adult hormone explanation The birth order explanation The physiological explanation Be able to describe the short comings associated with each of these explanations 0 Biological Theories 0 Differences are innate already born to have a different sexual orientation 0 Genetics Is being gay heritable I Mixed findings not only one gene makes you gay I Moderately heritable for men less for women Tests on identical twins where if one was homosexual the other might also be homosexual I Gender nonconformity may be more heritable 0 If there is a preference for one twin it is likely for the other one I Genes account for some but not all variance in sexual orientation 0 Have to take account to environmental factors I Gay men tend to have gay relatives on mother s side 0 Prenatal hormone exposure weak evidence I Organizational effects during development hormones tells body what to do with gender neutral systems 0 If there is an absence of hormones body changes I Congenital Adrenal HyperplasiaCAH disorder of sexual development high levels of androgen exposure prenatal 1 in 15000 babies masculinizes female genitalia CAH girls play with maletypical toys and higher rates of homosexuality than nonCAH girls 0 Birth orderweak evidence l Gay men tend to have more older brothers than heterosexual men I Maternal immunity hypothesis more antimale antibodies with each male birth Develops antibodies against fetus and as she has more male births it will feminize fetus to be accepted in the womb O 33 increase with each older brother I 14 brothers for 99 chance homosexuality 0 Older sistersgt decrease chance I What about lesbian women No evidence for lesbian chances 0 Explain genderrole nonconformity as an explanation of sexual orientation What is the behaviorist interpretation of the development of sexual orientation What is Bem s interactional theory Be able to describe the shortcomings associated with each of these explanations 0 Developmental Theories l Sexual orientation differences are result of environment I Genderrole nonconformity looks at role of early childhood in development of homosexuality and explores crossgendered traits in childhood pay with atypical toys 0 Does not always mean atypical play means child is homosexual 39 Gays and lesbians recall more genderatypical behavior than heterosexual children 0 Cross gendered boys looked at more negatively than cross gendered girls 0 Not all gay children played atypical activities to be predictive o Behaviorist Theories l Homosexuality is a learned behavior by reinforcement of homosexual behaviors and punishments of heterosexual behaviors Experiences in negative heterosexual relationships led to positive same sex relationships I Conversionreparative therapy punishment when get aroused by opposite sex to control behavior knowing it cannot be changed 0 Interactional Theories I Bem proposed theory that combines biology and sociological issues Genetics and hormones do not cause certain sexual orientations but contribute to childhood temperaments that in uence child s preferences for sextypicalatypical activities or peers o Sociological Theories I Completely different from behaviorist theory I Social forces are responsible for sexual orientation I Sexual orientation labels are products of society 0 Kids internalize labels learning genders and their norms Ex gender nonconforming boys are labeled as homosexual children and they adopt the role because they were told that 0 How is homosexuality viewed around the world Are views more or less positive compared to the US How is the US view progressive in comparison How is it regressive in comparison 0 Considered an illness until 1973 in US I Not as widely accepted as other countries 0 Barely legalized gay marriage 0 Some cultures have samesex relationships as common part of life kissing holding hands I Found in every culture different attitudes I More common in areas with less religion What is heterosexismheteronormativity Where does it come from What does it mean to say that it can be both passive and active 0 Heterosexism a presumption of heterosexuality in society I Passive lack of awareness not necessarily active discrimination What boy do you like versus who do you like I Not noticed that messages imply you are heterosexual making homosexuals feel out of place What role does family play in coming out What are the risks associated with family rejection 0 Coming out awareness of sexual orientation at a very young age lifelong process not knowing how new people will react I Difficult since society promotes heterosexuality Better with support groups I 50 report negative experiences 0 From friends and family 0 Parents feel it is their fault religious parents try to change the youth I 26 kicked out of home 0 Rejection increased risk for suicideX8 drugs unsafe sex depression STD risks 0 Positive experience higher selfconfidence lower rates of depression and better psychological adjustment overall 0 How prevalent are laws against workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation 0 Discrimination continues in private work locations I Employment Discrimination Act could provide some protection if passed in Congress 0 Pay gap between gay men and straight men 0 Lesbians make more money than straight women What are the findings on outcomes of children raised in hetero versus homosexual homes 0 Laws depend on state on who can be an adopting parent 0 All scientific evidence suggest that children who grow up with one or two gay or lesbian parents are as emotionally cognitively socially and sexually healthy as children of heterosexual parents I No chance that having gay parents will make the child gay 0 Children of gay parents are similar to those raised by heterosexual parents 0 BUT DIFFERENT IN I Less homophobic I Accept greater diversity I More empathetic 39 What is homophobia What personality and lifestyle characteristics are associated with more negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian men and women 0 Homophobia irrational fear negativity or prejudice against homosexuals and homosexuality I Likely to be older less educated religious conservative authoritarian less supportive of equality of sexes sexually permissive heterosexual men 0 Homosexuals with homophobia lower selfesteem more shame psychological distress What are message crimes How prevalent are they in relation to sexual orientation 0 Hate crimes criminal offense involving violence in which victim is targeted based on affiliation to certain group 0 Message crimes crimes to scare the affiliated group with assault death and harassment I Number of victims continues to increase due to social acceptance allowing more violence especially against gay men What are the main ways to combat homophobia and heterosexism 0 Media LGB media representation is increasing I Becoming more normal to see in society 0 Education much opposition to teach sexuality including homosexuality in schools I Teaching variety of sexualities gives less reason to oppress other people 0 Legislatingagainst hate crimes targets violence committed in response to a victim s identity including sexual orientation I Stop hurting homosexuals I College campuses required to report all hate crimes 0 Personal interaction the Contact Hypothesis I Interpersonal interactions is most effective way to reduce prejudice when working towards a goal in positive environment What does it mean to say that women s sexual identity is more uid than men s 0 Women can have homosexual and heterosexual relationships experiencing more bisexual attraction 0 More accepted than gay men because it is seen as sexually appealing to society What is the controversy surrounding bisexuality What are the outcomes O Often first identify as heterosexual then bisexual later in life I afraid to say fully homosexual on their way to homosexual I Biphobia belief that person can only be attracted to one gender 0 Double discrimination against heterosexual and homosexual community I Sequential engaged sexually with one gender and exclusive with other gender I Contemporaneous sexual partners of both sex in same period I Pansexuality sexual attraction toward people of all gender identities and biological sexes rejects gender binary How is homosexuality complicated by racialethnic norms 0 Many ethnics do not accept homosexuality O Racial minority homosexuals face both heterosexism in racial groups and racism in heterosexual and homosexual communities 0 How does homosexuality in prison complicate our understanding of a strict distinction in sexual orientations O Happens even if it is prohibited that defines position within hierarchy system less common in women prison 0 Situational homosexuality occurs when lack of heterosexual partners until release 0 How is homosexuality regarded under the law in the US What implications does this have for social benefits health care worker s comp taxes etc 0 Denies housing employee benefits tax breaks rights of inheritance social security benefits I DOMA no longer defends law of marriage between M amp W