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Date Created: 10/08/15
Study Guide Biology 1320 Exam 2 Chapters 45 Chapter 4 Energy The ability to do work and move matter Kinetic Is the energy of movement eX Light sound movement potential energy Is stored energy exergonic Reactions that release energy breaking down glucose in cellular respiration endergonic reactions Reactions that require an input of energy generating carbohydrates in photosynthesis entropy Measure of the degree of disorder in system the higher the entropy the greater the disorder enzyme Is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction Without being consumed 0 substrate The material or substance on which an enzyme acts 0 noncompetitive inhibition Inhibitor that binds to a part of the enzyme other than the active site 2What is chemical energy and What specialized molecule stores the energ Energy released from a substance or absorbed in the formation of a chemical compound during a chemical reaction The energy released from ATP or glucose during a chemical reaction is an example of chemical energy 3In your own words What are the first and second law of thermodynamics 1 energy can39t be created nor destroyed 2 Entropy is increasing as energy changes forms 4 Is cell respiration endergonic or exergonic and Why What about photosynthesis 1 Cellular Respiration Exergonic 2 Photosynthesis Endergonic 5What is activation energ The activation energy is the energy required to start a reaction Enzymes are proteins that bind to a molecule substrate to modify it and lower the energy required to make it react 0 How does an electron transport chain work The electron transport chain aka ETC is a process in which the NADH and FADH2 produced during glycolysis B oxidation and other catabolic processes are oxidized thus releasing energy in the form of ATP The mechanism by which ATP is formed in the ETC is called chemiosmotic phosphorolation 0 What is a couple reaction How does coupling transfer energy from ATP to muscles chemical reaction with a common intermediate in which my is transferred from one side of the reaction to the other An example is the formation of at whichis an endergonic process and is coupled to the dissipation of a proton gradient 0 Describe in simple terms a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell In a pathway the initial chemical metabolite is modified by a sequence of chemical reactions What are the two main mechanisms for regulating metabolic activity Changing the activity of a pre eXisting enzyme Changing the amount of an enzyme 0 Define solute solvent gradient concentrations How do each of these items in uence diffusion 0 1Solute is a substance that can be dissolved dispersed as atoms ions or molecules 0 2Solvent is a uid capable of dissolving a soluteWater is called the quotuniversal solventquot 0 3Gradient is a physical difference in temperature pressure charge or concentration of a particular substance in a uid between two adjoining regions of space 4Concertration defines the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent 0 What is diffusion and what are the underlying principles this is closely related to the item above Particles move from high concentration to low concentration that is they move down their concentration gradient facilitated transport and osmosis Facilitated Transport is passive transport that requires membrane proteins Osmosis the diffusion of water down its concentration gradient Explain the difference and understand the principles behind isotonic hypertonic and hypotonic hypotonic solution Has a lower solute concentration Water moves across a membrane away from the hypotonic solution A hypertonic Solution is one with a greater solute concentration Water moves across a membrane toward the hypertonic solution Isotonic solutions have equal concentrations of water and equal concentrations of dissolved substances No net water movement What is active transport the cell uses energy and a transport protein to move a substance against its concentration gradient 0 Endocytosis is the energy requiring process of bringing material into the cell from the extracellular space What are the three different types of endocytosis and what items are brought into the cell for each type Endocytosis allows a cell to engulf uids and large molecules and bring them into the cell There are three types of endocytosis Pinocytosis quotcell drinkingquot moves liquids into the cell Receptor mediated endocytosis moves specific molecules into the cell Phagocytosis quotcell eatingquot moves large particles into the cell What is exocytosis Exocytosis uses vesicles to transport substances out of cells Eljgljlj Chapter 5 Photosynthesis 0 What is the structure and function of the different parts of the leaf mesonhvll and stomata Mesophyll the inner tissue parenchyma of a leaf containing many chloroplasts Mesophyll is the green material of a leaf that allows the plant to enact the process of photosynthesis 0 Know the chemical equation for photosynthesis 6 C02 6 H20 light energy C6H1206 602 carbon water sunlight glucose oxygendioxide sugar 0 What are the different parts of the chloroplast and Where do the different steps of photosynthesis take surmise r INNER l39lEillltiEiMiiE quot quot m ETEHMAL L t ELLhE mama Ef h F place 0 What is the reactants that 0 into the li ht reaction and What roducts are created ATP and NADPH and water is produced 0 What are the reactants for the li ht inde endent reaction Where do the come from and What are the products of the Calvin chle C02 that comes from the ATP to make sugar glucose 0 What is the role of chlorophyll a and the accessory pigments in the light reaction Chlorophyll a The primary photosynthetic pigment Absorbs blueViolet and red light Re ects green light and instead re ects those wavelengths thus making it green 0 Explain the path of energy from light through the light reactions and Calvin cycle to the generation of the final end products Include the intermediaries we discuss in class Calvin Cycle is a lightindependent metabolic pathway occurring in the chloroplast stoma that converts carbon from carbon dioxide into sugar C02NADPHATP 3 carbon sugar pyruvatesynthesizes simple sugars from carbon dioxide The Calvin cycle takes place in the stoma of chloroplasts 0 How do we measure the intensity of light Which is stronger red light or blue light and why Red light is stronger because of high intensity 0 Understand the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis What light does chlorophyll absorb or re