Unit 2 Exam: Classical Civilization in Mediterranean and Middle East, The Classical Period, and The Rise of Islam
Unit 2 Exam: Classical Civilization in Mediterranean and Middle East, The Classical Period, and The Rise of Islam HIST 2301 - 001
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HIST 2301 History of Civilization before 1500 Unit 2 Exam Study Guide Chapters 68 Chapter 6 Classical Civilizations in the Mediterranean and the Middle East Persia Greece and Rome v39var ARABIA 500 Mllea The Persian Empire ca75003CE The Persian Empire at its greatest Extent The Persian Empire A New Perspective in the Middle East Est in the 6th century 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great Cyrus nomadic warriors conquered most of Mesopotamia the Babylonians Persian Empire was the first to govern many different racial groups while attempting to maintain equal rights for all peoples The Persian Empire conquered peoples retained culture Known for political innovations All things known about the empire comes from sources outside the empire Characteristics 1 Tolerance of languages and cultures Jews were treated well 2 Authoritarian politics The Persians would conquer Kingdoms and allow their Kings and elites to maintain in power as long as allegiance was to Persian Empire and King and taxes were paid Imperial infrastructure with highways a postal service and inns for travelers 4 Expansion led to bureaucracy Formed alliances with city states 9quot Darius the Great The son and successor of Cyrus Extended empire East to the Indus River Valley West to Egypt and North to Anatolia Greeks Ruled Persia from 522 to 486 BCE with absolute authority Held himself responsible to the god Ahuramazda Therefore obligated to rule in a responsible and ethical manner Would not interfere with local customs as long as his subjects paid their taxes and kept the peace Recommended to read the inscription on side 6 of Chapter 6 notes to understand his persona Zoroastrianism The Buddhism of the Persian Empire Monotheistic Revision of Sumerian religion by Zoroaster Life as the battle between good and evil Last judgment at death decided eternal fate based on life on earth Ideas that would carry on into the Christian religion Religion that was not allconsuming energies could flow into artarchitecture Prohibited slavery The Persian Wars The End of The Persian Empire Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great but revived in part after the Hellenistic period Short lived empire in comparison to most The expanded empire provided much of the Middle East with a long period of peace and prosperity Although ultimately conquered by Alexander Persian language and culture remained influential The Cyclades Sickladees A group of more than 100 islands in the Aegean Sea between mainland Greece and the island of Crete No written records of the early Cycladic people remain We know that they had traded with the larger island of Crete to the south by 2200 BCE The Eastern Mediterranean Greeks initially established on the peninsula in 1700 BCE However more complex societies developed between 800 600 BCE Creation of citystate Polis Bigger than city but not as big and developed as a nationcity and surrounding area Due to mountainous terrain Unification through trade written language and Olympic Games Sparta and Athens leading citystates Citizens where loyal to their city not Greece until the Persian Wars All citystates featured slavery and citizenship was limited to free males usually with property Each CityState ranged in government style from democratic excluding slaveswomen to dictatorial Minoan Culture in Crete A civilized society developed in Crete around 1600 BCE The name comes from the legendary king Minos Feudal in nature The Minoans conquered parts of the Greek mainland and established its first civilization at Mycenae The Minoan legacy influenced later Greek civilization and was the forerunner of ancient Greek culture The Legend of Minos Classical Greece built on legacy of earlier regional civilizations in Middle East Egypt Crete amp Mycenae Internal warfare and IndoEuropean invasions destroyed the early civilization by 1100 BCE By 800 BCE a new classical civilization began to emerge Greek politics and culture flourished until 400 BCE until Alexander the Great Pericles Perohcleez 5th century BCE Aristocrat participating in a democratic political structure Ruled by wise influence and negotiation Could not prevent the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta which led to poverty and poH caldecHne Philip of Macedonia swept through the weakened peninsula leading the way for his son Alexander the Great The Conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedonia 356BCE 323BCE died at 32 Son of King Phillip II of Macedonia Formed a military empire Introduced Hellenistic Period a time when Greek culture spread widely in the Middle East North Africa and southern Europe Never lost a battle Expanded the empire with unprecedented speed Better at destroyingbringing down than at rebuilding Did not replace the institutions he tore down Conquests gave region the common language Greek Macedonian Conquest Alexander the Great invadeddefeated the Persian Empire in campaigns between 334 and 331 BCE He also took control of Egypt Alexander pressed on into India but was halted when his army refused to go on Alexander s Empire Shortlived but succeeded in uniting Greek and Middle Eastern culture Called Hellenistic period Alexandria established in Egypt Trade flourished interregional contacts Advances in philosophy science art No accounts while he was alive making embellishment possible The CityState as a Political Unit After 800 BCE the prevailing form of government was the citystate polis Polities varying in size and embracing a city and its dependent agricultural hinterland Many citystates formed independent and frequently in conflict with