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HIST 157 Notes 1714 1914 From Bulgaria Hates communism fled country when secret police were on to him Renaissance person Person with diverse interests quotThe more I learn the more I realize how little I know Immune to nostalgia because nostalgia to him means home sickness Get list of quotID Terms and Scantrons for tests Final exam on march 20th Mini research worth 5 points The connection between the name of the town quotSumnerquot and the politician quotCharles Sumner Extra points for attending professors lectures the relation between the US and Russia Feb 3 In the MPR 10 points Read Chapter 14 through Chapter 27 during the whole term Pre1840 US history 0 Early Native Americans came from Russia crossing over to Alaska on a land bridge connecting the two continents 0 These settlers migrated out to north and South America forming tribes such as the Mayans the Olmec and Inca These empires were destroyed by the Spanish conquerors in the 15005 Europeans came over to build colonies in the Americas like the English and the Dutch and the French Also the Swedes and Danes o The EnglishBritish empires were the largest o 1492 Spain created empire in America after voyage by Chris Columbus 0 1500 Portugal 0 1607 England Jamestown After 1707 Great Britain 0 1608 France in Quebec Canada 0 1609 Holland New York 0 July 4 1776 13 English Colonies declared independence leading to the revolutionary war War started in 1775 and lasted till 1783 1787 US constitution is drafted by the founding fathers 1789 First US government went into operation First president George Washington Late 17805 Two major political parties rose to power Republican Party founded as the quotFederalistquot party Democrats founded as the quotAntiFederalists 11014 Other names Hamiltonian Whig Republican and Jeffersonian and Republican Democrat I By 1825 the name Democrat was solidified and 1854 for Republican Thomas Jefferson was one of the chief writers of the government Chief writer of the constitution was James Madison War of 1812 2 l war against the British Ended with a peace treaty in 1814 Signed in the Ghent in Belgium No reparations were paid no blood money and no border change Status quo remained the same It took 4 weeks for word to reach the US in that time the Battle of New Orleans was still being fought and won by the US army The news arrived 10 days after the battle concluded I Other nations viewed the US with respect after this Other nations began to invest money in our industries growing the economy The battle also stimulated patriotism and a sense of nationhood Economic growth of the US late 17005 1860 0 Economy grew at an accelerating pace 0 By 1898 the US had reached the apex of its economic progress by becoming economic superpower 1 0 Factors contributing to this growth during the 18005 Industrial revolution hitting America ID term 1 Industrial revolution Mechanized factory system Zeitgeist Defining emotion of a time period Spirit of the time Industrial revolution 0 Started in 1760 in Scotland and England 0 British colonies where the earliest to receive elements of industry 0 1898 US became Economic super power 1 quotFactoryquot word first used by the Portuguese in the 14005 quotFactoria a fortified trading outpostsettlement 0 Enterprises and craftsmen made things here at first 0 Early factories relied on animal and human labor mostly animal 0 Factories soon came to rely on machines Young American Republic o Included some factories few and small 0 By 1800 the US showed signs of improvement and greatness Great Britain and France warred During the 17991815 Napoleonic era 0 Napoleon wanted to rule the planet The British and French both pressured us to join as their allies Washington didn t want our nation to be involved in crisis abroad US declared war on Great Britain in 1812 International trade was hit by GB 0 Losses for merchants in the US 11314 0 Import of industrial goods from Europe were reduced to nothing 0 Industry increased to compensate for the lack of trade 0 US win war against Great Britain leading to boost in US reputation and relations with other nations 0 US began to depend on industrial goods made in the US 0 Reasons for economic growth OOOOOO Territorial growth and expansion contributed to economic growth and expansion Population growth Natural resource dependency New inventions and technological improvements Railroads and the transportation revolution Trading Education improvements By 1860 the US had the best educated workforce in the world I In communist China today if you haven t mastered what we call calculus you do not get your high school diploma I Finland is 1 in education today US are 17 The average salary was 1 on a global scale around 1860 Slaves were excluded I To manumit releasing or freeing a slave I Free members of the work force were paid well I Most workers were young people Trade unions and other worker organizations emerged Unions disappeared but were resurrected after the civil war I Objectives were to o Organize labor 0 The interests of the workers were to be fairly represented by union officials who would negotiate on behalf of their workers with their bosses Collective bargaining over salaries and working conditions 0 Promote fairness in the workplace o In 1783 the US doubled in size 11413 0 First test on Jan 28 Tuesday 0 Covers ID terms 18 0 US Expansion 0 O O 1783 more territory added to the US 1803 Louisiana Purchase bought from France and added to the US 181018131819 Florida purchased from Spain in chunks 11514 000000 1845 Texas added Result of victory over Mexico after war 1846 Mexican Cession added Result of victory over Mexico after war 1846 Oregon country 1853 Gadsden purchase Territory bought from Mexico 1867 Alaska purchased from Russia Between the mid18505 to the 18905 the US established control over several small islands in the south pacific Including American Samoa 1898 Hawaiian Islands included into the US In the same year we took the Caribbean from Spain Cuba and Puerto Rico I Cuba became independent from US in 1936 I Puerto Rico still under US control I Also the Philippines until 1946 I The year when the US became economic superpower 1 and we stopped growing territorywise US ripe with numerous natural resources OOOOO Coal Gold big Gold booms in the 18405 and 18905 Silver Oil first Oil well ever in 1859 in southwest Pennsylvania Natural Gas Strategic metals like copper zinc lead iron strategic metals importance to both the military and civilian use Uranium Trees for lumber Animals and plants for food I By the early 19005 began to implement conservation measures to keep the national forests and animals alive Fresh water rivers lakes etc Most important on a global scale due to growing shortage Arable top soil for crops First major modern toll road was completed in 1792 Connected Philadelphia with Lancaster The quotLancaster Turnpike pg 2 12 of ID terms 0 Macadam roads a road that could be used on a permanent basis in any weather pattern Bottom layer gravel 2 l layer smaller chunks of gravel Top layer tiniest gravel 1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin which revolutionizes and boosts the textile mill industry 1802 US military college quotWest point is established in the state of New York Army officers and Civil Engineers trained here 0 Civil Engineers would build bridges and roads in the civilian world 1807 Robert Fulton 4 pg 2 and Robert Livingston launched a steamboat company and built the quotClermontquot which sailed up and down the Hudson River This lead to the rise of steam boats in the country 0 First steamboats designed in the 17005 in France and Europe 0 First steam engines in the late 16005 by French English and German mechanics 0 James Watt made the first good steam engine 0 Steam engine helped in the development of the railroad 1815 Francis cabid Lowell 14 pg 2 from Boston built efficient textile mills Using a power loom powered by water power his mills flourished 1818 Cumberland Road connected Cumberland in Maryland to Wheeling in Virginia 1824 The Rensolier polytechnic institute 20 pg 2 was founded to train engineers in upstate New York Eerie Canal was also explored 13 that connected the American lakes with the ocean by the Hudson River 1828 The chartering of the first Railroad in the US 19 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Birth of the railroad in the US By 1860 The US had a railroad network had a 3200 mile rail network 18305 Two enterprising mechanics 10 11 pg 2 Cyrus McCormick invented machines to speed up harvesting of crops 1834 National Trade Union was created the first major one By the time the civil war started Unions were in a decline as they were disbanding 1840518505 Big business launched counter offensive against trade unions They started to pass laws and regulations that aimed to destroy unions 11614 quotCapitalism without a strong moral foundation is doomed to partition and failure Government began to observe businesses to make sure they abided by morals 1837 Oberlin College 22 opened its doors to women The first Coed College in America Horace Mann 21 member of the Whig party In 1837 he signed the education bill Birth of public education 1854 Whig party renamed itself the Republican Party The increase in the labor pool would not have been that significant had it not been matched by an improvement in the quality in education Horace Mann was also involved in the antislavery movement Economic crisis due to over speculation on Wall Street Bankers and stockbrokers began to manipulate the stock market which leads to a mini depression 18405 John