Study Guide HLTH 4104
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mayah Baker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 4104 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Huber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Epidemiology in Liberal Arts at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Epidemiology Study Guide Exam 1 What is epidemiology Comes from Greek roots 0 Epi upon among 0 Demos population and people 0 Logos study of The study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in populations Fundamental Assumptions of Epidemiology Disease is not random 0 Disease does not randomly choose its victims 0 There are causal and preventative factors that can help prevent disease 0 Determinants of disease aka Exposure risk factors Infectious agents Environmental factors Lifestylebehavioralfactors Examples air pollution HIV alcohol use diet age sexual behaviors etc History of Epidemiology John Grant 1662 o Analyzed weekly reports of births amp deaths in London 0 Quanti ed patterns of disease William Farr o A physician who wrote up the annual reports of the Registrar General used vital statistics data 0 Known for comparison groups marital status amp occupation John Snow 18505 0 Known as the quotFather of Epidemiologyquot 0 Known for testing hypotheses concerning the origins of cholera o Hypothesized that cholera came from water supply where the water actually came from Infectious Disease amp Communicable Disease vs Chronic Disease Communicable and infectious diseases were the main problem in the 19005 due to the lack of vaccines and preventative care Chronic diseases are the main problems that are present now We now have vaccines for infectious diseases so they are not as prevalent Due to this shift in disease epidemiology was needed more Study Designs Descriptive Studies 0 O O 0 Investigate the distribution of disease Person place and time Best for public health planning and generating hypotheses Strengths Data sources readily available Require relatively little time or money Describe patterns of disease distribution Limitations 0 Cannot test etiological hypotheses The 4 C s Case reports amp Case studies Describes the experiences of single patients and groups of patients Strengths Document unusual disease occurrence and identify new disease andor epidemics Limitations no comparison groups Correlation studies 0 Compare disease frequencies from entire populations based on some factor of interest 0 Same group over different time periods 0 Different groups of same period times 0 Exposure measures example 0 Per capita daily consumption of meat 0 Per capita cigarette sales 0 Examples of outcome measures 0 Colon cancer rates 0 Death rates 0 Strengths 0 Quick o Inexpensive 0 Can utilize existing data 0 Limitations 0 Provide data on populations not individuals 0 Cannot control for all differences in populations Crosssectional studies Compares data from individuals 0 Exposure and disease status simultaneously assessed 0 Snapshot of health experience of population at a speci ed time o Strengths 0 Exposure and disease data from individuals 0 Provide important data for public health planning 0 Limitations 0 No temporal sequence between exposure and disease 0 Assess prevalence of disease Analytic Studies 0 Investigate the determinants of disease 0 Data from individuals 0 Explicit assessment of exposuredisease relation 0 2 Types Observational Casecontrol studies 0 Study subjects are selected based on disease 0 Strengths Efficient lnexpengve Good for rare diseases multiple exposures 0 Limitations Temporal sequence Control selection Information bias 0 Cohort studies aka follow up studies 0 Disease free subjects are selected and classi ed based on exposure 0 Follow subjects through time Retrospectively Historical records 0 Everything has happened already Prospectively Nothing has happened yet 0 Strengths maintain temporal sequence direct estimate effect good for rare exposures multiple outcomes 0 Limitations Experimental 0 Clinicaltrials Measures of disease frequency 0 O O Expensive Takes a long time Require a large study size Exposure can change Exposure status assigned by investigator Subjects usually allocated to exposure groups at random then followed Strengths quotGold Standardquot Limitations Costly Can be time consuming Participant noncompliance
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