each other By 500 BCE most citystates were based upon principles of loyalty to the public community rather than to an individual ruler The Rise of Democracy in Athens Although Greece was an agricultural society the polis or citystate not the farm was the focal point of cultural life And of all the early citystates Sparta was perhaps the most powerful being a highly militaristic society Athens took the lead in democratic development but Solon s reforms did not resolve all societal tensions Peisistratus ruled as a tyrant but following his death the reformer Cleisthenes reestablished a council elected by all citizens Athens continued to depend upon a popular assembly of citizens as sovereign authority and citizens formed the army and the judiciary Most officials were chosen by lot and were responsible to the assembly Greek Diplomacy and the Tensions of United Effort Many citystates founded colonies along the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea Colonization relieved population pressure and provided grain supplies and markets for Greek products The citystates were only occasionally united The Delian League and the Peloponnesian War In 490 BCE a Greek soldier named Pheidippides ran to bring the Athenians the news of the defeat of the Persian army at Greek hands at Marathon This was the first quotmarathonquot later to become a lasting feature of the modern Olympics The Greek civilization initially covering an area dwarfed by the Persian Empire was later spread by the conquests of Alexander to western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean Athens versus Sparta The Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta lasted from 431 to 404 BCE Athens weakened by a disastrous plague and an unsuccessful invasion of Sicily surrendered to Sparta in 404 BCE Sparta was the victor Sparta did not embrace democracy but a dictatorial Kingship War was fought over resources and powe Athens supported the Ionian Greeks when rebelling in Anatolia against the Persians uniting Athens with other states creating quotGreeksquot The Hellenistic Period Sparta failed to dominate Greece after its victory The Peloponnesian War had destroyed any basis for Greek unity and weakened the major participants A conquering northern state took control of Greece and expanded into the Middle East and Egypt The shortlived empire of Alexander the Great greatly expanded the impact of Greek culture The new empire quickly fragmented into states run by former generals Citystates still existed but politics centered on military empires The three principal dynasties were the Ptolemies in Egypt the Seleucids in Persia and the Antigonids in Macedon and Greece Greek and Hellenistic Culture The genius of Greek civilization expressed itself more in culture than politics Greek culture made lasting contributions especially in art and philosophy to the Mediterranean world and the larger Hellenistic world created by Alexander Religion Philosophy and Science The Greeks did not create a major religion A pantheon of unruly gods and goddesses presided over by Zeus interfered in human affairs The effort to understand phenomena through rational observation became a hallmark of Greek and Hellenistic culture Socrates urged consideration of secular criteria for moral decisions Aristotle stressed the importance of moderation to balance political and religious instability while the Stoics focused on inner moral independence Other philosophers attempted to define appropriate political structures Plato proposed an ideal government where philosophers ruled Socrates taught his pupils to question conventional wisdom believing that humans had a duty to improve the soul Plato believed human reason could be understood by three perfect forms the True Good and Beautiful which characterized nature Read slide 35 about Plato and NeoPlatonism Literature and the Visual Arts All arts received attention but drama had a central role in Greek culture The Greek division of drama into comedy and tragedy remains a Western tradition The Athenian dramatist Sophocles used tragedy to demonstrate the fragility of human virtues Aristophanes did the same through comedy Greek literature included a strong epic tradition and formal historical writing emerged with Herodotus and Thucydides Also Homer s Iliad In the visual arts the Greeks emphasized architecture ceramics and realistic sculpture Dramas and Comedies come from Ancient Greece Rationality in Ancient Greece Few advances in scientific findings Speculations about nature39s order Theories on elemental principles Impressive advances in geometry especially from mathematician Euclid Hellenistic theory from Ptolemy about the sun39s motion around a stationary earth was incorrect but influenced much of western thought and speculation Herodotus Herodatus First official historian of the era Attempted to compile Greek history Author of the Persian Wars Possibly the first account of historical bias Political Institutions in Greece Direct democracy Demos exemplified in Athens Assembly of citizens met every 10 days though many did not qualify as quotcitizensquot Excluded women slaves and those without property Brief terms for officers Officers chosen by lot not election eventually became impractical and representatives were elected Aristocratic assemblies most widely used aristocracy quotrule of the best Served as a check on executive power Sparta39s singular militaristic aristocracy Pericles as aristocratic leader KNOW THE MEANING OF DEMOS democracy POLIS political citystate ARISTOCRACY the rule of the best Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society Standard features of an agricultural society a large peasantry and a landowning aristocracy Feudalistic Some peasantsindependent farms HAD land but lost it to feudalism Economic and Social Structure resembled that of other civilizations where warlike invaders had settled down to