Deere opened up a factory to manufacture farming equipment Made a steel plow which he became known for 1844 Samuel Morse 7 transmitted the first telegraph from Washington DC to Baltimore Created the telegraph o 1848 an information agency called the quotAssociated Press was established to circulate news by wire 0 1853 our diplomatic emissary purchased the Gadsden Purchase 11714 0 The Gadsden Purchase happened with railroad development in mind 0 Slavery was a social political and economic issue 0 Slavery 0 000000 0 American culture in the 18005 was an imitative one of Britain By the 19005 it had acquired its own distinct character Slavery has existed for as long as society has Established in the US in 1619 in Jamestown Slaves came from West Africa A lot of them died en route 13rd It was gradually outlawed in Europe over time 1865 Slavery was totally outlawed in the US Slavery was gradually outlawed between the revolutionary war and 1865 The last Northern state was New York in the 18205 Between 1862 and 1865 it was eventually outlawed everywhere Abolitionists 42 pg 3 fought Slavery William Lloyd Garrison the most wellknown white abolitionist 36 pg 3 I Born in a small town near Boston in 1805 and died in 1879 I Entered journalism as a boy as a paper boy Later became a paper seller and printer s apprentice Eventually entered journalism Passionate yet impatient I By 1828 Garrison joined the antislavery movement at 23 Became acquainted with Benjamin Lundy Was an immediatist o Brilliant intellectual and very diplomatic 0 Reserved unlike Garrison who was impulsive and eccentric o Eventually had a falling out with Garrison 0 Garrison was an immediatist wanting slavery banned ASAP Lundy was not so much Lundy was a gradualist wanting slavery done with over time 0 Garrison angered many people with his writings on slave owners in the south Was eventually imprisoned for libel He angered the quotslavocracyquot class of the south wealthy slave owners I Was good at giving sermons I Founded a periodical called the quotLiberatorquot pg 5 13 in 1831 0 Short after he founded the quotNew England AntiSlavery Society pg 3 38 in 1832 He attracted the attention of Fredrick Douglass who became his follower soon after Fredrick Douglass Pg 5 12 was the most wellknown black abolitionist I A gradualist like Benjamin Lundy 0 American AntiSlavery Society Pg 3 39 I Collaborated with the New England AntiSlavery Society but soon there were numerous disagreements with the society NEAS was radically immediatist while the AASS was adamantly gradualist I A memberleader was Theodore Dwight Weld Pg 3 44 Married one of the Grimke sisters 45 who were both AntiSlave and feminists seeking women s rights as well Both born at the turn of the century 0 Born and raised in the south came from a family from the quotSlavocracyquot in South Carolina 0 Both sisters moved to the North in their youth because they were disgusted with slavery and their parents 0 Leaders of the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance movement 34 which among other things wanted Alcohol to be banned as well as equality for women Later became known as the quotProhibitionistsquot in the late 18005 This lead to prohibition but that s another story 0 Angelina married Theodore Weld 12114 The Quaker antislavery society pg 3 27 o Quakers settled in America in the late 16005 in the quotQuaker states Pennsylvania and New Jersey 0 1775 The Quakers founded the first antislavery society in America in Pittsburgh 0 Quakers were pacifists William Lloyd Garrison Pg 3 36 is an essay question on the test 0 Most wellknown white abolitionist Fredrick Douglass 0 Most wellknown black abolitionist Grimke Sisters 0 Most wellknown white female abolitionists Harriet Tubman pg 7 9 0 Most wellknown black abolitionist Sojourner Truth pg 7 17 0 Another wellknown black abolitionist There were more white abolitionists than black abolitionists due to the fear in slave and free blacks Most whites were literate Most black slaves were illiterate Garrison was infamous for being a radical immediatist o Immediatist wants slavery banned immediately 0 Gradualist wants slavery banned slowly over time 0 Garrison was so radical that he criticized the quotslavocratquot elite of the South and the government in a very costly and forceful way Also criticized institutional religion because he believed they were too passive 0 He believed the government were hypocrites or indifferent to slavery o 1854 A meeting in Framingham MA WLG delivered a big speech where he ended it with a burning of a copy of the Constitution to punctuate his point 0 WLG was viewed as a hero by the north 0 quotThe Liberator pg 5 13 Ended publication after the civil war ended After WLG dedicated the rest of his life with other reform movements women s rights and the temperance movement 0 Fredrick Douglass 0 18171895 0 Born and raised near Baltimore Maryland Son of a slave woman and a white man 0 According to law the child followed the condition of the mother Maryland was a slave state and remained a slave o FD was a bright and inquisitive young fellow who was a voracious reader Educated himself Made his life as a laborer and later a house servant Escaped at 21 from Maryland to New York and later Massachusetts Read the Liberator and became well informed on Abolitionist issues 0000 In 1841 FD stood up at the meeting organized by WLG s supporters and delivered a very powerful and eloquent speech against slavery impressing everybody with his brilliance and oracle skills Shortly after with the help of WLG and others FD embarked on a long career as an abolitionist speaker and writer 0 Wrote a book titled quotNarrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass in 1845 I Instant hit Became the framework of the Abolitionist community Traveled across England Wales Scotland and more to deliver speeches against slavery Wrote papers on Manumission the act of freeing a slave Founded a new periodical called the quotNorth Star in Rochester in upstate NY 12214 0 WLG was an immediatist FD was a gradualist This led to conflict between them 0 FD was trying to convert the neutral to allies to the movement WLG was trying to do the opposite Overall FD was more efficient as an abolitionist leader 0 FD supported the 14th amendment pg 11 7 I Guaranteed equal protection under the law to all citizens of the US and it granted citizenship to all former slaves 0 Also supported the 15th amendment pg 11 8 I Former slaves would be treated with equal rights enjoyed by white Americans 0 Served as a consul representative in Haiti o Superseded before his death as a living figure of the AfricanAmerican community by Booker T Washington I Prominent intellectual in the 18905 that he eclipsed FD 0 Richard Allen Pg 3 28 0 An African American intellectual active in the abolitionist movement in the late 17005 and early 18005 Promoted ideas adopted by Paul Cuffe Pg 3 30 I Dealt with the continued suffering of slaves I Free African Americans were treated just as badly as slaves I On the eve of the civil war 70000 Africans were freed in the north 3 in the south including Allen 0 Founded the quotFree African Society in 1787 I Wanted Africans to return to Africa as an option 0 Paul Cuffe was more active than Allen 0 Wanted the quotBack to Africa movement to be a requirement I Republic of Liberia set up as a response pg 5 5 0 18171847 was how long it took 0 Capitol Monrovia Named afterJames Monroe 0 quotLiberiaquot from the latin word for Free Libere I quotBack to Africa movement was controversial because certain white supporters were closet racists who wanted to use the movement to deport blacks I quotPolitics makes strange bedfellows o Other reform movements Women rights Temperance movement antialcohol Prison reform movement Socialist commune s movement 0000 Psychiatric reform o ReligiousChristian revival movement 0 Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton Pg 3 48 49 0 Leading feministsuffrage movement members 0 Mary Wollstonecraft was the founder 17705 12314 0 quotSuffragettequot became a popular term 0 WLG was a supporter of the feminist movement Also FD 0 Women had no rights Money they earned at work went to their brothers in college or home to their families 0 No female students at universities back then 0 57 students today are female 0 Only welleducated and successful white men would vote 0 Catherine Beecher pg 3 46 12413 Women only taught at elementary school level Catherine Beecher established academies to train young women to become teachers in Hartford Connecticut 0 Wanted to improve the quality of family life and improve Christian values in the household 0 Wrote book called quotTreaties on Domestic Economy in 1841 o Criticized by the Grimke sisters 0 By the 18405 the feminist movement was very prominent 0 19th amendment enabled full equality for American women in 1920 o Oberlin College Pg 2 22 admitted women for the first time in 1837 0 Pg 3 25 Mount Holyoke College admitted women in 1837 Was originally meant to train Sunday school teachers 0 Vassar College pg 3 26 in NY in 1861 started to operate intended to be an allfemale college Recently became a coed college Some radical feminists concluded that all men were evil MCP Most Considerate Person Seneca Falls Convention pg 4 50 AnteBellum Spiritual rebirth movement in the early 180018205 Known as the 2 l great awakening 1st one happened in the 17005 Caused by traveling bands of preachers who wanted to reenergize Christianity in the US Took place in the form of camp sermons Charles Finney and Peter Cartwright where the most distinguished preachers in this revival This Christian