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Exam Review

by: Valerie Ho

Exam Review 209

Valerie Ho
GPA 3.53
research methods
Jacqueline Pickrell

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research methods
Jacqueline Pickrell
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 209 at University of Washington taught by Jacqueline Pickrell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see research methods in Psychlogy at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Psych 209 Spring 2015 Final exam review outline Review lab and section work notes from the guest speaker lecture notes and the textbook REMEMBER the following topics are NOT a comprehensive list of what will be on the exam Single factor multilevel designs Why use more than 2 levels Nonlinear effects falsify alternative explanations Factorial Designs Describe different types of factorial designs Diagram a factorial design Explain the advantages and limitations of factorial designs Discuss how factorial designs can be used to identify nonlinear effects Describe why and how subject variables are often included in factorial designs and what are the cautions needed when interpreting ndings that involve subject variables Discuss how factorial designs can be used to examine changes in behavior over time Describe different types of outcomes that can occur in a factorial design that has two independent variables Examine relatively simple sets of ndings from factorial designs and identify whether main effects and interactions are likely to present Experimentation and Validity Describe four categories of scienti c inference Explain the concepts of construct validity statistical conclusion validity internal validity and external validity Provide an example to illustrate these types of validity De ne and illustrate seven basic threats to internal validity Identify the threats that properly conducted experiments control and explain why they are controlled Describe how demand characteristics experimenter expectancy effects and placebo effects can distort research results and how experimenters try to minimize these problems De ne the two primary ways Experimenters think about Control Explain and illustrate the purpose of wait list control groups and yoked control groups Discuss how researchers use pilot studies manipulation checks and debrie ng to improve the validity of an experiment Identify and illustrate different types of replications Explain the importance of conceptual replications and the strategy of replication and extension Describe why factorial designs are well suited for examining external validity QuasiExperimental Designs Describe how quasiexperiments differ from true experiments Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of quasiexperimental designs Describe the basic features of onegroup posttestonly one group pretestposttest and simple interrupted time seriesdesigns Discuss the key threats to the internal validity of each of the three designs Describe the features and threats to the internal validity of posttest only pretestposttest and timeseries designs that have nonequivalent control groups Explain why switching replication designs are generally considered to be strong quasiexperimental designs Explain how switching replications are incorporated into pretest posttest and timeseries designs and discuss their advantages and limitations Discuss the bene ts and risks of conducting program evaluations Identify four phases of program diffusion and factors that contribute to successful diffusion SingleCase Experimental Designs Describe the key features of singlecase experimentation and its advantages Discuss the use of singlecase designs in basic and applied research Describe the key features of ABAB multiplebaseline and changing criterion designs Explain how each design attempts to rule out alternative causal explanations Identify strengths and limitations of each design Explain several ways in which singlecase designs are applied to social units Describe concerns regarding the internal and external validity of singlecase designs Identify key issues pertaining to the data analysis and examination of interactions in singlecase designs Prisoners of Silence video and class exercise Previous Course Material Be able to identify IVs and DVs in the types of designs we ve talked about thus far Remember that topics build off each other in this course so previous material especially that which helps you understand the topics above is still fair game We revisit ethics in the last week of class so make sure you also go back to look at our earlier ethics section Review of Material on Exam 1 Chapter 1 Ways of Knowing Intuition Tenac y Authority ReasonLogic EmpiricismScience Goals of Science Description Explanation Prediction Control Characteristics of Science Empirical Objective SelfCorrecting Progressive Tentative Parsimonious Concerned with Theory Recognizing PseudoscienceNon science Rules of Causality Cova a on Time ordered sequence aka temporal precedence Ruling out competing hypotheses Control Theoretical Structure Scienti c Method Observe Behaviors Form a Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Analyze and Report Results 0 Evaluate and Re ne Theory Understanding Theory Falsi ability Organizes knowledge Prediction Productive for further research Parsimonious Chapter 2 Theory and Hypothesis be able to recognize the difference not just de ne these terms Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis Characteristics of a Good Theory Constructs and their Operational De nitions be able to identify good examples Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis Functions of Descriptive and lnferential Statistics Details of Descriptive Stats How do you calculate Measures of Central Tendency Mean 0 Median Mode Measures of Variability Range Percentiles lnterquartile Range vaNance Standard Deviation Tables and Graphs of Frequency Data Frequency Tables Frequency Distribution Histogram Distribution Normal Curve Positive and Negative Skew and how this affects mean median and mode Chapter 3 Ethics History of Ethics in Research Nuremburg Code Belmot Report Milgram Study Willowbrook Hepetitis Study Tuskegee Syphilis Study APA Ethics Code Malfeasance and Bene cence Fidelity and Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for Rights and Dignity Internal Review Board Informed Consent Coercion Decep on Con dentiality Deb e ng Animal Experimentation Three R s Reduction Replacement Re nement Animal Rights VS Animal Welfa re Chapter 4 Reliability VS Validity Types of Reliability TestRetest Reliability InterRater Reliability 0 Internal Consistency Construct Validity Content Validity Criterion Validity Convergent Validity Divergent Validity Face Validity Scales of Measurement be sure to know what these look like not just the de nitions Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Can you recognizeidentify these variables in a scenario Independent Variable IV Dependent Variable DV Subject Variables Quantitative VS Categorical Variables Continuous VS Discrete Variables Confounded Variables Mediator and Moderator Variables Stats Modules 123and 4 logs 391 407 Hypothesis testing 0 Alpha and p values Inferential statistics Material from SectionsLabs Finding research articles 0 Ethics in the context of the Facebook example study 0 Section materials that don39t differences between bar graphs involve Excel eg conceptual and histograms PSYCH209 Pickrell KEY CONCEPTS FOR EXAM 2 Inferential Statistics Hypothesis Testing Alpha P Value SystematicError Variance Type II Type II Error Requirements for Causality Chapter 5 Positive and Negative Correlation Measuring Correlation Coef cient of Determination Pearson39s R Magnitude Scatterplots Correlation does not establish Causa on Bidirectionality Problem 3rCI Variable Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression Range Restriction Partial Correlation Coef cient of Determination Scienti c Writing Argument vs Thesis Guidelines for a scienti c writing style Clarity Brevity Parts of an Article Abstract Introduction Methods Resu s Discussion References Tables amp Figures lnText Citations vs References Research Journals Empirical Articles vs Review Articles Basic library search guidelines mm Case Studies General details on case studies from guest lecture Observational Research Naturalistic Observation Disguised Undisguised Reactivity Observer Bias Recording Observations Sampling Behavior Chapter 7 Selecting the Sample Probability Sampling Nonprobability Sampling Simple and Strati ed Random Sampling Cluster Sampling Constructing the Questionnaire Sampling Error Chapter 8 Controlling for Confounds Confound Vs Z Variable Factors and Levels IVs InternalExternal Validity Conditions Manipulated vs Subject Variables Between and WithinSubjects Design Types of Single Factor Design lndependentgroups Matched group Nonequivalent Repeated measures Random Assignment Vs Random Sampling Counterbalancing Latin Square Block Randomization Matching ReverseCounterbalancing RandomSelectedOrders Multilevel Designs Nonlinear Effects T test ANOVA Posthoc Tests


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