agriculture The aristocracy was based on land ownership and military service Many independent farmers owned land and claimed political and social rights Slavery justified by Aristotle was vital to a society and economy dominated by aristocrats devoted to political and cultural pursuits Slave Society Slave Society Slavery has existed since early times even in a civilization as quotenlightenedquot as that of ancient Athens Scholars who study slavery continue to argue over the place of the slave in ancient Greek society Generally speaking slaves who lived in the cities were well treated could have their own separate jobs and were sometimes freed for loyal service Slaves who lived outside the cities and toiled in the mines or fields were subject to much harsher treatment and literally might be worked to death Aristotle on Slavery 4th c BCE Aristotle Aristotle 384322 BCE was the most noted student of the philosopher Plato Wrote extensively about the natural world politics government and society in general Aristotle provides the following insight into the position of Greek slaves in ancient Athens A A human being who by nature does not belong to himself but to another person such a one is by nature a slave B A human being belongs to another when he is a piece of property as well as being human Does not dehumanize slaves but recognizes them as beings C A piece of property is a tool which is used to assist some activity and which has a separate existence of its own READ SLIDE 4445 for full thoughts on Slavery Men Women and Social Divisions Greek culture emphasized the husbandfather in control of a tightly structured family Women performed vital economic functions especially in farming or artisan families Powerful female personalities often were influential within households Although women had some legal rights both law and culture held them inferior Cultural Encounters Blending of two cultures regardless of type of contact is called syncretism Hellenistic period brought Indian and Mediterranean culture together Mathematicsartistic stylesClo thing Maintenance of separate religions in India and Greece stabilized Indian culture for people believed that imported art styles served their own religion Rome and Its Empire When the Greek and Hellenistic worlds declined many of their political cultural and economic traditions were carried on by the Romans in their own distinct society Its civilization included much of the Greek and Hellenistic sphere in the eastern Mediterranean and extended beyond it into Europe and North Africa The Roman state a monarchy in 800 BCE was eventually run by aristocrats who established citystates for the Roman republic Expanded to southern Greek colonies Military prowess in three Punic Wars between 264 and 146 BCE won them Carthage western Mediterranean Greece and Egypt Roman tonitory people p 4 given Roman citizenship Pom 1 W l 1 Allied areas people not given citizenship o l 2 cl k f m 7 C lAlno w 139 I l x a Fit i quot K lt j o Adhdc he a vi quot x v a Q Corsica 63 I x l5 9 2 E V mums W l Vquot q x 1 x39 5g yasowvs Qe 2 t 2 IN IK cSardiru39a f R V r 39 vx 3 2 392 l W a A r I GREECE f5 5 K V l J o 100 Mlle A a r J f o 100 lam quot m39 39 y Above The Roman Empire at Greatest Extent quot Sic 8 Left Rome in 264 BCE 539 2 VI Canhagegtf 0 M9ymcuoe The First Romans Civilized Etruscans arrived in Tuscany Etruria perhaps from the east about 800 BCE and established themselves in a loose corporation of selfgoverning citystates Rome s people were ndoEuropean migrants who assimilated agriculture and interacted with indigenous peoples and Greek colonists They were ruled for a time by the Etruscans but secured their independence around 510 BCE Some parts of Italy where Greek Began as citystates became monarchy became republic ended and empire Unstable politics Highly Unstable Civil wars led to the victory oflulius Caesar in 45 BCE Julius Caesar wanted to establish republican in Rome but what assassinated by conservative aristocrats End of traditional institutions Augustus Octavian Caesar established new structure for Roman Empire in 27 CE Empire maintained through 180 CE Pushed into Western Europe Tolerated different local political units Great degree of autonomy once could become Roman despite background Decline and Collapse Empire declined for about 250 years Manifested in dropping trade and birth rates In 313 CE Constantine adopted Christianity in an attempt to unite the empire Loyalty dispersed and the empire could not defend itself from northern nomads The Roman Empire collapsed in 476 CE Politics in Greece and Rome Active participation in military led to political interest and responsibility Emperor not divinely sanctioned and no cohesive political institution as in China Many tyrants seized power effectively within this system Though some institutions from citystates remained the Empire had to consider local autonomy in its many conquered regions Strict hierarchy in Roman army Roman Emperors did not claim to derive from Gods Tyrants were totalitarian monarchs not absolute because of God Republican Rome The Romans created a republic to avoid tyrannical control They adapted the Greek alphabet to form their Latin version The early constitution allowed aristocrats to control the most important offices Lowerclass citizens had political and economic rights they elected tribunes to voice their interests The Senate was the center of political life with two annually elected consuls as chief executives Senate existed to legitimize the tyrant The Struggle of Orders The system balanced the various interests of society but gave aristocrats the most weight Roman politics was a struggle between the aristocrats patricians and poor commoners plebeians This was known as the Struggle of Orders in which the plebeians slowly but steadily won political and legal rights until they became fully integrated into Roman government Time