HistoryofRockandRollNotes.pdf T ARTS 311
University of Washington Tacoma
Popular in History of Rock and Roll
Popular in Department
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Date Created: 10/08/15
62315 0 Ways of listening Distracted listening Lyric listening Bodily listening Emotional listening Reminiscent listening Visual listening OOOOOO Allusive listening 0 Feature listening 0 Distracted listening 0 When music is not the primary focus of your attention 0 Lyric listening 0 Listening to the lyrics while the song goes 0 Bodily listening 0 Tap your foot clap nod your head play air guitar you doing something with your body to the music 0 Emotional listening 0 What emotions do you feel when listening to this song 0 What emotions do you think Ezra wanted to evoke o Reminiscentlistening 0 Where were you when you first heard this song 0 Do you have any special memories attached to this song 0 Visual listening 0 Listening to the song and imagining a picture whether directly related toinspired by the song or not 0 Allusive listening 0 Listening to a song and comparing it to other songs that you know 0 Feature listening 0 Listening for a particular formal or structural aspect of the music I quotListeninginreadiness o A few terms 0 Verse A section of music that features new lyrics with each repetition of music 0 Chorus the focal point usually the most memorable part of most songs I Different from the verse 0 Refrain a subsection of a verse too brief to be considered a chorus but has a similar function 0 Instrumental verse 0 Review 0 What are some different ways we can listen to music 0 What kind of music listener do you tend to be 0 Can you define verse chorus and refrain From Tin Pan Alley to Rock 0 To be discussed 0 Review Tin Pan Alley 0 Big Bands 0 Bing Crosby 0 Frank Sinatra o Tin Pan Alley o What are some musical characteristics of TPA songs I Irving Berlin Cole Porter George and Ira Gershwin were key TPA sources I Composer and performer were separate I TPA music existed primarily as sheet music 0 Money for if you had a piano good literacy could pay for lessons and to visit places that played music 0 White upper and middle class were typical TPA consumers I A A B A 9 32 bars 8888 0 Big Bands 0 Most bands were big and fully orchestrated o Supplied dance music 0 Paul Whiteman at Carnegie Hall December 25 1938 quotmade it okay for white people to listen to jazz 0 Bing Crosby Born at 1112 NJ in Tacoma Baptized at St Patrick s 12th and J Moved to Spokane First recordings with Paul Whiteman OOOOO Made nearly 1200 records for Decca over 21 years I Had 44 1 records Michael Jackson had 13 o quotCrooningquot I Using the microphone as an instrument 0 Frank Sinatra 0 Recorded for Columbia 0 Reprise his own label I Credited with bringing back swing in the 19605 0 quotNice work if you can get it GershwinGershwin rec 1962 I Intro AABA AABA from the band AABA o Crosby and Sinatra 0 Both were singers TV and movie personalities entrepreneurs etc o Superstars before Elvis the Beatles and Michael Jackson 0 Food for thought o What were some precursors to early rock and roll 0 Why were Crosby and Sinatra important I Set the blueprint for future stars I Were solo artists 625 15 0 The Blues and Early Country Music 0 The blues quotrace music 0 Country music quothillbilly music 0 Similarities and differences 0 Marketing music in the early 20th century 0 Three broad categories I Popular Tin Pan Alley I Race blues I Hillbilly Country 0 The birth of the blues 0 1914 AfricanAmericans begin leaving the south I 19101920 60000 moved to Chicago Detroit New York I South was not becoming industrialized as rapidly as the North hence more jobs I Jones the South was quotthe scene of the crime 0 1917 New Orleans closes its Red Light District leaving many musicians out of work 0 PostWW1 many who served could no longer be satisfied by quotthe mind of the south 0 Leroy Jones quotBlues People book 0 The Blues 0 Adaption of slave work songsfield hollers o Arose from the quotneeds of a group 0 Solo music intensely personal I quotIt was assumed that each man had his own blues and that he would sing them 0 City classic blues I Chicagobased I Female singers I Backed by band 0 Country blues I Rural south I Male singers I Solo instrument 0 Country blues 0 Blind Lemon Jefferson 1893 1929 I quotFather of Texas Blues I First commercially successful blues artist I Wrote his own material I Skilled guitarist Musical characteristics of blues 0 Musical form 12bar blues sometimes 8 or 16 o Lyrical form A A B one verse first line repeated I Strophic same music different lyrics for each verse Jefferson quotMatchbox Blues 1920 o What is this song about Who is singing Who is being sung to o What are some noteworthy musical features of the song I Very sophisticated guitar playing more in line with 505 rock City Classic Blues 0 Mamie Smith 1883 1946 I First black woman singer to record a vocal blues The first AfricanAmerican music that appeared in the context of entertainment Represented a clearly defined step by the AfricanAmerican population into the mainstream of American society 0 Lyrics deal with situations of universal concern I It was more palatable to whites as a result Bradford quotCrazy Blues 1920 0 Music and lyrics by Perry Bradford 0 Sold a million copies in its first six months 0 2 similarities and 2 differences between this song and quotmatchbox blues I Similarities 0 Both songs are about love andor sexuality 0 Both songs have a downward tempo I Differences 0 Crazy blues is more solemn in terms of subject matter 0 Both songs are opposite to each other on the subject of love 0 Country Blues vs City Blues 0 How are they different I City blues tempo stays the same I Lyrics don t repeat CB I City blues sung by a woman I More horns CB 0 Other noteworthy blues artists 0 Country or city I Bessie Smith City I Leadbelly Country I Robert Johnson 0 I Ma Rainey A Transition 0 Ralph Peer OKeh Records I Coined the term quotrace music while recording Mamie Smith I Started the Hillbilly music craze in 1923 I Later recorded Carter Family and Jimmie Rodgers ca 1927 Another transition 0 SEARS Popular music would not be where it is today if it were not for SEARS 0 Why I Sears was founded in 1886 I Sears Roebuck