revival fueled the abolitionist movement Prison reform movement soon followed 0 Poor food 0 Unhygienic conditions 0 ndiscriminate mixing of first time offenders with hardened criminals o Harsh sentencing for very minor crimes 2 groups of prison reformers 0 One wanted tougher penal code 0 One wanted more human penal code Results First offenders kept separate from hardened criminals 0 Better sanitary conditions 0 More privacy 0 Mental health reforms Dorothea Dix pg 4 56 an educator from Boston founded the movement for efficient and humane care for the quotinsanequot Prior to this there were few mental hospitals Insane people were likely to be abandoned to poor houses I Prior to this mentally insane people were often abused due to lack of information on the issue of mental health 0 Horace Mann pg 2 21 A whig was the founder of public education Supported the movement lead by Dorothea Dix 0 Link to mental disabilities and alcohol was discovered Temperance resulted o In 1826 American Society for the Promotion of Temperance pg 3 34 tried to put an end to alcoholism 12714 0 The Oneida Noye s Community pg 4 51 A utopian socialist community created in upstate New York 0 By the 18905 there were over 40 utopian socialist communities were in the US Over 140000 Americans lived in them o In these communities everybody worked together in everything including the raising of children 0 Washington Irving pg 3 32 wrote quotthe sketchbook in 1820 which included a number of short stories and tales such as the legend of sleepy hollow 0 Born and raised in NY 0 1821 The Spy was written by James Fenimore Cooper pg 3 33 a native from New Jersey 0 Both stories became best sellers Were considered the first truly American pieces of literature 0 Edgar Allan Poe pg 3 47 was another contributor of American Literature Originator of the detective story genre 0 Murders in the Rue important story 0 A prominent poet writer and literary critic o Alcoholic and sickly o Died under mysterious circumstances at the age of 40 o Transcendentalism Pg 3 40 A philosophy created in Western Europe that spread to America 0 A philosophy of hope and happiness that emphasized that humans were perfectible and God was forgiving Very individualistic Democratic Belief that all human beings possessed a tiny bit of the quotdivine spark from God 0 Ralph Waldo Emerson pg 3 37 was a literary critic writer and poet and a leader of the transcendentalists 0 Nathaniel Hawthorne pg 4 52 and Henry David Thoreau pg 4 53 were notable transcendentalists I HDT was born in Concord and spent much of his life innear Boston I Loved nature and hated materialism I Lived in Walden Pond most of his life I Refused to pay his taxes or support the Mexican war which he felt was unjust I His greatest achievement was at Walden Pond where he documented his life 0 Hawthorne was very critical of hypocrisy and insensitivity of some members of the early colonial elites puritans I Wrote the Scarlet Letter 0 Herman Melville 53 wrote Moby Dick in 1851 I Also a transcendentalist I Book followed Captain Ahab in his efforts to destroy the White Whale his nemesis 0 Walt Whitman 55 was a firstrate poet and literary critic and essayist Also an sensualist I Sensualists were very graphic in the details of sexuality I Major prose work was democratic vistas in the early 18705 I Was a homosexual which was a taboo subject at that time I Also supported the Abolitionist movement 0 Art flourished at that time as well 0 Thomas Cole and Asher Durand were notable artists I Went to the Hudson River School of Art 0 Emphasized in portraits of the countryside I dylic and romantic Not too realistic 0 William Sydney Mount and George Bingham I Depicted bucolic scenes of rural America hunters and farmer depictions o Catlin and Audubon also depicted nature but on the lands in the west of the Mississippi depictions of Indians gold diggers trappers etc o Slavery was the most important debate Liberia pg 5 5 was founded by former American slaves in 18221847 0 0 Numerous slave uprising attempts o The Stono Slave Conspiracy in 1739 1 in South Carolina I The uprising in the making ended due to a betrayal 0 Gabriel Prosser s Insurrection in 1800 2 I In a town of Henrico in east Virginia I Attempted insurrection that ended due to a betrayal 0 Denmark Vesey s Rebellion in 1822 3 I A free African American organized an uprising in Charleston I Ended due to a betrayal 0 Nat Turner s Slave Rebellion 6 I A wellorganized rebellion that actually took place I Slaves upraised and killed their white overseers and plantation owners I 200 died Uprising was quelled after a few days due to militia intervention 1831 12814 0 First issue on slavery was the back to Africa movement Establishment of Liberia Pg 5 5 The lives of slaves became more difficult after the Nat Turner Slave Rebellion A slave owner is still a slave owner humane or not George Fitzhugh pg 5 11 was a southern scholar who published a book titled quotSociology for the South in 1854 He tried to justify slavery from scholarly and scientific grounds 0 Tried to prove that slaves where genetically inferior and needed slave owners Sen James Hammond pg 5 10 was a democrat of South Carolina and was known for long speeches in which he tried to find excuses for slavery John C Calhoun pg 5 9 was a democrat from South Carolina and huge slavery apologist o Formed the Nullification Doctrine in the 18305 I Said that the state legislature could proclaim a federal law null and void I Created a political storm Southern politicians strongly supported it Republicans strongly opposed it 0 Huge defender of slavery Liberty Party pg 5 8 Founded in the 18405 Founded and lead by James Birney An abolitionist party 0 Disintegrated in the 18405 after a split between imediatists vs gradualists Manifest Destiny Martin Van Buren pg 2 16 From New York democrat Mentor to Andrew Jackson 0 Nicknamed quotthe little Dutchman Because he was short and Dutch John Tyler pg 6 2 In office for 3 years and 11 months 0 William Henry Harrison was in office for only 1 month before dying of pneumonia John Tyler took over right after 0 He was a Southern Democrat and was elected on a Whig ticket Henry Clay pg 6 3 Was born in Virginia moved to Kentucky Became a Whig when the Whig party transformed into the Republican Party 0 Was a Pacificator Daniel Webster 4 Prominent politician from Massachusetts Distinguished him between the 1820518505 Served as Secretary of State in the 1840518505 0 Signed the WebsterAshburton Treaty between the US and Great Britain 7 in 1842 Prevented an outbreak of war between us and GB I Border dispute between us and GB over Maine vs New Brunswick in Canada Aroostok War 6 in the year 1839 between Americans in Main vs Canadians in New Brunswick Fought on the Aroostok River Skirmishes between fishers hunters and trappers on both sides Manifest Destiny is an essay question 1 o A term coined by a journalist John L O Sullivan in the 18405 in quotDemocratic Review paper In 1845 Became a popular slogan in the 18405 Meant that white Christian Americans had a divine mission to civilize the uncivilized people who lived in America He claimed that America was destined by God to grow in territory to cover at least most of North America 0 While expanding the White Christian inhabitants had to spread the fruits of western civilization to civilize whoever was uncivilized and in the way So nonwhites basically 13014 0 Most Americans were against slavery a minority favored it A small number were indifferent 0 Most slavery defenders were democrats o Whig became quotRepublicanquot in 1854 o 95Democrats 5Whigs south 30Democrats 70Whigs north 0 States rights doctrine was another large issue 0 Founded by Thomas Jefferson in the antifederalist party 0 Cofounded by James Madison 0 Individual states should enjoy more power than they currently do Less power to the federal government 0 AntiFederalists supported the most 0 Whigs favored a central government 0 Tariff taxes on imported goods 0 Northerners preferred high Tariffs Southerners opposed them in their entirety o The reason for high tariffs where to make sure that foreign goods were not as competitive to the goods made in the nation 0 Negative trade balance 0 The railroad was another issue 0 1860 The US possessed more than half of the total of the global railroad tracks 13114 0 Nobody liked the white elite 0 Southern elite despised the Northern elite Northern hated the Southern elites 0 Code of Chivalry o Nouveau Riche o The US on the road to civil war 0 North was industrialized South was all farms 0 Texas Republic and Its Origins pg 6 9 and The MexicanAmerican War pg 6 18 are essay questions on the next test 0 North wanted to ended slavery the south relied on slavery in its all agriculture economy 0 Texas Republic and its Origins o 1821 Mexico became independent from Spain Southern Elite became interested in Mexican territory 0 Spain had Mexico for 300 years 2314 0 Rebellion in 1810 independence in 1821 Mexican independence struggle was inspired by our struggle for independence Leader of rebellion was Padre Costilla Mexico became an empire for a year and a half before the emperor was overthrown by leaders of the revolution who wanted Mexico to be a federated republic Mexican federation abolished slavery in 1826 Texas was a territory of Mexico that the Mexican government hoped to convert into a state 1835 35000 Anglos settlers in Texas who brought their slaves which the Mexican government didn t approve of Mexican government wanted the settlers to become Mexican citizens and Catholic Christians All of them where Protestant Texas and its origins pg 6 9 0 