made the idea of Roman Citizenship become inclusive The Expansion of Rome Rome s conquest of Italy took more than two centuries By 263 BCE Rome had conquered all of Italy and learned both the value of political alliances and the wisdom of extending Roman citizenship to those they conquered The Struggle with Carthage a series of three Punic Wars Hannibal is defeated by Romans The Macedonian Wars Rome learns from other societies does not eradicate their culture Roman Law Rome s greatest contribution to governing was the development of legal codes Jurists constructed an extensive legal system based upon general principles and case precedents Twelve Tables introduced 450 BCE First code of law of the Roman republic Empire developed this further Commonsense fairness Objective rules over personal whim The Culture of the Roman Republic The Roman cultural foundation was based on Greece Writers and artists followed Greek models Romans advanced rhetorical arts and gave much attention to ethical philosophy n architecture engineering advances made larger buildings possible adapted to Greek forms Urban planning efforts were made to regulate building safety and living conditions in Rome and other cities A chief Roman contribution was the dissemination of its culture to the empire s regions in the Middle East northern Africa and Europe Land Distribution Problem By the middle of the second century BCE Rome faced a serious manpower problem peasants were losing their land and many could no longer qualify for the army A political threat was also developing as patrons had less control over clients who fled their land In 133 BCE a young tribune from an aristocratic family Tiberius Gracchus attempted to solve these problems by proposing that public land be redistributed to the poor Julius Caesar 100 44 BCE Transformative political official serving as governor first then dictator following his military triumphs n conquering Gaul modern France and Belgium Caesar won glory and prestige When the Senate acted to limit Caesar s power the latter used his oya troops to instigate a civil war that he won by 45 BCE when he returned to Rome Defied republican tradition of Rome There one year later Caesar had himself declared dictator for life but was assassinated by a group of idealistic senators who hoped to restore the Republic Killed by conservative members of the Senate for his ambitious personal goals Octavian s Rule Roman conquest of the Hellenistic world and the end of the Hellenistic Age and of the Roman Republic It also brought Octavian Augustus to power At the age of thirtytwo Octavian was absolute master of the Mediterranean world Octavian was determined to avoid the fate ofJulius Caesar He gradually developed a system which left most of the real power to himself but pretended to be a restoration of the republic with Octavian as princeps quotfirst citizen The governmental system of the early Roman Empire is thus called the principate The Roman Empire from Augustus to 180CE The Senate elected magistrates made laws and exercised importantjudicial functions These powers were nevertheless illusory in that the Senate merely assented to candidates or laws placed before it by the emperor From the ruins of the Roman Republic a new political system emerged in which the emperor held absolute power for life During this process Rome itself the imperial center became a model for the whole empire The Problem of Succession After Augustus s death the succession of his stepson Tiberius established a hereditary monarchy for the empire which included emperors adopting able successors Monuments Public monuments built by emperors included the practical such as aqueducts and the entertaining for instance the Collosseum The physical remains of the Roman Empire can still be seen from England to North Africa This is an example of an aqueduct The Romans built cities and imported colonists into the conquered territories This required supplying the new populations with water carried from far away by the aqueduct system Slavery Slavery was a common and accepted institution in the ancient Mediterranean practiced by virtually every civilization and society Because of the prevalence of slaves in these societies there were usually numerous laws governing the institution of slavery the treatment of slaves any rights that a slave might have and what rights and responsibilities slave owners might have Roman law typically a fairly comprehensive set of codes includes many slave laws that give us an interesting view into the past The principal distinction made by the law of persons is this that all human beings are either free men or slaves Slaves in the economy Vital for agricultural work and silver mines In households Taken from conquered lands Conditions varied across Greece and Rome Roman Society Very little innovation was made in agricultural technology due to upper class39s luxurious desires Husband and father controlled family structure but Roman women held some influence within the household Oppression of Roman women existed but was less severe than in China women could own some property The development of imperial autocracy and the expansion of imperial power affected both the work and the lives of Roman writers Trade brought Rome into an almostglobal network Encounters with Germanic peoples Roman Golden Age and lntellectuals Roman intellectuals did not advance GreekHellenistic science but preserved it in textbooks Much more practical than Greeks Engineered aqueducts and architecture Art and literature prevailed as the most significant element of culture drawing inspiration from the human form and condition The first two centuries of the Roman Empire were indeed a quotgolden age but problems began to emerge at the end of this period The cost of government kept rising as barbarian pressure increased and the size of the army and bureaucracy grew There seems to have been