and Co appeared in 1893 o Mailorder Company allowed farmers in rural areas to save on general merchandise 0 Relied on the post office and railroads for distribution I Sears Roebuck catalogue 0 You could get musical instruments cheap from Sears 0 Muddy Waters got his guitar from Sears 0 Made music more accessible for a lot of people 0 WLS quotWorld s Largest Store radio debuted in 1924 I Broadcast as a service to farmers 0 Weather agriculture reports 0 Housekeeping tips 0 Music 0 National Barn Dance most popular program in the Midwest Early Country Music quotHillbilly music 0 Popular music tends to reflect the surrounding sonic landscape I Charlie Gillett the Sound of the City 0 Inspired by the sound of the railroad 0 Vernon Dalhart I quotThe wreck of the Old 97 1924 o Jimmie Rodgers quotThe Singing Brakeman I Traveled with his father a rail crew foreman I First recorded in 1927 by Ralph Peer for Okeh I Known for his series of twelve quotBlue Yodels 0 Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys I Western Swing 0 Shows influence in jazz blues and country 0 Fiddle Electric guitar Steel guitar I Played daily on KVOO Tulsa OK for nearly 10 years 0 Afterword o The rise in popularity of recordings and radio ultimately resulted in a more homogenized sound in both the blues and country music Why do you think this was I The musical styles people liked survived and evolved The music people liked less didn t resulted in surviving musical groups sounding more and more similar 0 What impact might recordings have had on the improvisatory nature of the blues and country I Showed true quotin the moment talent Recordings change the way people improvise 63015 0 Why 1955 o PostWWII I War between US and USSR and Germany formally ended 0 Cold War I Warsaw Pact signed I West Germany joins NATO I Nuclear arms race ICBMs 0 Korean War 0 Vietnam War on the horizon 0 Civil Rights Movement I Marian Anderson at the Metropolitan Opera House I Claudette Colvin bus incident 0 Montgomery Improvement Association I Segregation is outlawed on interstate trains and buses o quotBy their new found attachment to rhythm and blues young people might be protesting the Southern tradition of not having anything to do with colored people I Mitch Miller head of Columbia Records 1955 Disneyland opens in Anaheim CA Ray Kroc opens the second McDonald s restaurant Television becomes more widespread Rebel Without a Cause I James Dean Natalie Wood 0000 I Theme teenagers and adults don t understand each other Teenagers are more rebellious and adults are more straightforward o Blackboard Jungle I Theme very rebellious teenagers I Rock and Roll counter culture 0 Jungle vs Rebel I Compare and contrast the portrayal of adults and youth in these two films 0 Teenagers are more sympathetic in Rebel while the teachers are sympathetic in Jungle 0 Both films about attention seeking behavior in teenagers o The heart of both movies is the miscommunication between the young and the old and the parental lack of control I How is music used in these films o In Jungle it more represents the counter culture of teenage rebellion o Jungle was the first movie to have a Rock and Roll soundtrack 0 From 1954 to 1959 record sales tripled I 1954 213 million I 1959 603 million 0 Billboard s quotTop Thirty was extended to quotHot 100 in 1955 0 Food for thought 0 What aspects of societyculture may have precipitated the sudden rise of rock n roll I What aspects of youth societyculture may have precipitated the sudden rise of rock and roll 0 Teens understanding and recognizing their power in the world 0 Underground movements started happening countercensorship culture 0 1955 music 0 Bill Haley and his Comets quotRock around the clock I Recorded in April 1954 I First Rock and Roll song to hit no 1 on the Billboard charts in June 1955 I Begins with a quotstoptime introduction that emphasizes one chord mostly I Each verse is based on one strain of 12bar blues I Each verse ends with the same quotrefrainquot 0 Elvis The early days o Rockabilly rock and roll hillbilly I Acoustic instruments slapped bass 0 July 10 1954 I Dewey Phillips DJ on WHBQ played quotBlue Moon of Kentucky I Phones rang off the hook I Snatched Elvis from a movie theatre asked where he went to high school They were surprised that he went to the white high school I 5000 preorders 0 Elvis mania I quotThem little girls are strong I quotWho cares if it left a scar I got it trying to see Elvis and I m proud of it This must be what memories are made of I The leg shake 0 Music was linked to juvenile delinquency I quotOn the police blotters rock and roll has been writing an unprecedented record In one locale after another rock and roll shows have touched off every type of juvenile delinquency I quotWherever there s been teenage trouble lately rock and roll has almost always been in the background 0 Little Richard 0 Fused New Orleans styles piano driven with gospel 0 Known for highenergy stage performance and generally outrageous behavior 0 quotTutti Frutti I What you think he is saying 0 A wa bop a loo bop a wap bop bop Tutti Frutti oh Rudy 0 Pat Boone quotAin t that a shame 0 brought a little conservative respectability to the image 0 quotI had to change some words because they seemed to raw for me I had to be selective and change some lyrics but nobody seemed to care I made it more vanilla I Pat Boone on quotTutti Frutti 0 Desperate housewives 0 quotRock and roll has a good beat and a jolly approach that keeps you on your toes 0 Chuck Berry quotJohnny BGoode o 12bar blues 0 Simple versechorus I Each verse and each chorus comprises a 12bar blues form 0 Food for thought 0 O O 0 Why was 1955 an important year for popular music What do all of these songs have in common if anything What differences do you detect among these songs if any What eements did each of these artistssongs contribute to future rock and roll 0 Rock vs Rock and Roll vs Pop 0 O 7215 Pop Timelycurrent Changes with time Fusion of elements Corporate Youth Safe music Seen as a disposable commodity Progressive lyrics Sophisticated lyrics More instruments more value Musicians more likely to write the songs Seen as timeless art Rock and Roll 1955 1960 o The Decline and Fall of Rock and Roll Civilization 