Study Guide For Test 2
Study Guide For Test 2 PSY 305
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Patrick Carroll in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Chapter 4 Attention Review Attention The ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations Selective Attention Attending to one thing while ignoring others Distraction One stimulus interfering with the processing of another stimulus Attentional Capture a rapid shifting of attention ususally caused by a stimulus such as a loud noise bright light or sudden movement Visual Scanning movements of the eyes from one location or object to another William James definition of attention 0 quotmy experience is what I agree to attend toit is taking possession by the mind in clear and vivid form of one out of what seems several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thoughtquot 0 This definition is considered quotclassicquot because it does define the central characteristic of attention however it does not describe the diversity phenomena that are associated with attention Attention as information Processing Early research began in the late 180039s early 190039s attempted to study the mid using introspection 0 An example of applying introspection to attention would be to show a person a display consisting of different patches of color and instructing him or her to quotpay attention as strongly as you can to the patch in the middle and describe how paying attention affects the clarity of the patch39s colorquot 0 Introspection cause various results differeing from person to person therefore the data was unreliable Broadbent created the Filter Model ofAttention based on his own and previous experiments 0 Colin Cherry 1953 0 Found that although his subjects could eaily shadow a spoken message at the attended ear they could not report what was being said in the unattended ear The ability to focus on one stimulus while filtering out other stimuli became know as the Cocktail Party Effect 0 Because at noisy parties people are able to focus on what one person is saying even if there are many different conversations happening at once A new appraoch to studying attention was introduced by Daniel Broadbent 1950 o Broadbent39s quotFilter Model of Attentionquot 1958 o Broadbent created a model of attention designed to explain how it is possible to focus on one message and why information isn39t taken in from the other message 0 he introduced the Flow Diagram to Cognitive Psychology 0 gt gt Messages gt Sensory gt Filter I Detector gt To Memory gt Memory gt 1 Sensory Memory a Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second and then transefers all of it to a filter Where the red arrow is the message that was attended to 2 Filter a Identifies the message that is being attended to based on its physical characteristics such as the speakers tone pitch speed of talking and accent b Lets only the Attended message pass through to the detectoral other messages are filtered out 3 Detector a Processes the information from the attended message to determine higherlevel characteristics such as Meaning b The detector processes all information that has entered it 4 Output Memory a The output of the detector is sent to shortterm memory which holds info for 1015 seconds and also transfers info to longterm memory which can hold info indefinitely Broadbent39s Model of Attention has came to be known as the Bottle Neck Model 0 Because the filter restricts information flowjust as the neck of a bottle restricts the flow of a liquid 0 The filter doesn t just slow down informationit prevents large portions of information from getting through Broadbent39s Model of Attention is also know as an Early Selection Model 0 Because the filter elliminates the unattended information right at the beginning of the flow of information o It provided testable predictions about selective attention which stimulated further research Modifying Broadbent39s Model More Early Selection Models According to Broadbent39s Model since all unattended messages are filtered out we should not be concious of the unattended messages 0 Neville Moray 1959 tested this idea 0 He did a dichotic listening experiment in which his subjects were instructed to shadow the message presented to one ear and ignore the message presented to the other ear 0 When Moray presented the listener39s name to the unattended ear a third of the subjects detected it o Moray39s subjects had heard their name even thought Broadbent39s model said the filter was only supposed to let through only one message 0 LA Gray amp Al Wedderburn 1960 0 quotDear Aunt Jane Experimentquot subjects were told to shadow the message presented to the left ear 0 Participant reported hearing quotDearAunt Janequot when in actuality quotdearquot was presented to the left ear quotAuntquot