a population decline Taxes were raised and the emperors resorted to debasing the coinage which brought inflation Chapter 7 The Classical Period Directions Diversities and Declines by 500 CE J HUNS ATLANTIC HS OT OCEAN 051306 RURGUNDst 9 A 0quot x O g Q l5 BLACK SEA Ravenggq Q I 64 8 rs 9 Adrianople 4 5 Constantinople M 39 l f o 39 R O M 3quot b h H e IIZ39ZZquot p quot 39t ro39a quot D O l u 0 g 89 39 CYPRUS CRETE 075 o 9 94 NEAN SEA 0 Alexandria I 5O MILES The End of The quotGolden Age The first two centuries of the Roman Empire were indeed a quotgolden age but problems began to emerge at the end of this period The cost of government kept rising as barbarian pressure increased and the size of the army and bureaucracy grew There seems to have been a population decline Taxes were raised and the emperors resorted to debasing the coinage which brought inflation Moreover political confusion led to weak emperors armies participated in political designation and plague decimated the population Decentralization led to weakened power of the emperor and crippled systems of trade and production The army is a political fool because general must chose side Exam Question What major factors precipitated the fall of Roman Empire Power Struggle Mostly between the four different unofficial centers of Rome Era of fragmentation Lack of Unity disintegration Invasions Wars and Plagues barbaric Goths Trying to Restore the Empire Some emperors attempted to revive the empire to little effect Diocletian r 284 305 CE tried to improve tax collection Constantine r 312 337 CE established a second capital city and adopted Christianity Wanted to reunify EW Established Constantinople as Eastern Capital of Rome to solidify his powerreign across empire German invasions took advantage of the weakened western half of the empire Council of Nicaea 325 CE The Recline and Fall of Rome Renewed barbarian invasions in the fifth century put an end to effective imperial government in the west Another region affected by Rome39s fall was North Africa and the southeastern Mediterranean shores Christianity spread but not uniformly Eventually sam dominated local religion Western empire was hit the hardest Rome s Importance Declines The Origins of Christianity The early history of Christianity is an integral part of the Roman experience The Jews ruled by Rome believed in the coming of a messiah The early stages of what became Christianity arising in a remote province and primarily appealing to poor people focused on reforming aspects ofJewish practices and had little to do with Roman culture Roman Ruler s perceived the loyalty the Christians had to their faith over the state as a threat Paul converted Jews and nonJews to Christianity with the help of his roman citizenship Jesus Jesus a Jewish prophet and teacher was regarded as the son of God by his disciples He urged purification ofJewish religion and taught a moral code based upon love charity and humility Jesus won many followers among the poor but roused suspicion among Jewish Community leaders They helped to convince Roman authorities that he was a danger to the state Jesus was crucified in 30 CE Seen as a reformer Appealed to the poor and damned of the time Known to perform miracles Early Christian Symbols The fish remains a symbol of Christianity to this day quotIchthusquot the Greek word for fish is an acronym for the Greek words that mean quotJesus Christ Son of God Saviourquot The anchor positioned between the two fish had long been a symbol of safety among sailors Christians adopted it as a symbol of hope of a future life and it is seen on many early Christian tombs Tenants of Christianity As said aloud in class Need to know for the Exam The trinity Father Son and Holy Spirit The concept of salvation through Christ The afterlife of either Heaven or Hell The Bible is the holy book where the New Testament fulfills the law of the Old Testament Atonement the paying of others sins and transgressions The reconciliation of man and God via Jesus The gospel The good news is the message that Jesus preached and spread Christianity Message ofJesus and his disciples 12 There is a single God who loved humankind despite earthly sin Succeeded because it provided spiritual equality of all people during a time when Greek and Roman religion did not accommodate the poor Missionaries easily traveled within the Roman Empire The New Testament Judaism Jesus and the Roman Empire At the same time that Augustus and his heirs were establishing an imperial government in Rome religious controversies in the eastern Mediterranean province ofJudea were beginning to focus on the teachings of an itinerant teacher named Jesus For several centuries many Jews had come to believe that the coming of the Messiah anointed one promised in the Hebrew Scriptures was immanent The Messiah would be a descendant of David and a savior of the Jewish people Exactly what kind of savior was open to debate Some expected the Messiah to overthrow the Romans Although Jesus discouraged resistance to the Romans his followers believed him to be the Messiah And while Jesus was executed by the Romans at the request of certain Jewish leaders his followers claimed to have seen Jesus three days after he had been killed His followers called Christians began making converts among both Jews and nonJews Today more than two billion people claim to be Christian The Gospel The Gospel According to Luke is one of many accounts of the teaching and active ministry ofJesus in the 3 years before he was executed and 1 of4 to be included in the Christian Scriptures New Testament Neither of the Four Gospels where written down The Gospel is actually the first part of a history of the early Christian movement The second half known as the Acts of the Apostles is also included in the Christian Scriptures According to Christian tradition Luke was a physician who traveled with the Apostle