0 Review 0 What aspects of societyculture may have precipitated the sudden rise of rock and roll in 1955 Post war attitude Civil rights Cold war and Korean war attitude Important television shows premiered Disneyland and Mcdonald s competing What aspects of youth society and culture may have precipitated the sudden rise of rock and roll What are the differences between country blues and city blues Country blues were solo and tended to be predominantly male City blues were in groups and mainly women Country was rural city was urban What are some standard forms associated with the blues 12 bar blues I AAB 0 Who were some important figures in the early history of the blues I Mammy Smith I Bessy Smith 0 Characteristics of hillbilly music I Walking base 0 Artists associated with early country 0 Similarities between country and early blues I AAB structure I Similar subject matters jealously love murder I Both developed in the south I Differences Race Topics to be covered 0 The Brill Building and teen idols 0 American Bandstand 0 Folk music 0 Sweet soul 0 Surf music Artists to be discussed 0 The Ronettes Fabian Paul Anka I Phil Specter Question of the day 0 quotTeen idols girl groups and songs composed and produced by professionals are often seen to represent the severe decline of rock that was reversed only with the British Invasion of 1964 Covach pg 113 The Brill Building 0 New York City 0 Girl Groups I Emerged on the heels of successful male doowop groups I Brill building songwriters 0 Carole King and Gerry Goffin 0 Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil o Ellie Greenwich and Jeff Barry 0 Jerry Lieber and Mike Stoller Phil Spector Producer The first big producer to make a name for himself Inspired by Richard Wagner I Saw his compositions as quotLittle symphonies for kids Multiple instruments ex three guitars instead of one Pioneered multitrack recording I Echoreverb effects Ronettes quotBe my baby 0 Contrasting versechorus I Different music for each Paul Anka 0 Born in Canada relocated to LA at 15 I Called every record label in town looking for auditions o Moved to New York one year later I Signed with ABCParamount records quotDianaquot was his first hit Career died with the emergence of the Beatles quotPuppy Love I Fine example of saccharinesweetness that characterized postrock and roll music circa 1960 0 Hit no 2 quickly on the Billboard Hot 100 0 Still active today I Mostly known as a songwriter I Recent albums include Rock Swings I Wrote the theme to the Tonight Show Fabian o quotI was molded manufactured to fit a certain ideal and I ll probably wind up with a plastic tombstone o Promoted on American Bandstand I Sold 1 million copies of quotTigerquot I Appeared on Ed Sullivan Show I Covered in Time magazine So 0 Which is more important to you and why the lyrics The melody The beat The image Dick Clark or Radio on the TV 0 0 Dick Clark I Disc Jockey at WFIL in Philadelphia I 1956 moved to TV to host Bandstand 0 Later American Bandstand Brought respectability to rock and roll I quotgenial and softspoken I Personable and polite he manages to sound as if he really means such glib disc jockey patter I Insisted on a dress code for the show 0 No smoking no tight sweaters or dresses 0 Wrote quotTo Goof or Not to Goof o The Kingston Trio 0 Folk revival I Directed at mature rock fans I Familiar songs I Acoustic instruments I Political in nature 0 The Ventures Instrumental only no singing Had a hand in starting Surf Rock Sold 30 million records world wide Got started at Mike s Blue Moon Tavern in Tacoma March 1960 recorded quotWalk don t run I Took some convincing to get it distributedplayed 0000 I Spent 18 weeks on Billboard charts peaking at no2 I Big hit in England Germany Mexico and Japan 0 Wrote the Hawaii FiveO theme song 0 The Fabulous Wailers 0 Pacific northwest rock in the 805 I Largely instrumental I A lot of saxophone 0 quotTall cool one 1959 7715 0 Why do the Beatles get their own chapter 0 Why does Beethoven get his own chapter Innovation in form Innovation in instrumentation Amalgamation of styles 0000 quotArtist as romantic hero I Overcame deafness 0 Three Style Periods 0 Early compositions are modeled on predecessors 0 Middle innovations to received traditions 0 Late introspective intellectual clear breaks from tradition 0 Buddy Holly 0 Born in Lubbox TX Started as a country recording artist Played on a Lubbock radio show Signed to Decca Records in 1956 0000 Opened for Elvis in Lubbock I Led to a more rockoriented sound 0 quotThe single most influential creative force in early rock and roll I Career lasted about 18 months I Released 3 studio albums 0 The chirping crickets 1957 0 Buddy Holly 1958 o That ll be the Day 1958 0 One of the first to write perform and record his own songs I quotPeggy Sue I quotThat ll be the Day I quotMaybe Baby 0 Pioneered two guitar bass drums ensemble 0 Made the Fender Stratocaster the guitar of choice for musicians 0 First album with a group on the cover 1957 0 Buddy Holly Influence 0 Beatles I Name inspired by the Crickets I First recording as the Quarrymen quotThat ll be the Day I John Lennon wore his glasses because of Buddy Holly I quotThree chords a group standing up there playing their instruments 0 quotThat ll be the day 1957 vs quotLove me do 1962 I That ll be the day 0 Ch V1 Ch Instrument ch V2 ch refrain x4 I Let me do 0 Introinstrument Ch X2 V1 Instrument verse Ch Refrain o The day the music died 0 Buddy Holly killed in plane crash 0 British Invasion Post WW2 0 Teddy Boys became the quotModsquot 0 Rockers 0 British Culture 0 BBC British Broadcasting Corporation I 3 radio channels 0 Light entertainment 0 quotSerious musicdrama 0 Regional mix 0 Skiffle o Influenced by Jazz country blues quothillbillyquot music 0 Improvised instruments I Guitar bass washboard suitcases and brooms I quotdo it yourself aesthetic o Lonnie Donegan I Influenced by American Folk artists I Lonnie Donegan and his skifer group 1954 o The Quarrymen o Started as a skiffle group 0 Strongly influenced by Chuck Berry and Elvis as well as Buddy Holly and the Crickets 0 John Lennon I Father abandoned his family I Uncle George died I Mother killed by a drunken offduty policeman 0 Paul McCartney I Mother died of cancer