was to the right ear and quotJanequot was presented to the left ear 0 The subjects had jumped from one ear and back to the otherthis occurred because they had took the meaning of the word into account Because of the previous results Anne Treisman 1964 proposed a modification to Broadbent39s Model Messages gt Attenuator Dictionary Unit gt To Memory gt gt o Treisman proposed selection occurs in 2 stages and replaced Broadbent39s quotFilterquot with quotAttenuatorquot 1 The Attenuator analyzes the incoming message in terms of Physical Characteristics a Whether it is high or low pitched fast or slow Language a How the message groups into syllables or words Meaning a How sequences of words create meaningful phrases o The final Output of the model is determined in the second stage where the message is analyzed by the Dictionary unit 2 The Dictionary Unit has words that are stored in memory each having a threshold threshold is smallest signal strength that can barely be detected Meaning a word can be detected even when presented softly or obscured by another word According to Treisman words that are common or important such as the listeners name have a low threshold so even a weak signal in the unattended channel an activate that word which is why we can hear our name yelled from across a noisy room Uncommon or unimportant words have higher threshold which require a stronger signal to activate these words 0 According to treisman the attended message gets through plus some parts of the weaker unattended message 0 The attenuator represents a process and not a specific part of the brain o In Treisman39s Attenuation Model of Attention language an meaning can be used to separate messages 0 According to Treisman39s model both attended and unattended messages are identified both pass through the attenuator but the attended message emerges at full strength and the unattened message emerges weaker than the attended Treisman39s Attenuation Model of Attention is sometimes known as quotLeaky Filter Modelquot 0 Because at least some of the unattended message is processed 0 Her model is also an early selction model because it proposes a filter that operates at an early stage in the flow of information This research is IMPORTANT because o It defined some of the basic phenomena of attention 0 Demonstrated how an aspect of cognition could be conceptualized as a problem of information processing A Late Selection Model Other experiments were conducted to show that messages can be selected in a later stage of processing based primarily on their meaning 0 Donald Mackay 1973 Late Selection Model of Attention 0 Subject listened to ambiguous sentence that could be interpretted in more than one way 0 The ambiguous sentences were presented to the attended ear while biasing words were presented to the unattended ear 0 Then different sentences were presented and the subject was asked to identify which one was closest to the meaning to one of the sentences they had heard previously 0 MacKay found that the meaning of the biasing word affected the subjects choice meaning the biasing words presented to the unattending ear must have been processed to the level of meaning even though it was unatended o This is an example of a Late Selection Model of Attention most of the incomin information is processed to the level of meaning before the message to be further processed is selected This research by Broadbent Moray Treisman and others focused on when selective attention occurs early or late and what types of information are used for the selecion physical characteristics or meaning 0 As research continues we concluded there is no ONE answer to quotearlylatequot selection 0 Early selection occurs under some conditions and late selection occurs under others Processing Capacity and Perceptual Load Nilli Lavie introduced concepts of Processing Capacity and Perceptual Loadshe considers 2 factors 1 Processing Capacity a Refers to the amount ofinformation people can handle and sets limits on their ability to process incoming information 2 Perceptual Load a Related to the difficulty of a task some task especially east well practiced ones have low perceptual loads amp tasks that are difficult have high perseptual loads i Low load tasks use up only small amounts of persons processing capacity n High load tasks difficult not well practiced use more of a persons processing capacity Sophie Forester amp Nilli Lavie 2008 o Studied role of processing capacity and perceptual load in determining distraction by presenting displays 0 The task was to indicate the identity of a target as quickly as posssible in a The reaction time for the easy condition is faster than the reaction time for the hard condition b Flashing a distracting cartoon character near the display increases reaction time for easy task