United States of Mexico became independent from Spain and became one of the first to outlaw slavery Mexican government was also urging Americans to move to Texas By 1835 35000 Anglos settlers in Texas American settlers converted large tracts of land into farm and ranch land The settlers where expected to pay taxes to the Mexican government which they did 0 Mexican government expected the settlers to learn Spanish and adopt Mexican culture including becoming citizens of Mexico and Catholics I Almost all of them were Protestant Christians so this did not sit well with them 0 Mexican government also wanted them to free their slaves I Settlers refused but they compromised They could keep their slaves until 1842 Relations between Texans and Mexico worsened after these conditions were implemented but ignored Mexican government increased the taxes on the Settlers as punishment for not abiding by their laws Stephen Austin one of the leaders of the Anglo community who protested the abrupt changes in policy undertaken by the Mexican government in the 18305 0 Was jailed by the Mexicans which made the Anglos mad In the summer of 1835 the leaders of the Anglo community openly discussed secession from Mexico By 1836 the leaders realized that this was the best option for them 0 59 Texan delegates met in the village of Washington in January 1836 through early February Culminated in their proclamation of the independence of Texas General Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna pg 6 11 was the thenleaderpresident of Mexico Military dictator Mexican government was outraged at the Declaration of Independence dispatched their armies to suppress the uprising 2414 0 Lead by Santa Anna 0 Army of Texas 1000 Army of Mexico several thousand 0 Army of Texas lead by Sam Houston A huge blow was dealt to the Mexicans at the Battle of the Alamo near San Antonio 0 187 Texans vs the entire Mexican Army 0 Lead by the quotfrontier heroes William Travis Jim Bowie and Davie Crocket 0 Santa Anna won but at a great cost Struggle for Independence of Texas pg 6 9 is an essay question on the next test Everybody died at the Alamo but the Texan patriots did deal a blow to the Mexican army After the Alamo Santa Anna fought Texan forces at Goliad and won 0 Both times he ordered the wounded Bayonetted to death Santa Anna was the president of Mexico on 6 occasions Likened himself to Napoleon o Nicknamed quotThe Little Napoleon Battle of San Jacinto Present day Houston between Sam Houston and Santa Anna First victory of the Texans Santa Anna taken prisoner o Forced by Sam Houston into signing a document recognizing the independence of Texas 0 Santa Anna later went back on his document when he was freed Mexican government still viewed Texas as a part of Mexico 0 Santa Anna was wounded in the shoulder during this battle and then captured 0 Later lost a leg when fighting the French 1845 Texas admitted into the United States 0 Lead to a war between the US and Mexico pg 6 18another essay question James Polk pg 6 5 0 President between 1845 and 1849 0 Governor of the state of Tennessee 0 Southerner and a firm believer in the Manifest Destiny 0 Huge fan of Andrew Jackson I 18291837 in office I Lead at the Battle of New Orleans Mexican government was outraged that the US admitted Texas into them This broke relations with the USA in the fall of 1845 quotThe Americans are weak and divided and would avoid war with us at all costs Said the Mexican Ambassador Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to negotiate with the Mexican government that the conflict could be resolved peacefully o Offered rewards if Mexico ceded more territories New Mexico would be ceded and the US would give Mexico 5 million S for Texas 0 For California US was willing to pay 25 million 2513 0 James K Polk 11th president of the US believed in the Manifest Destiny strongly o Telegraph was used for the first time to announce his nomination 0 Polk survived a gallstone operation at 17 before anesthetics o Zackary Taylor Pg 6 8 0 000000000 0 Destined to become president after distinguishing himself in the Mexican war as a general Lived 17841850 Born in Virginia and moved to Kentucky as a child Was a Whig 2 l cousin ofJames Madison 4th cousin of Robert E Lee pg 10 20 4th cousin 3 times removed of Franklin Roosevelt Chewed a lot of Tobacco Served in the army for 40 years Never voted or belonged to a political party until he ran for president at 62 Kept his horse on the white house lawn 0 Mexican war 0 O Started with the issue of Texas Mexico severed all diplomatic relations and threatened us with war if we didn t return Texas Polk was willing to settle the conflict peacefully by sending a diplomatic envoy to Mexico City John Slidell to negotiate with them Slidell s mission to purchase the area of the quotMexican Session failed Jose Herrera was overthrown and replaced by Mariano Paredes I Overthrown because he lacked the nerve to declare war against the US Mariano Paredes immediately began to negotiate with Great Britain to make an anti American alliance to gain support in the war I British declined The US government found out about this and was enraged especially Polk I Polk dispatched an army unit under General Zackary Taylor to the Rio Grande to protect Texas I Mexico expelled Slidell in response and any hope of avoiding war gone Mexican government wanted the US government to show good will towards negotiating by giving a small chunk of Mexico Between the Rio Nueces and the Rio Grande I The US rejected this April 23 1846 Mexico declared war on the US I The Mexican president called the war a quotdefensivequot war to defend Texas Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande and attacked US troops in Texas In his address to Congress Polk said that the Mexican army had shed blood on US soil The congress all heeded the president s request and declared war on Mexico 2614 I Southern politicians democrats were more eager to fight They wanted Mexico to be ours as a slave state I Some politicians condemned it as a war of aggression including Abraham Lincoln I Other critics were writers like Henry David Thorough and Transcendentalists Polk ordered Taylor to cross the Rio Grande into NE Mexico to take Monterre Taylor occupied more of NE Mexico Offensives were made on New Mexico and California 0000 General Stephen Kearny moved into New Mexico territory and took Santa Fe and moved west across Arizona and into California In Southern California he and his soldiers where assisted by American guerilla forces pg 615 Bear flag revolt Rebellion by settlers in California 0 Rebels in California joined forces with Kearny and John C Freemont pg 6 16 US naval forces off the coast of California lead by Commodores Sloat and Stockton California by 1846 was entirely under American control Peace treaties where attempted but Mexico refused wanting to still fight Polk turned to Winfield Scott 10 a respected US veteran and commanding general of the US army They devised a plan to get the Mexicans to agree to peace 0 On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico Scott would march to Mexican city to take it Another army would come from the north east lead by Taylor and the two armies would catch Mexico s off guard 0 Santa Anna wanted to beat Taylor in the North first and then meet Scott in battle to defend Mexico City Battle of Bueno Vista 14 50 miles west of Monte Ve Largest and bloodiest battle was fought in Feb 1847 0 Santa Anna outnumbered American forces but was not able to succeed Santa Anna withdrew to the south to Mexico City to organize its defenses against the other American army Winfield Scott 10 landed in Vera Cruz and moved his forces west to MC Moved troops across El Camino Nacional national highway of Mexico Cerro Gordo Churubusco and Contreras where battles fought between Mexican defenders and American forces Chapultepec A picturesque hill where the Mexican army made their last stand against America Held their military college at the summit of the hill 500 soldiers and 300 military cadets defended their school Almost all of them died fighting refusing to surrender Soon after Soldiers entered Mexico City in 1847 A detachment of US marines lead by Winfield Scott stormed the city American flag was raised over the Halls of Montezuma o Named for the palace of the Aztecs Montezuma As the war went on there was growing opposition of the war Most of it was in the North 2714 0 13000 died fighting Majority of them were killed by Mexican war ended in December of 1847 when US forces took the capital Mexico City Diplomatic war continued Peace treaty would not be signed until 1848 pg 6 17 treaty of guadalupe Treaty was attempted without permission from the president Rio Grande was confirmed as the border Mexican cession happened Gadsden Purchase happened after in 1853 pg 7 12 0 James Gadsden was our ambassador to Mexico in 1853 He negotiated this purchase with the Mexican government 0 President Franklin Pierce ordered him to purchase the small chunk of land Mexican war overshadowed the differences and tension between the North and the South The tensions returned when the war ended David Wilmot pg 6 13 o Congressman from Pennsylvania who was a Whig and an immediatist abolitionist 0 Submitted a resolution requiring that slavery be excluded from the territory acquired from Mexico The quotWilmot Proviso Endorsed by the House but rejected by the senate Southern elite was against any changes in their society 0 Any dissent was silenced immediately 0 Anybody who was against slavery was forced to emigrate to the North The idea of freedom spread throughout the