when he was 14 I Coped with music 0 Ringo Starr I Parents split when he was very young I In and out of the hospital due to chronic illness 0 George Harrison I Life wasn t too bad actually 0 Became the Beatles 0 The Beatles 0 Played strip clubs in Germany in 1960 for long hours 8 hours a night which forced them to get creative with their music 0 Hamburg I 5 trips I 50100 shows per trip I 5 hours a night on stage I 1200 performances by 1962 0 Presented workingclass life as interesting as more interesting than middleclass life 0 The Second British Invasion 0 Beatles came to America in 1964 o LBJ was ignored as crowds chased the Beatles 0 During the 9 day visit Americans bought 2 million Beatles records and more than 25 million in memorabilia o Came to Seattle in August 21 1964 I Stayed at Edgewater Inn I Transported in ambulances 0 quotLove me do 1962 I First commercial release 0 quotShe loves you 1963 I Bestselling single in British history 0 quotI want to hold your hand 1964 I 1 on the charts when the Beatles arrived in America in February 1964 0 quotTicket to ride 1965 I Middle period Beatles 1 in the US and UK 0 quotEleanor Rigby 1966 I Expands the instrumentation found in pop music by using string orchestra o Other songs added other uncommon instruments 0 quotWithin you without you 1967 I Demonstrates influence of Indian music 0 World music influence unusual for the time 0 Never releasedcharted 0 quotBeing for the benefit of Mr Kite 1967 I Uses tape loops of organ chords played backwards and looped o The studio becomes an instrument 0 Never releasedcharted o quotBlackbirdquot 1968 I quotlate style a quotvisionary ballad by Paul I From the white album 0 quotCome together 1969 I Another example of quotlate style 0 Which 3 songs would go into a chapter about the Beatles and why 0 quotShe loves you quotI want to hold your hand and quotWithin youwithout you because those first two are the most wellknown of their songs and presents the image of the Beatles that everyone knows while the third is much less known and presents a different side of the band 0 Why should the Beatles get their own chapter 0 Why shouldn t the Beatles get their own chapter 7915 quotLouie Louie history of Rock in the Pacific Northwest 0 Battle of the Blues 0 September 21 1957 quotBattle of the Blues I Eagles auditorium on Union in downtown Seattle I Little Junior Parker and Bobby quotBluequot Bland 0 Opening act Richard Berry 0 Richard Berry O 0 Born in Louisiana in 1935 Moved to LA the next yea r o Wrote quotLouie Louie in 1955 I Recorded it on Flip Records quotLouie Louie O O 0 Released as a Bside Received little airplay sold like hotcakes after this concert I Broadway Records in Tacoma 1324 Broadway I Broke into the Seattle Top 40 by early November Musical characteristics I Jamaican ballad style I Driving rhythm in drums and guitar I quotBuffoonquot low bass voice I Threechord riff comprises the entire song I Versechorus structure same music throughout lyrics are the only distinguishing feature The Blue Notes 0 O O O O Tacomabased group Lead singer Rockin Robin Roberts I Worked as an errand boy for Broadway Records Kept lyrics the same but dropped the Carribean influences Banned from playing in city limits due to illicit behaviors quotOne more song went on for 45 minutes Rockin Robin and the Wailers 0 Rockin Robin sang with the Wailers for a short time I Loved quotLouie Louie and wanted to record it I First single released by Tacoma s Etiquette Records I Sold 15000 copies in Puget Sound region I Topped local radio charts Kingsmen 0 From Portland OR 0 Heard Rockin Robin s version on a jukebox I quotWe have to learn this song 0 Recorded it in one take in 1963 I Mistakes were made I Cost them 50 Record didn t sell well 600 copies Got airplay on WMEX in Boston I quotWorst record of the week 0 January 1964 quotLouie Louie became the 1 record in the country FBI Investigation o The Kingsmen were packing up when they got confronted for the obscenity in their coven Frankfort IN boy played the record at 33rpm and heard the FUCK in the song Governor Matthew Welsh heard the record and his quotears tingled I Aides and broadcasters agreed ITOM Interstate Transport of Obscene Material act Lasted 2 years Record was banned in locations throughout the country I Record sales soared 0 quotAs a matter of fact we found the record to be unintelligible at any speed we played it 0 RECORD FOUND FREE OF OBSCENITIES EXAMINERS FAILED TO DECIPHER LYRICS BECAUSE NOBODY NOTICED THE DRUMMER SAYING quotFUCKquot IN THE BACKGROUND 0 Paul Revere and the Raiders o Hailed from Caldwell ID 0 Played at the Headless Horseman a teen club in Portland 0 Recorded the song in 1963 in Portland in the same studio as the Kingsmen o The Sonics o Tacomabased rock group formed for the sole purpose of learning to play quotLouie Louie o Signed by Etiquette Records 0 Musical characteristics I IiiiivI instead of IIVVIV I Horrible acoustics sounds like it was recorded in a gymnasium I Very high levels o Louie Louie in films 0 Nationa Lampoon s Animal House 1978 brought the song back to the spotlight 0 quotMaximum Louie Louie o KJFC radio in 1983 o Lasted 63 hours included 800 different versions of the song 0 The impact of quotlouie louie o The first song learned on the guitar for I Jimi Hendrix I Kurt Cobain 0 Nearly became the state song of Washington and Oregon in two separate instances I Almost Live 0 Why quotLouie Louie o What might account for the popularity the impact and malleability of this song I The really recognizable and catchy melody I The simplicity of the song in general 0 It s accessible 71415 The American counteroffensive 0 Topics 0 o o o 0 Artists 0 o O O The evolution of Folk The evolution of Surf The Monkees Authenticities Bob Dylan The Byrds Simon and Garfunkel The Beach Boys The Monkeys o The Beach Boys 000 Sung in close harmony Complex instrumentation Not so interested in lyrics One of the few groups that could hold their own against the Beatles I PetSounds1966 I Phil Spector influence 0 The Monkees o Inspired by the Beatle s film quotA Hard Day s Night 0 quotThe Monkees really becoming a band was like the equivalent of Leonard Nimoy really becoming a Vulcan 0 Show debuted in 1966 0 At some point their tours