more than it does for the hard task 0 Lavie explains her results using her Load Theory ofattention a Low load tasks use few cognitive resources may leave resources available for processing unattended task irrelevant stimuli b High load task use all of a persons cognitive resources and don t leave any resources to process unattended task irrelavent stimuli The Stroop Effect The Stroop Effect was first described by JR Stroop 1953 o The Stroop Effect is a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task 0 This effect occurs because the names of the words cause a competeing response and therefore slow responding to the target 0 The task irrelevant stimuli are extremely powerful because reading words is highly practiced and has become so automatic that it is difficult not to read them The appraoches to attention are important because 0 They are concerned with the ability to focus attention on a particular image or task 0 In every day experience you often shift your own attention from place to place by moving your eyes or shifting attention in your mind and thoughts Attention as Selection Overt and Covert Attention Shifting the eyes from one place to another is called Overt attention Shifting attention from one place to another while keeping eyes stationary is called Covert attention Cental vision is the area you are looking at o Objects incentral vision fall on a small area called the Fovea has much better detailed vision Peripheral Vision is everythingoff to the side Saccdic Eye Movement is a rapid jerky movement from one fixation to the next 2 factors are considered when shifting the eyes 1 Bottomup a Based primarily on physical characteristics of the stimulus 2 TopDown a Based on cognitive factors such as the observers knowledge about scenes and past experiences with specific stimuli Scanning Based on Stimulus Salience Attention can be influenced by Stimulus Salience o Stimulus Salience is the physical properties of the stimulus such as color contrast or movement 0 Capturing attention by Stimulus Salience is Bottomup processing because it depends on the pattern of light and dark color contrast in a stimulus o The task of looking for a blonde girl with blue eyes is an example of bottomoup processing because its asking you to respond to color When attention due to stimulus salience causes an invouluntary shift of attention it is called Attentional Capture o This capturing ofattention is important because it serves as a warnig of something dangerous such as explosion dangerous stimuli or an object moving rapidly toward us Scanning Based on Cognitive Factors Topdown processing is associated with Scene Schemas 0 Scene schemas are an observers knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes 0 The fact that people look longer at things that seem out of place means that attention is being affected by their knowledge of what is usually found in the scene 0 Hiroyuki Shinoda 2001 0 Measured observers fixations and tested their ability to detect traffic signs as they drove through a computer generated environment 0 Observers were more likely to detect a stop sign positioned at intersections than those in the middle of a block o The observers are usin learning about regularities in the environment to determine when and where to look for stop signs Scanning Based on Task Demands A person39s eye movements is determinded primarily by the task A person fixates on few objects or areas that are irrelevant to the task and the eye movements and fixations were closely linked to the action the person was about to take quotJust In Timequot strategy eye movements occur just before we need the information they will provide Covert Attention Directing Attention Without Eye Movements Michael Posner amp Coworkers Asked whether paying attention to a location improves a persons ability to respond to stimuli presented there Posner used a Precueing Procedure 0 Precueing Procedure is determining whether presenting a cue indicating where a test stimulus will appear enhances the processing of the target stimulus The subjects kept their eyes stationary their task was to press a key as rapidly as possible when a target square was presented off to the side On 80 of the trials the cue arrow directed subjects attention to the side where the target square appeared 20 of subjects the cue arrow directed their attention away from the target square The results of this experiment show that subjects reacted to the square more rapidly when their attention was focused on the location where the signal was to appear Posner concluded information processing is more effective at the place where attention is directed 1052015 OneN ote Online Chapter 3 Sensation amp Preception Review Monday October 5 2015 1036 our sensation amp oreceotion is highly incredible because they can quickly identify