north North and South became economically incompatible due to economic issues between the two Some companies began to brutally exploit their employees Slave owners rationalized slavery by criticizing capitalist companies for their poor standards in employee policies 21014 On the eve of the civil war the elites of the south and north did not like each other at all 0 North elites favored high protective tariffs Southern elites hated tariffs 0 North and South were economically incompatible North was more developed and the South relied too much on slavery o The construction of a transcontinental railroad North favored a railroad to Canada South did not A central road was decided connecting the two coasts together States rights were also an issue o Belief that the federal government had too much power and needed to share it with the governance of the individual states 0 The expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories was also an issue 0 Abolitionist propaganda immediatists and gradualists propaganda intensified o The south had a mixed population The white population of the south was over 9 million The AfricanAmerican population was 4 million 0 Cassius clay was a white southern politician who was one of the few southern politicians who criticized slavery and wanted abolition 0 Great majority of southern whites were NOT slave owners 80 were not 20 kept slaves o quotThe Impending Crisis of the South Pg 8 5 was a book by Hinton R Helper 0 HR Helper was a southern white farmer not a slave owner from N Carolina 0 Wrote the book in 1857 shortly before the war 0 Showed that not only was Slavery economically nonprofitable but ruinous in other moral ways Ruinous to the nonslave owning whites of the south The book was like a bomb on the political arena HR was a racist yet against slavery Still noted in his book that blacks were genetically inferior and that whites were superior in every way 0 HR had death threats against him 0 Many southern whites were against slavery but still racist 0 Democrats in the south supported the states right document while the republicans in the north did not 0 This is flipped today Republicans in the south support it democrats in the north do not 0 Presidential elections of 1848 o Zachary Taylor elected president pg 7 1 I Elected November 1848 became president in March 1849 I Prior to this the US and Britain settled the Oregon dispute in 1846 I Whig party chose him to be their candidate I Whigs did not have a clear platform on slavery but more or less disliked it I Taylor was a Southerner but ran as a Whig 0 Lewis Cass of Michigan I Elderly veteran of the democrats in the North I Opposed the Wilmot proviso pg 6 13 o Wilmot was a Whig who was in favor of the new territories to be converted into free territories I Strong opponent of slavery I Favored the document of Squatter popular Sovereignty o Sayed that states had the say in whether slavery was aloud in their territory or not 21114 0 California gold rush of 1849 contributed to a very fast growth of the population of the region 0 President Taylor urged Californians to apply directly to the federal government to be admitted as a state 0 Californians did this and in 1849 they sent in their official statehood application 0 Southern democrat finally became speaker of the house Howard Cobb o Fugitive Slave Law passed in 1793pg 7 10 South hated this law because it led to financial losses 0 Underground railroad went active pg 7 16 o A network of safe houses going to the North used by escaped slaves and their helpers 0 Used by Harriet Tubman pg 7 9 I Born in the early 1800 s and died in the early 1900 s Native from Maryland I Escaped to the North and became a leading conductor on the UR I Nicknamed the quotMoses of her people 0 Many slaves went to Canada where racial segregation and discrimination was not as bad 0 Sojourner Truth pg 7 17 0 Born and raised in New York I Originally named Isabella o Remained illiterate however that did not prevent her from being an eloquent public speaker She was a very effective public speaker 0 Viewed slavery as an abomination in the eyes of God Loved to criticize slavery from a Christian perspective 0 Also spoke on women s rights Was a women s rights champion much like the Grimke sisters 0 Pennsylvania was the first US state to abolish slavery in 1781 0 Southern politicians blamed Northern authorities for not being effective in tracking runaways o In actuality many northern authorities willingly helped runaway slaves flee while feigning ignorance to the south 0 Compromise of 1850 pg 7 4 0 Under the leadership of 2 ardent nationalists congress set out to settle the burning sectional issues and disputes I Henry Clay was a firm unionist Stephen Douglass was a senator from Illinois 21214 0 Mexican War Texas and Abraham Lincoln pg 10 24 are going to be essay questions 0 Compromise of 1850 pg 7 4 0 Henry Clay pg 6 3 a republican from Kentucky was a firm unionist 0 Stephen Douglass pg 7 6 was a senator from Illinois a Northern democrat 0 Salmon Chase was tough on the South So was Charles Sumner William Seward of New York was a Whigrepublican On the other side John C Calhoun was adamantly against the compromise and an outspoken defender of slavery Henry Clay put out a bill designed to settle all of the sectional differences between the North and South 5 stipulations I California was to be admitted into the union as a free state I New Mexico was to be given a territorial government without any mentioning of the slavery issue I Texas debts were to be assumed by the federal government in return for the limiting of the western boundary of Texas I The slave trade would be abolished in Washington DC I US Congress would adopt a new more effective fugitive slave law Later modified and became the compromise of 1850 Called the quotOmnibusquot bill A package bill with 2 or more bills combined Was the subject of many debates over a number of months While this happened President Taylor died in office in 1850 The VP Millard Fillmore pg 7 2 took over I Fillmore understood the importance of compromising in statecraft Fillmore managed to convince many northern and southern politicians to endorse the bill Stephen Douglass pg 7 6 a northern democrat worked to urge his people to vote in favor of a modified version of the bill After some modifications the omnibus bill was signed by Fillmore Many were angry t barely passed New Fugitive Slave law stated that state officials and private citizens must assist authorities in capturing escaping slaves 0 Harriet pg 8 2 wrote quotUncle Tom s Cabin 1 21314 0 quotUncle Tom s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stow O O 0000 Appeared in print in the North in 1852 One of the most effective of weapons in the arsenal of the abolitionists and one of the most effective tools in the abolitionist s propaganda Became a best seller in the North shortly after publication Reached out to many more people in the form of a play Despised in the South because it aroused such a strong sympathy for the slaves Abe Lincoln is said to have said to Harriet in the White House quotSo this is the little lady who wrote the big book that caused the big war 0 MasonDixon line 0 Border line dividing the North and the South 0 Daniel Webster and Clay died which weakened the group of compromise supporters 0 January 1854 sectional angers were aroused when Stephen Douglass pg 7 6 proposed a territorial government in the Nebraska country in the interest of popular sovereignty O The debate on whether slavery would be aloud here or not was fierce 0 Kansas and Nebraska act sought to divide the Nebraska country into 2 territories Would have annulled the Missouri compromise of 1823 0 Missouri compromise o Slavery would be prohibited to the North of the 36th parallel 36 degree 30 minutes parallel 0 Whenever a state was admitted Free State vs slave state another was soon admitted after belonging to the opposite side 0 Franklin Pierce pg 7 3 was the thenpresident on friendly terms with Stephen Douglass o A northern democrat from New Hampshire 0 On friendly terms with many southern democrats This made many northern politicians and abolitionists unhappy with him 0 Dread Scott Decision pg 8 7 0 Decision by the Supreme Court that further antagonized the North and South 0 Dread Scott was taken by his master from Missouri to Illinois then to Wisconsin then back to Missouri 0 Upon his return Dread Scott sued for his freedom because he lived in a free territory which he viewed erased his slave status Raised the question of whether the Missouri compromise was constitutional 0 After 10 years of litigation Dread Scott vs Sandfort the Supreme Court ruled that the Missouri compromise was unconstitutional and that Slavery could not be excluded from federal territories 0 Southern politicians were pleased the abolitionists in the North were outraged 0 President Fillmore 0 Installed the first bible in the white house and white house library 21414 0 pg 7 13 the Republican Party was named at the remnants of the Whig party after it was dismantled Whig remnant reorganized itself into the Republican Party o In the town of Ripon Organized as the Federalist party to the Whigs to the Republicans 0 Most Whigs opposed slavery 0 President Pierce was viewed as a quotNorthern Renegade a democrat from the North who was friends with politicians in the South 0 pg 10 28 Jefferson Davis the secretary of war to President Pierce in the 18505 0 Southern democrat slave owner 0 Became the president of the southern quotConfederate States of America during the civil war 0 Supported William Walker 0 William Walker a southerner