outsold the Beatles and the Rolling Stones combined 0 Bob Dylan 0 Alan Lomax led to the rise of Bob Dylan because his job was to collect American Folk music for the library of congress Discovered Woody Guthri who wrote quotThis land is your land Pete Seeger simplicity and crowd interaction Singersongwriter writes and performs hisher own music I Often the only instrumentalist I Focus on the lyrics more so than the music I Gendered feminine 0 Simon and Garfunkel O 0 quotSound of Silence I The drumelectric guitar version put them on the map A duo of a band o Authenticities o What does it mean for music or a song or an artist to be authentic I Good representation of who they are I Personal experience I Priority on the art of the music over the profit I Staying true to themselves and not selling out I Performer undertakes the creative work songwriting composing themselves 0 There is very little quotdistancequot between the song and the performer 0 quotWe should be asking not if particular stylistic characteristics can be considered authentic or nonauthentic but rather how authenticity is constructed in particular music genres and performers and the strategies used 0 Rock vs Pop 0 What is rock and roll 0 What is rock I Designed to last 0 What is pop I Designed to make money 71615 0 Four periods in the evolution of soul 0 195560 0 196163 0 196466 0 196669 0 195560 0 Black and white artists radio stations 0 Poprock song style with gospel ocals o 1958 Jerry Butler and the Impressions quotFor your precious love 0 Ray Charles 0 Cut his teeth in Seattle 0 quotI got a woman 0 196063 Standardized the quothaphazardquot styles of the first period Revivalist clear churchgospel influence sley Brothers quotShoutquot 1959 James Brown quotPlease please please Ray Charles quotWhat d I say 1959 Staxvolt Memphis based label I Markeye or quotBooker T and the M65 00000 0 196466 0 Mostly southern artists GA FL AL TN o Emphasis on rhythm I Bassdriven not drumdriven I simplification 0 James Brown quotpapa s got a brand new bag 1965 0 Wilson Pickett quotin the midnight hour 1965 I Simple verse 0 196669 0 Recording centered in Memphis and muscle shoals o Otis Redding quotRespectquot 1967 I Aretha Franklin version was more popular 0 Motown 0 Black music designed for white audiences o Started in Detroit I Started by Berry Gordy I Maxine Powell I Cholly Atkins 0 An assembly line style of music 0 quotBaby love Supremes 1964 0 quotTears of a clown 72115 0 Psychedelia 0 San Francisco 0 London 0 Music to enhance a trip 0 Music to simulate a trip 0 What do we do when we take a trip Go somewhere else Relax Party Adventures Research 0000 Meet new people 0 Expand your horizons 0 Conceptual metaphors o The Grateful Dead 0 quotDeadheadsquot o The Beatles and the Doors 0 Sgt Pepper 1967 0 Concept album songs united by a common theme o Included lyrics 0 Was a studio production Ontology the study of being 0 Theodore Gracyk The fundamental state of being for popularrock music is the studio recording 0 Documentary recording 9The Grateful Dead 0 Work of phonography sgt Pepper quotLight my Fire by the Doors Psychedelia s influence Blues influence 0 Cream one of the first groups to succeed because of instrumental skill Eric Clapton I Very well known for being a loud band Jimi Hendrix o Innovations in guitar technique I Tremoloquotwhammyquot bar I Effects pedals distortion wahwah echo 0 NoiseSound effects as much as melody I First to experiment with using feedback as part of his sound The gender of rock 0 Hard rock 9gendered male I Loud I Rough aggressive vocal style I Subject mattertarget audience I Virtuosity highest level of skill in an instrument 0 Associated with power and virility 72315 Progressive Rock 0 Influence of classical and jazz I Compositions I Virtuosity 0 Influence of visual arts 0 Fantasy and mythology 0 Increased reliance on keyboardssynthesizers Emerson Lake and Palmer quotPictures at an exhibition 0 Mussorgsky I Promenade I The gnome Rush 0 Hemispheres album I The trees 0 Unusual time signatures o 4 beats per measure to 5 beats per measure I Free Will 0 1234 1234 beats o 1234561234567 beats 0 Yes Roundabout o Synthesizer 0 Time signaturemeter changes 0 Very dense 0 Vocal harmonies 0 Starts with acoustic guitar 0 David Bowie 0 Uses his bisexuality to sell his music 0 SingerSongwriter 19705 edition 0 Carol King quotTapestryquot I Wrote for the Brill building I Released quotTapestryquot I quotYou ve got a friend 0 Musical Characteristics 0 Carol King 0 James Taylor 72815 The business side of music 0 Commercialization of radio 0 AOR Album Oriented Rock 0 Radio stations sought revenue from advertisers o Corporations bought radio stations 0 Record label consolidation 0 Record label consolidation 0 CBS Capitol MCA Polygram RCA AampM Warner I Top 4 52 of all record and tape sales I Top 2 CBS Warner 38 0 CBS 485 million in profit in 1978 0 Record sales 0 1950 189 million 0 1955 277 million 0 1971 17 billion o 1973 2 billion 0 1978 4 billion Alice Cooper 0 quotThe idea all along was to make 1 million Otherwise the struggle wouldn t have been worth it I am the most American rock act I love money quotSolos under siege 0 quotOn plenty of occasions fans have observed after their first Paisley or Keithe Urban concert quotI didn t know he was such a great guitar player 0 quotBut shorter singles make it possible for stations to play more titles in the course of an hour and the solo parts are where it s the easiest to make an incision so singles often go under the knife 0 quotI think that 235 is the new 330 says writerproducer Ross Copperman o RIAA certification 0 Gold 1958 500000 copies sold 0 Platinum 1976 1000000 copies sold 0 Diamond 1999 10000000 copies sold 0 Back to the 19705 0 So what s the point 0 Boston 0 Adapted bluesrock Led Zeppelin Cream etc to radio friendly formats 0 quotMore than a feeling 1976 I Compound AABA form 0 Foreigner o Bluesrock revamped but with the addition of keyboards o Debut Foreigner 1977 sold 5 million copies 0 quotFeels like the first time 1977 I Compound AABA form modified Rock n Roll High School Punk in the Late 19705 0 Topics 0 Subcultures 0 Punk in America 0 Punk in the UK 0 Punk s progeny o What is culture 0 quotThe best that has been thought and said in the