ect Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment in plants It absorbs mostly blue and red light Chapter 6 Cell Respiration How Cells Release Energy 0 Know the chemical equation for complete glucose breakdown glycolysis and cellular respiration and how this relates to photosynthesis The overall equation for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis gluten e 4 oxygen caution dinsti e i water i ATP rei tat n 3 an are tillg 3 sear 0 Where in the mitochondria does glycolysis occur a metabolic pathway occurring in the cytoplasm of all cells one molecule of glucose splits into two molecules of pyruvate Glycolysis occurs outside of the mitochondrion in the cytoplasm 0 What about cell respiration or fermentation Cytoplasm 0 What does glycolysis stand for and what are the reactants and major products that are produced the reaction S U 9 a r b k WO NADHS and WO ATPS 39Glycolysis yields two ATP molecules two electroncarrying NADH molecules and two pyruvates 0 What are the initial reactants and products for the transition of pyruvate into acetylCoA Krebs cycle the electron transport chain and fermentation both pathways of fermentation that result in either alcohol or lactic acid Reactants glucose 2 NAD 2 ATP 4 ADP 4 Pi 3 Products 2 pyruvates 2 NADH 4 ATP Net 2 ATP 2 H20 39C02 stripped from each pyruvate NAD becomes charged with hydrogen During the Krebs cycle the two acetyl CoA molecules are oxidized yielding 4 C02 2 ATP 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 At what steps is C02 produced and what happens to the gas At what steps is C02 produced and what happens to the gas 0 It is produced in the first stage of cellular respiration during the mitochondria reaction C02 is generated as a waste product then it is diffused out of cells into the blood which carries it to the lungs where it is exhaled 0 What happens to cellular respiration if no oxygen is present Electrons would be unable to move through the ETC and H would not be pumped across the inner membrane 0 Why does the mitochondria enter fermentation when there is no oxygen present Fermentation because the reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid 0 What happens to cellular respiration if FADH2 or NADH cannot give up their hydrogens Fermentation happens 0 How much ATP is produced during glycolysis Krebs the electron transport chain and fermentation 4 2 0 During fermentation two products can be formed either lactic acid or ethanol C02 What is the reason for converting Dvruvate into these alternative bVDroducts 0 What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is where energy is made using oxygen This happens in activities such as running a marathon Anaerobic respiration is where energy is made in the absence of oxygen It39s only a short term way of producing energy quickly ie during a 10 sec sprint Chapter 7 DNA Structure and Function 0 What are the four nucleotides found in DNA and how do they pair up with each other Adenine Guamine Cytosine Thymine so it s AT and GC 0 What are the three components of a nucleotide and in a DNA helix what parts are facing the interior and which are facing the exterior 3 components 1 Phosphate group2 Deoxyribose sugar3 One of the four nitrogen containing basesInterior is nucleotides Exterior is phosphates and sugars 0 What is Chargaff s rule A always bonds to T with double bonds and G always bonds to C with triple bonds 0 What is complementary base pairing What is the complement of 5 CGCATGTCAGC3 B ases that bond with each other 0 Describe the different types of mutations in DNA sequence Insert Mutation when one or more nucleotide pairs are inserted into the DNA double helixDeletion Mutation when one or more nucleotide pairs are removed from the double helixInversion when a piece of DNA is cut out of a chromosome turned around and reinserted into the gapTranslocation when a chunk of DNA often a very large one is removed from the chromosome and attached to a different one 0 What are three wavs RNA differs from DNA Nucleotide base RNA has Uracil instead of Thymine It s a single helix and It caries proteinencoding information helps make proteins catalyzes some reactions There are three major classes of RNA molecules produced What are they and what are their functions Messenger RNA mRNA Ribosomal RNA rRNA and Transfer RNA tRNA What is the function of mRNAMessenger RNA carries copies of the genetic instructions from DNA to other parts of the cellWhat is the function of rRNA Ribosomal RNA forms an important part of both subunits of ribosomeWhat is the function of tRNA Transfer RNA transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages in the mRNA 0 What is transcription versus translation Purpose The purpose of transcription is to The purpose of translatic make RNA copies of individual synthesize proteins whit genes that the cell can use in the used for millions of cellu biochemistry functions Definition Uses the w as templates to Translation is the synthe produce several functional forms protein from an mRNA t of RNA This is the second step oi expression Uses rRNA a assembly plant and tRN translator to produce a p 0 There are 20 amino acids What is the function of the start and stop codons The start COdOh marks the site at which translation into protein sequence begins and the stop codon marks the site at which translation ends 0 Every protein starts initially With a particular amino acid What is the name of the amino acid and What is the codon for itlook at the chart 0 If given a chart of RNA bases and the corresponding amino acids be able to tell me What amino acid corresponds With a particular RNA codon Describe the process of transcription in detail Transcription is the first step of gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA mRNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language These steps happen at the ribosomes 0 Translation Initiation Small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA Large ribosomal subunit binds First tRNA molecule binds 0 Translation Elongation The second tRNA enters the ribosome next to the first tRNA Amino acids covalently bond 0 Translation Termination The ribosome reaches the stop codon 0 A release factor binds Describe the mechanisms that eukaryotes can regulate gene expression Make sure that for any given nucleotide sequence you make the correct complementary base pairs for DNA to RNA DNA to DNA or RNA to protein You Will be given a chart that tells What codons relate to Which amino acid 10
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