BIO 100 exam 2 study guide
BIO 100 exam 2 study guide BIO 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Thomson on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Arizona State University taught by Oberlin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 770 views. For similar materials see The Living World in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
FALL 2015 EXAM 2 PRACTICE QUESTIONS Answer ALL these questions PRIOR to the inclass review session on Thursday in order to earn your last Bonus Points for this quarter Topics Mendelian genetics DNA Evolution New species Behavior Mating systems 1 Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream Since all the cells in a person s body contain the same DNA why do only our pancreatic cells produce insulin The pancreas is unique in that it s both an endocrine and exocrine gland In other words the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood endocrine and secreting enzymes through ducts exocrine a If we insert the human gene for insulin into bacteria the bacteria will produce human insulin How is this possible Many plasmids with the insulin gene are inserted into many bacterial cells The cells need nutrients in order to grow divide and live While they live the bacterial cell processes turn on the gene for human insulin and the insulin is produced in the cell When the bacterial cells reproduce by dividing the human insulin gene is also reproduced in the newly created cells 2 After sequencing a molecule of DNA you discover that 20 of the bases are cytosine C What percentage of the bases would you expect to be guanine G What percentage of the bases would you expect to be thymine T Thymine 30 Guanine 20 Since DNA is contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells but protein synthesis occurs at ribosomes outside of the nucleus how is the information in DNA conveyed to the ribosomes Transcription 4 How many nucleotides are necessary to code for a protein that is 100 amino acids long 300 5 The DNA coding strand for a gene is AGT ATG GCC CGT ACA and reads from left to right What messenger RNA would be sent to the cytoplasm What about the amino acid AA sequence RNA AGU AUG GCC CGU ACA AA Ser Met Ala Arg Thr 6 How many different types of gametes could a person with the genotype AABch produce 4 ABC ABC AbC AbC 7 DNA paternity testing has become the most widely accepted method for establishing who the father of a child is when there are doubts In one case the mother refused to supply a sample of her DNA but the man claiming to be the father had his DNA and that of the baby s taken and analyzed Is it possible to establish who the father is in this method even if the mother s DNA is not available to compare Yes 8 For some time Russian prisons have been running on drastically reduced budgets As a result when inmates contracted tuberculosis TB caused by an infection of the lungs by a particular bacteria species treatment with antibiotics was often halted before all TB bacteria had been killed by the antibiotics in an infected prisoner It is now observed that strains of antibiotic resistant TB have appeared in the Russian prison population Such strains have now reached the United States when freed prisoners have emigrated Based on what we39ve learned so far this semester what might provide a scienti cally valid explanation of the appearance of antibioticresistant TB The ones that survive are able to quickly multiply 9 A gene for redgreen color blindness daltonism is carried on the X chromosome It is only expressed phenotypically as homozygous recessive in women but men that inherit the affected chromosome will suffer from the disorder a What are the possible genotypes for a man and woman with color blindness and for a man and woman with normal color vision bexbxb xYxbx b A colorblind woman married a man with normal color vision and they have children A What percent of their male children will be affected by color blindness 100 B What percent of their female children will be affected by color blindness 0 c A normal man is going to marry a normal woman who already has had a colorblind son by another man What are the probabilities of this new marriage producing a colorblind child 25 mother is a carrier 10 Genetic inheritance is being studied in a certain species of plant in which orange ower color 0 is dominant to white 0 and round leaf shape S is dominant to oval s A truebreeding orange owered roundIeaved male plant Plant A is mated with a truebreeding white owered ovalleaved female plant Plant B to produce a dihybrid offspring plant Plant C Assuming normal Mendelian genetics and independent inheritance of these two traits which gametes might be produced by Plant C OOSSpant A x oosspant B OoSspant C OS Os OS 05 11 Suppose male fruit ies with the HHNN genotype mate with female ies with the hhnn genotype H hairy legs h hairless legs N normal wings nshriveled wings About what percentage of offspring ies will have hairy legs and normal wings 100 12 What are the mechanisms of evolution How do they differ Descent and the genetic differences that are heritable and passed on to the next generation Mutation migration gene ow genetic drift and natural selection as mechanisms of change 0 The importance of genetic variation 0 The random nature of genetic drift and the effects of a reduction in genetic variation 0 How variation differential reproduction and heredity result in evolution by natural selection and o How different species can affect each other39s evolution through coevolution 13 Natural selection Darwin argued was an inevitable outcome of three principles that operated in nature Explain each of these principles Variation passed from one generation to the next Variation exists among members of pop regarding the expression of traits Certain variant forms give indiv that posses them a higher rate of survival 14 The Phoenix Zoo kept the only remaining population of Arabian Oryx for ten years in captivity Finally when the captive population was high enough and the habitat was better protected in Arabia some of these Oryx were shipped back to Arabia and released into the wild In the wild most of the newly released Oryx died of starvation overheating or were killed by predators Why is this result not unexpected They have a hard time surviving because they were so reliant on zookeepers to take care of them 15 Variation is important for evolution because it provides the tness differences upon which natural selection operates Sexual reproduction is an important source of variation in plants and animals but what about asexually reproducing organisms like bacteria Where does their variation come from They reproduce asexually and don t need another 16 On a yachting trip in the South Paci c you discover a previously unknown island You notice that there is a population of especially uffy and particularly cute longeared rabbits living there These rabbits seem to have no predators at all on the island and their mating habits seem to be perfectly random When they are rst surveyed they have an average ear length of about 18 cm When they are sampled again in ve years what will likely be true of their ear length What about the offspring number Length of ears is the same and the offspring will be constant 17 Consider a population of spiders Because the particular birds that are the main predators of these spiders have trouble locating lighter spiders the darker spiders are eaten more often than the lighter ones However the darker spiders have an advantage over the lighter ones in nding and catching insect prey What is likely to happen over many generations to the coloration of the spiders Depends on which color has the greatest impact on color 18 Compare and contrast various forms of learning including habituation imprinting associative learning and cognitive learning and recognize examples of each Habituation the diminishing of a physiological or emotional response to a frequently repeated stimulus Imprinting any kind of phasesensitive learning learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior Associative Learning an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned The two forms of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning Pavlov vs skinner Cognitive Cognition is the umbrella term for your learning skills your ability to process information reason remember and relate ex Use of tools or reading 19 Why are certain birds more likely than mammals to form monogamous pairs They form 39pair bonds they will look similar 20 Among sexually reproducing species females tend to have more choice in selecting a mate than males Why They have more to lose from an unsuccessful selection
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