Paul While not a modern historian Luke was concerned with using reliable eyewitnesses and sources in composing his history The following selection contains the Sermon on the Mount the classic statement of Jesus39 ethical teachings It also contains passages that highlight the presence of Rome in Judea The Spread of the Gospel By the 4th century CE Christians comprised about 10 percent of the population of the Roman Empire The work of Paul of Tarsus helped to codify and solidify Christian belief prominent Jewish member of the Pharisees during early Christian organization Originally hostile to Christianity underwent an intense conversion experience Paul was a Roman Citizen who originally prosecuted Christian Made changes which evolved the religion beyond a Jewish reform movement Used Roman principles to organize the church Included bishops and appointed ministers Catholic Church proclaims Peter was the first pope Constantine and Christianity By 324 the empire was united again by Constantine who built the new capital of Constantinople on the site of ancient Byzantium Rule of the vast empire was split between two emperors one ruling from Rome one from Constantinople Constantine supported Christianity vigorously and called the Council of Nicaea in 325 to solidify Christianity s hold on the empire The Byzantine Empire with its capital in the great city of Constantinople was based in western Asia and southeastern Europe and expanded into Eastern Europe Constantine solidified the declining Rome through Christianity Justinian and Christianity In the 6th century Justinian with a secure base in the east attempted to reconquer western territory without lasting success This sixthcentury of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian 527565 CE demonstrates the unity of church and state that characterized the Orthodox world Surrounded by officials of both church and court the Emperor is portrayed as both priest and king Unity of political and religious authority was a defining trait of Byzantium and later of Russia Notes and paint points of the Constantine video watched in class CONSTANTINE THE CHRISTIAN EMPEROR FROM NIS Serbia 3 Century AD Rome in Chaos Broken within attacked from the outside BarbariansW amp PersiansE Con s father overthrew Emperor and became senior deputy in the West Diocletian was senior in East Con refused a political marriage and made no politically expedient decisions THE COURT OF DIOCLETIAN The new Roman enemy was the Christians 2 of population because their monotheistic belief was offensive and dangerous to the believed contract between Roman emperors and the gods Romans prosecuted Christians bible burningschurches destroyedexecutions but Con sees Christian commitment and loyalty to the faith as trait of courage and unity Con was popular amongst armycitizens but was not chosen Caesar so that the West was not united by the single family and Rome was not divided into two After father s death without consent of D C became Emperor of GaulEngland but needed legitimacy Con declared himself against Christian prosecution and released Christians gaining small but powerful minority support He then crossed over to siege the rest of the empire Con claimed to have a divine vision which inspired Christians and convinced the rest when he was victorious over his enemies Con became Augustus of Western Empire his brother in law ruled the East Con played his cards right with senators and became head of Christian Church and controller of secular world Con broke contract with his brother in Law with the support of the East and became senior emperor Later had his brother in law executed which was unnecessary since he was efficient leader A NEW ROME Expanded Byzantine Europe meets Asia and established Constantinople the Eastern capital out of political necessity and desire to establish self in East with a grander capital than Rome Con needed to prove the new capital would last unlike the rest so decorated the city with monuments Executed his own son because he was becoming too ambitious and suffocated his wife RUTHLESS Used church to consolidate power and felt religion at heart of empire would unite people under him Did not force majority of nonChristian subjects to become Christians but persuaded them via pro Christian incentives and was successful in doing so Political ideology unified the empire even more nterna peace began but outside threats remained and increased Con goes to war at 58 against the Goths and captures them Those who accept become subjects to Rome with farm and benefits The applicants accepted land to become part of army but Rome becomes TOO BIG TOO FAST and throws the empire off balance When Con began to feel sick in his mid 60s he asked to be baptized for the first time to be cleansed of sins and guarantee he was without sin to immediately enter heaven ROME AFTER CONSTANTINE Christianity was sole religion of the empireRome the religious foundation of Europe 70 years later Rome is destroyed Constant power struggles and Civil Wars Very few emperors ruled for a long time and died naturally Short terms and assassinations Past 180 CE Rome is no longer great Constantinople survives over 1000 years after emerging as Rome falls Becomes New Rome QUESTIONS OVER FILM THAT WILL VERY LIKELY BE ON EXAM AND THEIR POSSIBLE ANSWERS 1 What was Constantine s NONRELIGLOUS legacy Uniting the Empire under a single Ruler Establishing a new and powerful capital Constantinople Multiple victories and endurance in war even in old age 2 Was Constantine s conversion political Yes By uniting the empire under a NEW and SINGLE religion he strengthened it Being Christian was beneficial in his empire so it promoted unity under the faith Became head of the church and state doubling his power though the Council of Nicea Hybrid Religion Chapter 8 The Rise of Islam Civilization in the Middle East Arabia Before the Prophet Wk RM Late 