with 60 followers landed in Central America and tried to overthrow the government of Nicaragua 0 000 0 pg 0 O Proclaimed himself the president of Nicaragua Wanted to build a canal across Nicaragua to connect the oceans Wanted to build a Central American empire with him as emperor Announced the reestablishment of slavery in Nicaragua which already had it banned in the nation Nicaraguans were angered and overthrew him He escaped to Honduras was captured and executed by the Honduran government Arrived as a liberator became a dictator Wanted Nicaragua to become a state but a slave state Southerners loved him Northerners hated him 7 14 the Austin Manifesto A city in Belgium The Manifesto was issued in 1854 here The Pierce administration tried to obtain Cuba as well Wanted Cuba to become a slave state Pierre Soule the ambassador to Spain was to approach the Spanish government to purchase Cuba I After failing Pierre worked with James Buchannan and John Mason in issuing the Austin Manifesto Austin Manifesto I That if Spain continued to refuse to sell Cuba and if there were any threatening the disturbances that threatened the security of the US the US would have the right to take control of Cuba from Spain When the document was discovered by the American people there was a huge backlash against President Pierce Accusations that the President was a puppet for the South 0 Pg 8 11 James Buchanan was the US ambassador to Great Britain 0 Later became president of the US 0 Bleeding Kansas pg 8 3 O Tremendous conflict between Northern and Southern settlers of Kansas which lead to guerilla warfare between the two parties Southern settlers seized control of the Kansas government via a rigged election and adopted a strict slave code law Used falsified voting records Northern settlers summoned a convention in Topeka where they adopted a constitution for Kansas that outlawed slavery Skirmishes intensified Among the people was John Brown pg 8 4 who was a radical abolitionist Hated slavery with a passion 21814 0 John Brown pg 8 4 Born and raised in Connecticut Involved in a small scale civil war in Kansas quotBleeding Kansas Very radical abolitionist Moreso than WLG Viewed himself as an avenging angel meant to take revenge on slave owners John and his sons allied themselves with local antislave movements He and his compatriots murdered 5 proslavery settlers pg 8 6 I Number of skirmishes increased soon after 0 Violent skirmishes spread to the capital 0 Senator Charles Sumner pg 8 13 O O 0 Republican from Massachusetts Strong opponent of slavery Friends with numerous abolitionists In a speech titled quotCrime against Kansas he attacked and criticized Pierce Saved his harshest criticisms for Senator Andrew Butler who was a staunch defender of slaver Preston Brooks hated him Believed that Sumner offended Butler and tried to publicly humiliate Sumner which he did I Attacked Sumner when the senate was adjourned with a cane I Sumner fell unconscious due to the blows and it became an infamously outrageous scene I Censured by the house of representatives and resigned I Sumner took a break for 4 years following this I Reelected in the South returned to DC and received canes as gifts from supporters in the South 0 James Buchannan pg 8 11 a democrat that served as a Senator from Pennsylvania 0 O 0 18571861 Favored the South pg 8 18 the Lecompton constitution was the constitution that Southern settlers had devised in order to admit Kansas as a slave state Buchannan favored this Enraged the abolitionists and northern politicians Antislave people voted against it and Kansas was admitted into the federal union as a free state 0 West Virginia seceded and joined the federal government 0 pg 7 6 Stephen Douglass a northern democrat from Illinois was involved in debates with Abraham Lincoln 0 pg 8 17 LincolnDouglass debates OOO Took place in summerearly fall of 1858 in Illinois Stephen Douglass defended popular squatter sovereignty Lincoln slavery on moral political and economic grounds Lincoln advocated preventing slavery from expanding in the hope that it would eventually quotdie a natural death o Lincolns opposition to the Mexican war resulted in him not being elected for Senate 0 Both men impressed the state of Illinois 0 Resulted in Lincoln s popularity increasing 21914 0 LincolnDouglass debates took place in Illinois 0 Stephen Douglass was popular in the nation while Lincoln was a relatively unknown 0 Lincoln became president in 1861 0 John Brown pg 8 4 o Ardent abolitionist Involved in a minicivil war in Kansas between antislave people and proslavery people Believed he was an avenging angel sent by God to free the slaves pg 8 8 Raid on Harpers Ferry executed by John Brown Concocted a wild scheme to liberate the slaves I Wanted to seize a mountain fortification so he could conduct raids to free slaves so they could join his antislavery army I Brown and Followers attacked the depot overpowered them and took the base I Hoped that this action would inspire a slave uprising but it didn t I Government sent the marines and militia who stormed the place and captured the abolitionists I John Brown and his compatriots were executed I Only served to make conditions on the slaves tougher in the South I Worsened relations between the North and South 0 Abe Lincoln s election was the final straw as far as the Southern Elite were concerned Within 4 5 weeks the South openly discussed secession o Confederate States of America formed AKA the Confederacy 0 South Carolina was the first state to Secede The last state was Tennessee 0 pg 7 15 the California Gold Rush caused the population of California to spike 0 Gold found in a creek in Sutter Fort o KlondikeYukon gold rush of the 18905 Lead to population increase in WashingtonOregon 0 James Buchannan tried to stop the war before it started Only president to have never been married 0 Abraham Lincoln pg 10 24 Born in a log cabin in Western Kentucky Moved to Indiana at an early age Worked as a logger and farmer but was not interested in it Never cared for fishing or hun ng o Spent all his spare time reading Never received a formal education so he educated himself 22014 Abraham Lincoln cont 0 Became a lawyer in Illinois and eventually a Whig politician o Became a congressman who criticized the Mexican war for being unfair and unjust Because of this he lost his seat 0 Tried to restart his political career as a Senator and ran against Stephen Douglass The debates though he lost the election he was able to benefit from the sudden fame of being a known political character Ran for president 0 His election to president resulted in the secession of South Carolina First skirmishes of the war began in 1860 between the secessionists and soldiers Fort Sumter Pg 9 1 was attacked and official hostilities began o Retrofitted ship attacked US navy ship soon after That ship turned back leaving the federal troops trapped in Fort Sumter Last ditch effort to save the union was made by a senator from the south Senator John Crittenden pg 8 16 0 Proposed measures to prevent war between North and South 0 Would extend the Missouri compromise to the pacific ocean Lincoln fought in militias before the war Until the summer of 1863 the South won most battles Starting in the summer of 1863 the tide began to turn in favor of the North 0 Lincoln fired his old commanders and replaced them with better ones 0 Commanders such as I General Ulysses grant 15 I General William Sherman 16 I General Phil Sheridan17 0 Known as quotThe Stellar Trio Lincoln was level headed in his resolve and under pressure He was a man of integrity Lincoln had a wife and children 0 Wife was mentally unstable Lincoln was tall 6 4quot and was the tallest president Lincoln was the only president to get a patent for a device that lifting boats over shores First president to wear a beard Most historians name Lincoln the greatest president Mary Todd 0 Married Lincoln in 1842 and had 4 sons 0 Completely insane pg 9 14 Appomattox court house o In central Virginia where the Civil War ended 0 Where General Lee pg 10 20 was surrounded by union forces and forced to surrender 22114 0 Zeitgeist spirit of the time o Abe Lincoln contd o Reelected to the presidency in November 1864 0 When he was reelected he was reelected as a nominee of the Unionist party basically Republican Party Wanted to keep the union together with as little violence as possible May have been a closeted racist maybe 000 Was a supporter of the quotBack to Africa movement 0 Assassinated 5 days after the war ended at the Fords theater 0 During the civil war there were cases where black kinsmen fought against each other Fratricide 0 pg 11 3 AndrewJohnson o A southern democrat one of the very few to remain loyal to the government during the civil war Joined the Unionist party 0 Selected by the Union to serve as a candidate for Vice President 0 pg 8 5 Hinton Helper wrote a book called quotThe Impending Destruction of the South 0 Was against slavery but not in favor of racial equality 0 pg 9 114 major battles o Appomattox court house was the last battle 14 0 pg 10 20 Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America 0 Graduate of West point and distinguished himself as a good officer of the Mexican War later served as the secretary of war in the Pierce Administration 0 Slave owner 2 24 14 0 General Thomas Stonewall Jackson 0 Was one of the most respected Southern commanders 0 Killed at the battle of Chancellorsville by one of his own men pg 9 8 I Southern army was victorious in the battle but Jackson was killed by mistake o The Trent Affair pg 10 25 o Attempt by the Rebel government