world 0 quotA particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behavior quotAll the characteristic activities and interests of a people Culture is dictated by hegemony I quotA provisional alliance of certain social groups can exert total social authority over other subordinate groups I Power appears both legitimate and quotnaturalquot I Has to be won and sustained o What is subculture 0 quotSign becomes the arena of class struggle o quotThe struggle for possession of the sign extends to even the most mundane areas of everyday life 0 How is class livedprojected o The role of the media in creating culturesubculture o The media presents us with filtered images of other groups 0 The media also presents us with images of our own groups 0 What are subcultures o quotSubcultures represent noise interference in the orderly sequence which leads from real events and phenomena to their representation in the media 0 quotThese deviations briefly expose the arbitrary nature of the signs which underlie and shape all forms of discourse 0 Where did punk come from o Backlash against what the music industry had become I Folk music and singersongwriter I Funk I Heavy metal I Music industry as a whole 0 Pete Townsend The Who I quotRock music is not really contemporary 0 Origins of punk 0 Short lifespan 19751978 0 C868 in NYC 0 Sex in London 0 Musical characteristics 0 Emphasis on raw sound noise I Many couldn t even play their own instruments Antidance music Political anarchist nihilist themes OOO Typical instruments guitar bass drums voice 0 Doityourself amateur attitude 0 The Ramones Premiered at CBGB in 1974 Played all original material 0 o o Achieved popularity in the UK before they became popular in the US 0 Characteristics I Very short songs I Noisy fast I Simple chord progressions I Not very political or artistic o quotI wanna be sedated 1978 0 Punk in the UK 0 Economic conditions in the mid19705 Britain I 1000000 unemployed I 18 inflation o The Sex Pistols o Founding members I Guitarist Steve Jones I Drummer Paul Cook Lead Singer Johnny Lydon Malcom McLaren owned the fashion store quotSexquot Sid Vicious their most loyal fan 0000 Only one studio album I Never mind the Bollocks 1977 o The Misfits 0 quothorror punk 0 Music sounds like 19505 doowop but with violent gothic lyrics I Creates a sense of irony or friction between content and context 0 Formed in 1977 by lead singer Glenn Danzig and bassist Jerry Only 0 Named after Maralyn Monroe s final movie 0 Devillock o quotVampiraquot o Punks offspring Disco 0 Dance music of marginalized peoples o The music of these groups has been absorbed into disco s sound Disco 0 Studio production 0 Escapist 0 Recorded and synthesized 0 Punk 0 Homemade 0 Political 0 Live 0 The DJ 0 Clubs couldn t hire live music 0 D15 dictated disco taste and style 0 Beginnings of continuous music 0 Changes that disco brought 0 Rise of recorded music in clubs 0 33 rpm 12 disco mix or long version 0 Record producers rise to prominence o Disco flooded the market in the late 19705 0 Musical characteristics Pounding emphasis on every beat 0 Produced in a studio using electronics 0 Live performance was rare 0 Lush strings prominent percussion chantlike vocal o Homosexuality and disco 0 Disco had its roots in the gay community 0 Live acts shunned gay clubs clubs hired D15 0 quotDisco sucks 0 The Village People 0 Members I Cowboy I Construction worker I Soldier I Policeman I Native American I quotleather freak 0 First gaystraight crossover act 0 Sold 10 million albums worldwide 0 Hits include I quotYMCAquot I quotMacho Man I quotIn the Navy 0 quotRecuperatingquot a subculture o Subcultural signs dress music etc a converted into massproduced objects 0 Dominant behavior relabeledredefined by dominant groups 0 Saturday Night Fever 1977 o Disco ended by the time this came out 0 White appropriation of black innovation 73015 MTV Revitalized the Bee Gee s careers Crossmedia marketing I Songssoundtrack promoted the movie I Movie promoted the songssoundtrack Movie grossed 130 million Album sold 15 million in the US 30 million worldwide 0 The early days of MTV 0 Important early videos 0 Songs 0 The buggies O I quotvideo killed the radio star Duran duran I quothungry like the wolf 0 From the 705 to the 805 O O Disco was basically dead Recession 0 Factors impacting the record industry 0 O 0 MTV Video games I Atari 2600 Other new media VCRs Cassette tapes I Cheaper than LPs I In 1983 cassette sales were better than LP sales I Home taping I Sony Walkman Compact Discs CD s were introduced in 1983 I High quality sound I Nonlinear I Demand allowed record companies to sell them at very high prices quotthe medium has become the message I Marshall McLuhan Signal to noise ratio I Closeups of faces I Highcontrast images I quotlike looking at the world through a tea strainer What television does well I The overriding bias of television then the bias which contains all the other biases is that it offers preselected material which excludes whatever is not selected 0 Who makes these selections I Interacting with an artificial environment I Separation of the audio and the visual o How does this affect music I quotartificialunusualness 0 TV presents perspectives that are impossible in nature I Technical events test 0 Raise your hand each time there is a cut zoom pan voice over or text ove ay 0 Public television 23 events per minute 0 Commercial program 810 events 0 Advertising 2030 events I Television at the beginning of 1980 0 Cable television 0 Satellite broadcast technology 0 Television deregulation I Television deregulation 0 Extended television licenses o Expanded number of television stations a single entity could own 0 Abolished guidelines for nonentertainment programming 0 Loosened restrictions on amount of advertising that can be carried 0 Deregulation of competition I The birth of MTV 0 MTV was to be a quotfusion of TV and the home stereo 0 Most heavily testmarketed television station in history 0 Debuted on August 1 1981 o Grew from 25 million viewers to 17 million viewers in 1983 I Fastest growing network in history I Only 40 of American households had cable 0 First video quotvideo killed the radio star by the Buggles I quotvideo killed the radio star 1979 