6th century 570 CE Vzwzquot new LE BYZANTINE jg EMPIRE The beginning of the postclassical period was marked by the decline of the classical empires Islam the Byzantine Empire and the Arab people were strongly defined during this time Between two powerful empires Byzantine and Persia Islam Emphasized Allah39s great power Pillars of faith prayer fasting charity and pilgrimage called the hadj Legalistic observance extended to proper relations and even personal hygiene Forbade alcohol and restrained sexual behavior until marriage Strict punishments supported the view of Islam as an elaborate legal code The Spread of Islam In the 7th century CE the Arab followers of Muhammad surged from the Arabian Peninsula to create the first global civilization They quickly conquered an empire incorporating elements of the classical civilizations of Greece Egypt and Persia Islamic merchants mystics and warriors continued its expansion in Europe Asia and Africa The process provided links for exchange among civilized centers and forged a truly global civilization Muslim scientific and philosophical works written in Arabic made it an international language Very quick and enlightened spread Quran was not to be translated to maintain originalityMade Arabic the official language oParIa KINGDOM OF Iqmme FRANK 7 I f gt 39 g e 1 quot 39 I V quot 39 39 p 39 1 39 Samarkand V quot8601quot quotammo 39 0b 0 KINGDOIA Saragossa Home 213 3 u 8 y Mmrxm I mu I g Kabul MLMDILIEI Tdado 4 N T l N E LC E oC tdoba 39 r 39 39 Gibrahar 3quot 3 mm Tum 9 S u y Hem 5 7 Tangier39 Kaimn i mm 9 439 4 M A a H n I a r Po 5 E 22A N W BALUCHISTAN EXPANSION 0F ISLAM 1390 750 C E e 7 l 539 J 1 Under Muhammad 621 632 h I g 39 A R A 5 I A g Under the rstfour caliphs 632 661 t V quot 5 Under tha Umawad caliphs 661750 39 x gt Expansion routes 39 0 E 3990 X11155 The expansion of Islam The Life of Muhammad and the Genesis of Islam In the 6th century CE camel nomads dominated Arabia In 610 Muhammad began receiving revelations transmitted from god via the angel Gabriel Later written in Arabic and collected in the Qur an they formed the basis for Islam He was initially seen as a threat by Mecca s rulers Converts and practitioners of Islam called Muslims quotsurrendered to godquot Muhammad39s Hejira Flight from Mecca to Medina Marked year 1 of Islamic calendar Muhammad returned to Mecca in 629 and converted most of its inhabitants to Islam Secular and Religious MERGE but people are Muslims above all The Five Pillars of Islam 1 Acceptance of Islam 2 Prayer five times daily 3 Fasting during the month of Ramadan 4 Payment of a tithe zakat for charity 5 The hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca Pillars Explained 1 Shahadah quotThere is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his messenger 2 Salat Prayer Five times daily dawn midday midafternoon sunset and nightfall facing Mecca 3 Aims Giving at least onefortieth of one s assets to the poor and needy 25 4 Siyam Fasting During Ramadan abstain from tobacco food intercourse etc from sunrise to sundown 5 Hajj At least once before death each Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca Division in Islam Rival minority groups Shiites wanted descendant of Muhammad Sunnis mainstream Islam Believed the most faithful and holy man should be chosen to lead Islam spread quickly Appealed both as a religion and as a form of social organization Shi ites Political break off Wanted Muhammad s successor to be one of his relatives Ali cousin and soninlaw Quran and Hadith basic law of Sharia only created after Muhammad Prevailing theme Succession to thrown Sunnis and Shiites can be compared to Catholics and Protestants Religious and political breakoff Muhammad encouraged military effort in the name of Islam in the concept of holy warjihad struggle The Qur an God reveals His Word to Mohammed through the Angel Gabriel for 26 years Qur an is considered to be the direct Word of God scribes wrote down what Mohammed recited before his death Memorized by many Collected to form the Qur an which means quotrecitationsquot Qur an confirms completes and explains the messages of the previous prophets from Noah to Jesus Christians and Jews are referred to as quotThe People of the Book of the People of Scriptures not infidels Contains prayers stories of prophets guidelines for social conduct forewarning of Day ofJudgment Forgiveness repentance faith in one God good deeds Hadith is the collection of separate sayings of Mohammed Muhammad 570 632 CE Despite a lack of formal learning experienced an abrupt understanding of Allah Visions impelled the prophet to spread Muslim faith Death led to the use of the religion as a proponent in a successful war subsequently converted the Arab people Arab government called the caliphate Determined Arab armies conquered much of the Middle East and northern Africa only stopped by the Pyrenees The Appeal Of Islam as it Spread Islam had no centralized hierarchical Clergy in control like the Pope Muslims did not force conversion Tolerance for other faiths under its rule Taxed nonMuslims for military protection Conquest spread Islam After taking control of all the Middle East Muslim armies moved into North Africa Took Alexandria and Carthage in 698 Crossed into Spain at Strait of Gibraltar in 711 Iberian Peninsula Spain amp Portugal under Islamic rule for 7 centuries Entered France but were defeated by Charles Martel Charles the Hammer in 732 and pushed back south of the Pyrenees The Franks checked the advance north into Europe at Poitiers in 732 but Muslims retained Iberia for centuries By the 9th century they dominated the Mediterranean The Umayyad political capital was at Damascus The caliphs built an imperial administration with both bureaucracy and military dominated by a Muslim Arab elite Government under the caliphate Caliph claimed authority not backed by solid power often assassinated One dynasty