to persuade the 2 leading superpowers Britain and France to gain support and grant diplomatic relations to the South 0 John Slidell and James Mason sent as envoys to Europe I Boarded a ship in Havana called quotThe Trent bound for Western Europe 0 The ship was intercepted by a US navy vessel en route the quotSan Jacinto The 2 confederate diplomats were arrested 0 Strained relationships with the British and French because the diplomats were arrested in a British ship in international waters 0 British allowed the construction of rebel ships in British shipyards 6 cruisers were launched from the Laird shipyards in Glasgow Scotland Alabama Claims Dispute pg 10 26 0 Claims that the British government was responsible for paying money to use for allowing those ships to be used against us 0 Arbitrage was settled in Switzerland Relations between the US and France remained strained throughout the 18605 due to the Trent Affair 2 Russian naval task forces docked at New York and San Francisco willing to aid the Federal government in the Civil War 0 Because the Russian emperor hated slavery and hated the French and British for aiding the South 0 Wanted friendly relations with America and wanted the US to be a possible puppet of Russia 0 Lincoln politely declined suspicious of the Russian emperor Union barely won the battle of Gettysberg pg 9 amp 17 114 Major battles 0 Fort Sumter I April 14 1861 I Confederate Victory 0 First Bull Run Manassas I Very close to DC I Confederate victory North realizes the danger posed by the South 0 Second Bull Run I Confederate victory I South regains almost all of Virginia 0 Antietam I Union victory Very difficult victory I Confederate retreat gave Lincoln the occasion to announce the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation o Vicksburg I Northern victory Won the Mississippi and the West North controlled entire Mississippi valley I South was split in two 0 Gettysburg I Northern victory Most important battle Costly northern victory I Marked a turning point in the war 0 Appomatox Court House I Northern victory I South surrendered Reconstruction 22814 0 Reasons the North won 0 The North was more advanced economically 0 Population I 23 million in the North I 9 million in the South South only had 1 factory complex the Tredegar Works North had many Slaves escaping to join the Union military both weakened the South and strengthened the North Most other nations supported the North due to their stances on slavery GB and France started to rely more on cotton from Egypt and India than from the South which dropped the South s economic progress Also limited their recognition of the South 0 North had better generals because Lincoln was a good judge of character 0 There was a Civil War in Mexico that raged alongside ours 0 When the American Civil War ended people were unsure on the issue of loss of life 0 1600000 serving men on the North 0 45000 total losses in Gettysburg alone 22000 from the South 0 The South desperate for soldiers even started forming all black regiments promising them freedom in exchange A few join but very few saw actual action Many wounded fought for the South as well as young boys and old men Most material damage happened to the South Very little fighting was in the North the biggest fight being Gettysburg o The South was in ruins due to the widespread devastation and the quottotal war policies of Sherman 3314 0 Reconstruction continued 0 Reconstructing the south economically o 10 reconstruction plan pg 11 1 o Forgiveness to rebels 0 Republicans criticized Lincoln for being quottoo soft on the south 0 WadeDavis bill Pg 11 2 o Asserted that congress was primarily responsible for reconstruction 3414 3514 0 Davis Stephens Pg 11 18 insisted that the confederate states were considered quotconquered territories because they had successfully seceded o Stated that before a southern government could be recognized a majority of white male citizens in those areas had to pledge their loyalty to the US 0 Each state had to write a new constitution 0 Pocket vetoed by Lincoln Andrew Johnson pg 11 3 assumed command when Lincoln died 0 Considered hard headed compared to Lincoln 0 Narrow minded and inflexible o Undiplomatic and prone to outbursts of anger 0 First act of reconstruction was to extend pardons to large groups of southerners The Black Codes pg 11 5 0 Andrew Johnson was indifferent to the fate of freed slaves 0 People in the south were still racist dicks Formulated Black Codes in 1865 I Black given rights to legalized marriage the ability to buyowntransfer property ability to testify in courts I Restrictive rules Black people would not enter work contracts freely they were subjected to elaborate regulations and threatened with severe vagrancy laws if not employed Cant carry firearms either Joint committee on reconstruction established 15 members of congress associated with this 0 Instituted the congressional reconstruction of the south I Built to extend the life of the freed men s bureau I Freed men s bureau was built to provide work transportation and more to freed slaves Conflict between Andrew Johnson and the south who both wanted to rebuild the south in their own ways pg 11 6 the 13th amendment Abolished slavery and outlawed it Lincoln wanted to preserve the loyalty of the freed states pg 11 7 the 14th amendment Freed slaves were to be viewed as US citizens Defined citizenship pg 11 8 the 15th amendment Specified the right of African American males to vote quotEqual but separate rules The KKK pg 11 10 was a racist organization founded in June 1866 in Pulaski Tennessee Ironic because the town was named for a man who fought in the War for Independence Founded to keep the whites as the overlords of the nation to suppress the African American population in the South 0 Harassed and attacked people in the south who collaborated with the federal government 0 pg 11 15 Scalawag was a term used by white southerners and the Klan to label southern whites that collaborated with the federal government during reconstruction 0 pg 11 16 Carpetbagger was a term used to describe northerners who moved to the south Believed to have moved to the south to gain wealth o Intimidated blacks to keep them from voting pg 11 14 the Force Acts labelled the Klan as a terrorist organization by US congress 0 Didn t destroy the Klan The Klan continued in secrecy Today the Klan is active in the North East 1500020000 people active today in the Klan Decline due to decline in racists and financial scandals in the 19205 pg 11 9 Ex parte Millian case o A US citizen was in trouble with the government at the end of the civil war due to his strong opposition to the civil war A northerner that wanted the US to acknowledge the south as a separate nation Put on trial for sedition and high treason and sentenced to death by military tribunal US Supreme Court overruled this action stating that the sentence was unconstitutional Freed because he was a civilian that was tried by the military as civilian courts were still open pg 11 11 military reconstruction acts 0 At the end of the war the south was still occupied by federal troops 0 Congress declared the Johnsons governments in the south to be invalid 0 Originally 5 military districts in the south were to be ruled by Martial Law I During war martial law is stricter than regular law 0 Tough on former confederates Andrew Johnson kept interfering with the Congressional plan Congress reluctantly concluded that impeachment was the only way 0 Congress needed evidence which he supplied when he suspended Edwin Stanton radical republican secretary of war This violated tenure of office act pg 11 12 which required congressional approval This happened during a congressional recess 0 Johnson forced to restore Stanton Fired him again 1 month later 0 Provided Congress with grounds for impeachment Essay Questions 0 Ulysses Grant I President for 8 yea rs I Republican I Distinguished himself in the civil war For the north I Born in Iowa moved to Ohio Went to military college I Mexican war vet Resigned in 1854 and failed at a businessman In 61 he returned and fought the rebels in Tennessee Took forts and had good victories I Abe Lincoln liked him At the end of the war with help from radical Republicans he was elected o Pendleton act I Passed in 1883 by congress Also called quotthe Civil Service Reform Act I Tried to remove corrupt government officials and corruption I President Chester Arthur pg 12 11 pushed the act I Dealt a serious blow to the spoils system 0 Spoils provided to the supporters of the president when he gets elected quotRewardsquot 0 Removed or weakened corruption 31014 0 President James Garfield was shot and wounded by Charles Guiteau Caused by Guiteau s anger because he was not rewarded with a Sinecure nice job in the government Killed because of the spoils system 0 Pendleton act cont 0 Creation of a civil service commission consisting of 3 people I Bipartisan I Operated until 1978 o 15 of the positions in the federal government were divided or classified into levels Appointments would be made to these levels on the basis of performance on tests for the candidates for these jobs quotMeritocracyquot I Appointed on the basis of merit and skill not on connections Known as the quotmerit system In 1952 President Harry Truman ordered that at least 93 of all jobs in the government should be appointed under this merit system 0 Made it illegal to fire an employee for hisher refusal or inability to commit money to a political party 0 Chester Arthur supported the act which made him unpopular with a faction of the Republican Party called the