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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 209 at University of Washington taught by Jacqueline Pickrell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see research methods in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chapter 4 Revision De ning and Measuring Variables Types of Variables Qualitative Quantitative Properties that differ in amount Properties Discrete Continuous that differ No intermediate values Intermediate values exists in type possible between any two between two values adjacent values Independent Variables Dependent Variables Presumed cause Presumed effect depends on the IV Constructs Psychological statesprocesses that cannot be directly observed but instead are inferred from measurable behaviors For example We can t measure someone s hunger levels so when we want to know it we can give a person food and see when they will declare their quotfullnessquot from that we can measure how much a person must eat before they are quotnot hungryquot Mediator Variables Moderator Variables driving IV DV Representing a mechanism of how IV may in uence a DV For example Using phone gt Distraction gt Poor gt Mediator gt A factor that changes the strength direction of how IV in uences the DV eg Given that people use cell phones when traffic is heavy gt poor driving but there s light traffic gt better Thus different situation different effects De ning Variables Conceptual De nitions Operational De nitions De ning a concept in abstract or theoretical terms Example High selfesteem can be c De ne a variable by the procedure used to measure it 0 Contain more information Specify the procedures used to conceptualy de ned as a person demonstrating a high degree of self worth VS Operationaly it may be scoring above a certain number within the scale make physiological recordings Scales of Measurement Scaling Least Most Explanation Speci c Nominal Represent qualitative differences iee types instead of amount Ordinal Rank quantitative ordering eg 1 2nd 3 etc Interval Equal scae intervals representing equa quantitative differences eg temperatures No Absolute zero Ratio Same as nterva scaling but WITH true zero point Measurement Accuracy Reliability and Validity Accuracy of Measurement When a measure agrees with a known standard ie weight measure actual weigh When result is constantly abovebelow the actual value then we can it systemic error 0 When there re random uctuations of results from measurements gt Random measurement error Reliability Validity Actuality Consistency Testretest FaceContent Validity reliability When the measurement Repeating actually test items that are the experiment relevant using same eg SAT test must test measure for academic abilities not same measure what fruit you like to participants eat Internal Criterion Validity Consistency When scores from a Reliability eg when a 40 item list is split into two 20 item each results of the two subtests should correlate with each other measurement can be used to predict future behaviors eg SAT scores for college GPA Construct Validity When the measurement actually assess the construct aimed at Convergent Discriminant Scores of The opposite of measurements with convergent the same construct should correlate with each other should correlate different construct measurements NOT
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