0 British artists were already acquainted with music videos 0 Few radio stations in the UK 0 MTV imported many British artists as a result 0 A second British invasion I Duran Duran I Eurythmics I David Bowie quotHungry like the wolf 1982 o Draws on Indiana Joneslike imagery 0 quotI m on a hunt I m after you Music and the visual o The way an artist looks is now crucial o Duran Duran was successful partly because Simon LeBon looked good 0 Other groups exploited this situation in unusual ways I Culture Club I Eurythmics MTV as racist o Billboard magazine survey in 1983 o 100 videos in heavy and medium rotation during one week 0 None by black artists MTV as sexist 0 Many videos objectified women and were sexually charged 0 Madonna and others would come along and undermine these charges of sexism Making the video 0 Cost 0 15000 for concert type footage o 4050000 for concept videos 0 quotbeat it cost 150000 thriller cost 300000 Superstar rockers in the 19805 Michael Jackson 0 Born to a musical family 0 Had great success with the Jackson 5 0 Thriller Madonna Janet Jackson LaToya Jackson Most successful album of all time o 12 grammy awards 0 Sold 65 million copies Characteristics 0 Something for everybody 0 Heavy metal beat it o Funkdiscobilliejean o Ballads 0 State of the art digital production 0 Revolutionary concept videos to accompany songs Professionally trained as a dancer Musical style is heavily dance influenced OOO Extremely controversial 0 Successful as an actress 0 Madonna Controversy o Borderline 1984 interracial love 0 Truth or date 1991 Xrated documentary 0 Madonna was the target of attacks from the religious right and the feminist left 0 Bruce Springsteen 0 Early work in 19705 garnered much critical acclaim o The star who wasn t I Projected an image of the everyday working man 0 quotBorn in the USA 1984 I Sold 11 million copies I Spent 2 years in the top 40 I Produced 7 topten hits I The title track was used by both political parties in the 1984 election 0 Enduring popularity I 2003 sold out 10 nights at giants stadium 0 55000 seats x 10 nights 0 79 million gross 0 quotWeird Al Yankovic o Parodied all of the top hits of the 19805 0 Other megastars of the 19805 Pnnce Whitney Houston Lionel Richie Phil Collins Peter Gabriel Billy Ocean OOOOO 8415 0 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 0 Mission exists to educate visitors fans and scholars about the history and significance of Rock and Roll 0 Criteria for induction 0 Artists become eligible for induction 25 years after the release of their first record Criteria include the influence and significance of the artists contributions to the development of rock and roll Charity Rock 0 Bob Geldof 0 Band Aid 1984 0 We are the world 1985 0 Live Aid 1985 0 London and Philadelphia 0 Broadcast to 160 countries seen by 16 billion people 0 Raised 67 million dollars 0 Farm Aid 22 sept 1985 0 Willie Nelson John Cougar Mellencamp and Neil Young 0 UIUC o Raised 10 million 0 Continues today 0 911 tribute to heroes 9222001 0 Concert for New York City September 2001 8615 Lite Metal 0 Grew out of hardcore in LA 0 Radio friendly MTV friendly 0 Love fantasy escapist themes lust 0 Guitar bass drums and keyboard 0 PMRC Parents Movie Resource Council 0 Parent Advisory stickers are because of them Medium Metal ca 1987 0 Notable bands 0 Guns n Roses 0 Skid Row 0 Motley Crue 0 Music is a little edgier 0 Subject matter is more raw Heavy Metal 0 Emphasis on speed and virtuosity o Darker themes political social 0 Downplayed image 0 Fewer music videos 0 More modest appearance 0 Until the Head banger s Ball 1987 SpeedThrash Metal Rap Bands 0 Nuclear Assault 0 Anthrax o Kreator o Slayer o Nitro Kreator 0 First to do quotCookie Monster singing Slayer o Satanic imagery Nitro 0 Most metal thing ever 19705 South Bronx Robert Moses 0 Urban planner o CrossBronx Expressway displaced 50000 people 0 This lead to parties in the parks I Clive Campbell 9 Kool Herc 0 Wanted to throw a party to raise money for back to school clothes 0 Noticed that people looked forward to the break where the music dropped out and the percussion went wild Founding Fathers 0 Kool Herc Isolated and repeated breaks 0 Grandmaster Flash Perfected technique and equipment I Perfected scratching of records 0 Afrika Bambaataa quotmaster of records 0 Chief Rocker Busy Bee Sylvia and Joey Robinson 0 Sugar Hill Gang quotRapper s Delight 1979 Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five 0 quotThe message 1981 I First really socially conscious song that made it to the mainstream Four Pillars of Hip Hop 0 MCing o DJing o Breakdancing o Graffiti 0 later knowledge I Hip hop culture I Rap music of Hip Hop culture 81115 Alternative Goes Mainstream or Why 1991 0 Songs to be covered Nirvana quotSmells like teen spirit Mariah Carey quotEmotionsquot Primus quotJerry was a race car driver IceT Midnight Garth Brooks quotFriends in low places 0 Why 1991 o SoundScan 0000 0 Independent labels 0 The Billboard Hot 100 o Billboard would poll record store owners to see what was selling I Bribery was common 0 1989 RIAA estimated that rap had a 6 market share among 1029 year olds I Don t believe the hype o Billboard adopted SoundScan to measure weekly sales figures 0 May 25 1991 I Created blockbuster mentality big opening week sales 0 Independent Record Labels I Seen as heroes by their customers I Seen as laboratories by the major labels I PreSS Estimated 5 share of market I PostSS 12 share of market 0 SeattleOlympia 0 Bruce Pavitt I Evergreen College Student I Band Tiny Holes I DJ on KAS I Started Subpop Records 0 First release in 1986 Subpop top 100 compilation 0 Second release Dry as a bone by Green River in 1987 0 Singles Club 0 Subscription fees for singles 0 First one quotlove bugbig cheese by Nirvana What is o o o Subpop brought us Sound garden Nirvana and Pearl Jam Grunge Distorted guitar driven music Antivirtuosic I No guitar solos Dark gloomy lyrics Abrupt dynamic changes Physical appearance downplayed I Ripped jeans I Flannel shirts I Work boots I The physical appearance became a fashion statement Nirvana O O O 0 Nirvana started the 905 From Aberdeen WA I Kurt Cobain Dave Grohl Krist Novoselic Nevermind 1991 I Sold 4 million copies in 3 months quotSmells