quotStalwartsquot including Roscoe Conkling pg 12 8 who all believed in the spoils system I Conkling was noted for his quotjobs for votes schemes and was notorious for his corruption I Nobody really liked him I Him and his group torpedoed Chester Arthurs attempts to run for presidency o AfterJohnson s presidency all presidents between 1869 and 1913 had been republicans except for Grover Cleveland pg 12 13 0 Benjamin Harrison pg 12 14 ruled the nation between 1889 and 1893 the grandson of William Henry Harrison 0 All presidents had been lawyers and were born in the Northern states 0 And all supported big business and a high protective Tariff Except Grover Cleveland 0 Boss Tweed pg 12 3 o Notoriously corrupt democratic politician and the head of the Democratic Party machine in Manhattan 0 Stole millions from tax payers in New York 0 Stupendous economic boom that pushed America to leading economic superpower by 1898 0 Business geniuses and executives like Andrew Carnegie the quotsteel king and John D Rockefeller the quotOil king Also JP Morgan a prominent banker and financier o Mechanics and inventors Alexander Grand Belle pg 13 5 invented the telephone 0 Rapid growth of labor and trade unions Most respected leader was Samuel Comverse pg 13 14 0 Efforts to limit the power of big business the interstate commerce act pg 13 4 Established reasonable rates in train travel 31214 0 By 1898 the US was world economic superpower 1 o quotStellar Trio o Carnegie o Rockefeller 0 JP Morgan 0 Cornelius Vanderbilt ran textile miles and railroads 0 American Federation of Labor AFL merged with CIO o AFLCIO represents a good 90 of unionized labor in the US 0 Alexander graham bell invented the telephone 0 Thomas Edison invented many things Invented numerous electrical and mechanical things Invented the Incandescent bulk the predecessor of the modern light bulb in 1879 Invented film making and showing equipment Cinematography Invented the phonograph record player 0000 Patented more devices than any other human being 0 Created the General Electric GE Company 0 Interstate commerce act 0 People did not trust big businesses Fears that the wealthy might try to take over the government through their wealth o quotGilded Age the age that witnessed the growth of a small group of the extremely wealthy and elite o quotDemocracyPlutocracy a small group of wealthy controlling the nation 31314 0 FINAL ID TERMS o All essay questions from previous tests 0 Gettysburg will be an essay question possibly 0 Notes on Grimke Sisters William Lloyd Garrison Gettysburg economic boom in the 18005 all US presidents in the late 18005early 19005 and paranoia of wealthy elite 0 Mark Twain essay question 1 0 William McKinley essay question 2 0 American culture in the late 18005 0 American culture was an imitation of Western European culture specifically the British By 1900 it was very distinct unique and truly American 0 Culture developed in big cities 0 pg 14 1 Louis Sullivan 0 Prominent American because he was the quotfather of the skyscraper 0 Very talented architect who distinguished himself as the designer of the earliest skyscrapers the first being in Chicago 0 Walter Hauzenbush pg 14 2 0 One of the founders and leaders of the social gospel movement 0 Christian clericBaptist minister and leading spokesman of social evangelism o Dwight Moody pg 14 4 o Evangelist 0 Bible institute in Chicago 0 Anthony compstone 5 o Fought against prostitution pornography spousal abuse etc o Moral crusader o Founded the YMCA Young Men Christian Association 0 Union veteran of the Civil War 0 Booker T Washington 6 and William Dubois 7 0 Leading African American intellectuals 0 Washington was a cofounder of the Tuskegee institute in Alabama 31414 0 William McKinley 0 Born and raised in Ohio 0 Last US president to have served in the Civil War o Tuskegee institute 0 Initially a college for African American males 0 BookerTWashington6 O O Accommodationist for the white elites Wanted a black middle class to end discrimination 0 Dr Dubois pg 14 7 O O O 0 Very critical of Booker T Washington Socialist turned communist Contributed to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 17 Head of the Niagara movement 0 Emily Dickinson 10 O O 0 American poet Almost all her poems were published posthumously by her friends Poems about nature 0 Mark Twain pg 14 11 000 31714 Real name is Samuel Langhorne Clemens Born and raised in Missouri on the banks of the Mississippi river Became a river boat pilot 18351910 0 Mark Twain cont COO 0000 Named for a measurement for a fathom Worked as a riverboat pilot Wrote humorous sketches for local newspapers in Missouri Was drafted into the southern military but deserted and moved to Nevada because he disagreed with the South Tried to be a prospector in the west and became a journalist for the Examiner Created a diary of his travels and published it as quotInnocence Abroad Married Olivia Langdon in New York City 1870 Wrote the quotGilded Age where he criticized the spirit of materialism greed and corruption Wrote quotThe Adventures of Tom Sawyer 1876 and quotThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1884 which made him famous 0 Ernest Hemmingway O 0 18991962 Called Mark Twain quotthe greatest American writer and Huck Finn quotThe greatest American novel Considered to be the only other great American writer next to Mark Twain Wrote the quotPrince and the Pauper Wrote the quotMysterious Stranger last 0 Mark Twain again 0 Lost his 2 daughters and wife and was devastated His well know sense of humor disappeared from his writings 0 Lost his money due to unsuccessful investments and ended up in debt 0 Charlotte Perkins Gilman pg 14 13 o Feminist and journalist o Promoted the idea of total economic and political independence for women 0 Socialist sympathizer 0 Carrie Jackman Cat pg 14 15 0 Another feminist 0 Leading pacifist 0 Another distinguished journalist 0 National American Women s Suffrage Association 0 Organized in 1819 o Founders included Cat and Gilman and Susan B Anthony 0 pg 15 The Great Western Cultural Revolution 0 Migration to the west became a torrent of people moving west 0 Lead to conflict with Native Americans when settlers settled on their native lands 31814 0 Pacification of Indians 0 First transcontinental railroad completed by the end of the clashes with Native Americans 0 Battle of Little Big Horn pg 15 1 o Took place in Montana 0 General Custer led an army detachment 7th cavalry against Native Americans in response to a dispute over the Black Hills between the Indians and miners Indians made a stand against him Indians led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull Most of the Indian forces were Sioux OOO Custer s forces were surprised and wiped out by the waiting force of Indians 0 Sitting Bull managed to survive and escape 0 Battle of Wounded knee pg 5 6 o Took place in South Dakota 0 Federal Government circled an encampment of Indians whom they believed were trying to organize a rebellion They fired first and killed several hundred including women and children 0 Most of the casualties on the Federal side were killed by their own people as they were encircled Much of them were drunk as well uncomfortable with the idea of killing innocents 0 William Jennings Brown pg 15 o Ran unsuccessfully for president as a democrat several times 000 0 Everybody seemed to like him Believed in neutrality Did not want the country involved in WW1 Pious fundamentalist Christian that believed in the literal interpretation of the bible Mark Hanna pg 15 13 O O O O 0 Very successful capitalist owned many factories in Ohio Was known for treating his workers well by treating them with dignity and paying them well Never any strikes in the factories he owned Strong republican Friends with future president William McKinley The Grange pg 15 0 Organization dedicated to educating farmers on I How to farm and raise cattle I How to use the land I How to use the equipment William McKinley pg 14 17 O O O ESSAY QUESTION Republican president of the US born in 1843 and died in 1901 from Ohio Served as a volunteer in the Northern army during the Civil War Ended the war as a major after many accomplishments Last civil war vet to become president of the United States Was one of the presidents that wanted to ensure that the business elite behaved and observed the laws like everybody else Believed in the policy of high protective tariffs McKinley tariff was passed in the late 18005 which was the highest protective tariff in history Believed in the gold standard that the US dollar be backed by gold Lead during the SpanishAmerican war of 1898 Mortally wounded by an anarchist while attending an industrial exhibition in Buffalo NY Leon Czolgosz was his name This was months after his reelection Spanish American War of 1898 O O O O 0 We win Battles of Santiago I City in Cuba US win Battle of Manila Bay I Capital City in the Philippines Spanish naval defeat US marines took Philippines soon after US took islands like Cuba and Puerto Rico Midway and Guam By winning the US told the world that they were a true superpower Same year the US became the leading superpower just ahead of GB Hawaii became a US possession in 1898 0 Queen Liliuokalani 0 Last queen of Hawaii 0 American settlers rebelled and overthrew her 0 Settlers applied to join US accepted them as a US territory 0 Josiah Strong 0 Protestant minister Preached expansionist US policy 0 Manifest destiny again 0 Alfred Mann 0 Admiral that wanted the US to have a larger fleet 0 Fleet size helped us with our image as a superpower
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