Umayyad family moved government to Damascus Syria Umayyads overthrown by Abbasids in 750 Moved the capital to Baghdad Used professional soldiers and slaves in war Unified their empire under Islamic faith Arab language and patronage of art and literature Governorsimperial administrators In Ottoman Empire Caliph is quotSultanquot Islam held that the state should be led by a leader first serving Allah no separation of church and state Usually not feasible in practice No clear principles to guide a state should it fall short of the ideal Abbasid governments relied heavily on the whims of each individual leader Many cruel arbitrary caliphs Some pious some luxurious Turks easily embrace Islam New path of law Sharia straight path Exemplified Islamic political ideals Regulated social behavior economic contacts and outright crime Religious leaders known as ulema who were knowledgeable in interpreting the desires of God39s will in any matter Imams were village authorities who did government work alongside ulema Religious minorities required to pay taxes Decline of the Abbasids Due to internal revolts Turkish mercenaries and loss of key provinces Christian crusaders conquered parts of the Holy Land and nomads encroached further Art literature and theology unaffected Dhimmis Most of the conquered peoples were dhimmis or quotpeople of the book The first were Jews and Christians later the term also included Zoroastrians and Hindus The dhimmis had to pay taxes but were allowed to retain their own religious and social organization refused to translate Qur39an into other languages Family and Gender Roles The adultery of both partners was denounced female infanticide was forbidden Although women could have only one husband men were allowed four wives but all had to be treated equaHy Muhammad strengthened women s legal rights in inheritance and divorce Both sexes were equal before Allah however Polygamy and young marriage popular Women became increasingly segregated from men and made to wear veils and become secluded Islam Today Presentday Middle Easterners still regard themselves as Arabs and Muslims Traditionalists maintain the veiling and inferiority of women that developed toward the end of the postclassical period The concept ofjihad continues to justify militancy in the name of Allah Islamic Society Muslim merchants moved goods from the western Mediterranean to the South China Sea The resulting profits stimulated urban development Mosques schools baths rest houses and hospitals served the public Slaves performed unskilled labor and served caliphs and high officials Trade Route in the Medieval Islamic World By the mid9th century the Abbasids were losing control over their vast Muslim empire Despite the political decline Islamic civilization reached new cultural heights and Islam expanded widely in the AfroAsian world through conquest and peaceful conversion The extensive Islamic world stimulated the exchange of ideas and commodities among its peoples and neighbors Writing Knowledge Muslims were responsible for the transfer of papermaking from China to Europe where it fueled the print revolution in the late fifteenth century More than one hundred paper and books shops in Baghdad by the middle of ninth century Invented paperbased orders of payment the equivalent of modern checks the Persian word sakk is the origin of our word quotcheck The first paper manuscript of the Koran to survive dates from 972 Medieval Islamic libraries had hundreds of thousands of volumes Islamic learning flourished in religious legal and philosophical discourse with special focus on the sciences and mathematics Scholars recovered and preserved the works of earlier civilizations Greek writings were saved and later passed on to the Christian world Muslims also introduced Indian numbers into the Mediterranean world Muslims in India When Muslims gained control of Indian commerce in the 8th century Islamic culture reached Southeast Asia The island of Bali where Hinduism had become firmly based and mainland Southeast Asia where Buddhism had gained popular support remained impervious to Islam Although Africans shared aspects of language and belief their large continent s vast size and cultural diversity made diversity inevitable Political forms varied from hierarchical states to stateless societies organized on kinship principles and lacking concentration of power and authority Christianity and Islam sometimes influenced political and cultural development The Maghrib and West Africa Fourteenth Century From the mid7th century Muslim armies pushed westward from Suez across Tunisia and the Maghrib the west By 711 they crossed from Morocco into Spain Christian states were present in northern Africa and Ethiopia before the arrival of Islam Egyptian Christians Copts had a rich and independent tradition Oppression by Byzantine Christians caused them to welcome Muslim invaders Mali between the Senegal and Niger rivers formed among Malinke peoples who broke away from Ghana in the 13th century Rulers authority was strengthened by Islam The Swahili Coast African Monsoon Routes and Major Trade Routes A series of trading ports part of the Indian Ocean network developed along the coast and islands between the Horn of Africa and Mozambique Town residents were influenced by Islam NEED TO KNOW ON THE EXAM Location of Important Islamic Cities Mecca Medina amp Baghdad CAROLINGIAN Dan a KINGDOM quot 59 I9 SV Oag 6 K Kashgar ELANDALUS Yarkand SPAIN CORSICA BOkha39ao Samggkg cllANA COFdOba a 0 SARDNIA V BALEARC w Gibralta 3 Ceuta Tuni 39 90 13 KHOROSAN MAGRIB Kairouan MALTA Mao7 cm 6 PERS39A ERHANE CYPRUS Baghdad Barca N 854 Damascus s 90L LIBYA y gram Alexandria El Fustat Cairo 39 2 39 I x G l 39 39 0quot Muscat Medlna O MAN HEW ARABIA 0 Mecca 5 o m Boundary of the Caliphate lt97 ruled from Damascus YEMEN ARABAN SEA 0 1000 MILES
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