Like Teen Spirit 1991 quotPackaged Pop 0 O O Packaged pop is characterized by the following I Emphasis on vocalists and quotmega star identity I Little reliance on live instruments Visual aspects I Image is very important I Trendsetting Heavily produced and the artists don t have much say or creative license Mariah Carey OOOOO Primus 0 Born in New York Mother was an opera singer father an astronautical engineer Met Tommy Mottola record executive for Columbia at a party and signed a contract Known for cowriting most of her songs Debut Album selftitled released in 1990 Four hit singles including quotlove takes time I Album was 1 on the charts for 11 weeks quotEmotionsquot I From her second album Emotions I Fifth consecutive 1 hit I Nominated for Best Female Performance quotThe band that should not be I Bassdriven band I Nonmelodic guitar I Unusual lyrics delivered like rap 0 quotSailing the seas of cheese 1991 I Went gold 0 quotPork Soda 1993 I Debuted in the top 10 The Rise of Rap in LA 0 LAPD 0 Chief Darer Gates 19781992 0 How big of a problem were gangs I 200 street and 10 motorcycle gangs I 205 homicides I 1711 robberies I 2574 felonious assaults I 117 rapes o How big of a problem were drugs I Half of all crimes in LA were narcotics based 0 Crack 0 Started appearing in LA mid1982 o Inexpensive form of cocaine highly addictive I Very intense very short high 1530 minutes 0 Became newsworthy in 1986 with the overdose deaths of Len Bias and Don Rogers 0 LAPD o Destroying houses in an attempt to bring an end to the gang and drug activity 0 Rodney King 0 Pulled over by LAPD in 1991 o Beaten by officers caught on video tape 0 Riots erupted following the acquittal of four police officers involved in the incident in 1992 0 West Coast Rap 0 Slower tempo I quotset to the tempo of LA cruising o Contained graphic portrayals of street life 0 Used first person narrative o The Birth of Gangsta Rap 0 quotWhat impressed me about NWA and EazyE was that these guys lived the things that they talk about All I was hearing in the news was the perspective of the police 0 IceT 0 Born Tracy Morrow I Born in NJ moved to LA 0 Mixed up in gang life 0 Rhyme Pays was the first to be labeled voluntarily with a parental advisory sticker 0 Considered the first major gangster rapper Power in 1988 quotMidnightquot 1991 0 First person narrative storytelling o quotcliffhangersquot before chorus 0 Sound effects add to the realism SoundScan 0 Country music was selling more than previously thought Country s Popularity 0 TNN The Nashville Network I 16 share vs MTV s 06 share 0 Country radio was the second most listened to format What is Country 0 Traditionalists argue that this was not country music I quotHat acts 0 Did succeed in bringing country to a much larger audience New Country 0 Pop crossover o Importantforerunners I TheJudds I Reba McIntyre I Randy Travis 0 Instruments used I Violin fiddle I Guitars 0 Acoustic pedal steel I Pianokeyboards Garth Brooks No fences 1990 Ropin the wind 1991 1 selling solo artist of all time 6 diamond selling albums At least 2 GB albums every year in the top 100 00000 Combined elements of several genres I Country I Rock Shows I Chris Gaines Lollapalooza o Organized in 1991 by Perry Farrell ofJane s Addiction I Janes Addiction Living Color Nine Inch Nails IceT Butthole Surfers o 92 featured Seattle bands 0 93 closed with primus 81315 0 Birth of the Blues 0 1914 AfricanAmericans begin leaving the south 0 1917 New Orleans closes its Red light District leaving many musicians out of work 0 The Blues 0 Adaption of slave work songs 0 The Great Migration o Escaped Jim Crow laws only to be confronted with quotthe new Jim Crow I Redlining I Profiling o AfricanAmericans left the rural south to settle in the urban north 0 The quottimeshift paradigm Verse 1 childhood Chorus advances the narrative Verse 2 adulthood Chorus reinterpreted OOOOO Verse 3 old ageafterlife Music of the future 0 Vignettes 0 American idol 0 Symphony in Beeps 0 Collecting music 0 Mediating experience 0 American idol Debuted in June 2002 99 million people watched the premiere 22 million watched the finale Regularly draws 30 million viewers 000 They tried to sell it on the American dream concept that you can go from rags to riches by being on the show Kelly Clarkson won Season 1 Kelly Clarkson I quotsince U been gone I Characteristics of 905 megastars 0 Focus on voice image etc 0 Carrie Underwood I Season 4 winner o Unlikely celebrities I William Hung 0 Website received 4 million hits in the first week 0 TV appearances 0 Recording contract with Koch International 0 Valorization of the amateurdeath of expertise o The American Dream 0 How do we measure success particularly on a show like American Idol o Is William hung a success A failure 0 What factors account for his popularity 0 Spinoffs o The singoff o The voice 0 Nashville star 0 The X factor 0 Symphony in Beeps 0 quotwe have woven ourselves into a ubiquitous braid of tiny musics 0 Everything is beeps o Ringtones I Monophonic MIDI files I Newly composed polyphonic ringtones I Soundfile ringtones I By 2003 25 billion in sales 10 of music sales I South Korea 0 2003 Ricky Martin album prereleased as ringtones 0 10000 tracks downloaded in a few weeks 0 Brian Eno and Microsoft I Contracted by MS to compose a 3 second start up song for Windows 0 Collecting music 0 What do we collect when we collect music 0 How has the digital age transformed what we collect o What effect has compacting had on our collecting 0 Have we reentered an era of the single vs the album 0 Mediated experience 0 Mediatization the filtering of experience through media technologies I Mediate I Media 81815 0 Simple verse 0 Defining characteristic alternating verse and chorus 0 Same music for the verse and the chorus Contrasting verse and chorus 0 Different music for verse and chorus compound AABA Songs on the test Other songs 0 quotForAnyonequot I StarAnna o quotAlivequot I Rockwell Powers 0 quotReconnectedquot I Barbara Trentaange o quotHersongquot I Shaprece o quotThelittlest worm I Caspar Babypants I quotkindiequot music scene 0 quotDig me out I Sleater Kinney o quotWelloftimequot The Yev 0 quotspace needle I The MC Type
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