shadows Scientist have struggled to get computers to identify shadows just as the brain does Vision Agnosia quotnot knowingquotthere is an impairment in visual recognition Prosopagnosia CAN39T recognize faces but can recognize objects Spatial Neglect focusing attention on a single part of the world The purpose of having vision is to allow a person to gather relevant information so that they may react to the world The visual system must make assumptionsthere is an abundant amount of irrelevant factors in the world Sensory System Detects energy in the outside world Initiates sensory responses to that energy Transduction occurs 0 Transduction is the process of converting external energy into neural signals Action Potentials Transduction Occurs in 1 Eye Retina a Photons light alter photosensitive pigmentsin retinal neurons b Photoreceptors chemical reaction initiates action potential 2 Ear Cochlea a Sound waves create mechanic responses i Tympanic Membrane gt Middle Ear Bones gt Oval Window gt Fluids in Cochlea b Cochlear fluids form waves c Membrane floating in waves brush tiny hairs Basilar Memberane d Tugging brushing tiny hairs attached to a neuron intiates action potential mechanosensory cells on organ of corti 3 Tongue Tastebuds a Chemicals in food react with molecules in specialized detectors distributed throughout tongue b Chemical reaction initiates action potential lnfareal Tnerrnal Radiation Some animals have specialized sensors that allow them to pick up infared energy 0 Example Barn Owl ears are asymmetric amp off centered Visualauditory information map together It hears what it sees and sees what it hears The Ege Cones Pick up color and fine tuned detail Rods Grayscale detection they DON T pick up color they pick up MOTION Forea Densely packed cones Optic disk 12 million axons amp blood vessels 0 It is a quotBlind Spotquot There are NO rods or conest is a hole https onenoteoffi ceapps ivecomoonenoteframeaspxF i SD91 68A8436C BD FA95955ampH em u ampC 5810D M 2 SKYWACWSH ampui en U Samprsen U S 14 1052015 OneN ote Online The Retina An electromagnetic radiation transducer The Visual Field The left eye sees what39s on the right and the right eye sees what39s on the left The Superior Colliculus tectum of midbrain contains MAPS of retinal stimulation amp directs eye movement toward stimulation Hubel amp Wiesel Single Qell Recording a method of measuring the electro physiological responses of single neurons using a microelectrode system They discovered quotFeature Detectorsquot 0 Feature Detectors are the ability to detect a specific type of stimuli like movements shapes and angles 0 Without feature detectors it would be impossible to detect a round object such as a soccerball coming towards you at 40 miles per hOUL Selfridge s Pandemonium Model 0 Higher version of processing model Hierachical Model Consist of several different quotclasses or layersquot of detectors the demons in selfridges model 0 The quotfeature demonsquot detect basic aspects of the stimulus such as horizontal lines and angles 0 The quotcognitive demonsquot respond when specific configurations of the features are presentfor example when the lines that make an quotHquot are present the quotcognitive demonsquot would get excited 0 Each demon gets excited responds strongly than other demons when a preferred feature is present and then the quotdecision demonquot makes the decision based on which quotcognitive demonquot is MOST excited Two ngor Visual Patnwggs 2 streams from the visual cortex 1 Ventral Stream bottom of brain i quotwhatquot pathway ii Temporal Lobe 2 Dorsal Stream on top of brain I quotwherequot pathway Parietal Lobe Ungerleider amp Mishkin 1982 o quotWhat and Where Pathwaysquot Task 1 Find food under Novel Object o The normal monkey and the monkey with parietal damage SUCCEEDED 0 Monkey with temporal damage FAILED Task 2 Find food close to landmark 0 Normal monkey and monkey with temporal damage SUCCEEDED 0 Monkey with parietal damage FAILED Motion Detection Akinetopsia Neurological Evidence Motion Effects experiential evidence 0 Waterfall Effect 0 Rotating Gears 0 MotionInduced Blindness TMS Neurophysiological evidence Challenges For Preception Information at the receptors is ambiguous o Inverse projection problem Objects can be blurred or hidden Objects can be seen from differing perspectives 2 types of perception 1 BottomUp Processing i Processing initiated be sensory input https onenoteoffi ceapps ivecomoonenoteframeaspxF i SD91 68A8436C BD FA95955ampH em u ampC 5810D M 2 SKYWACWSH ampui en U Samprsen U S 24 1052015 OneN ote Online 2 TopDown Processing i Knowledge based influences on perceptual processing THESE ARE NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE BOTH CAN BE TAKING PLACE AT ONCE 4 conceptions approaches to perception 1 Helmholtz Unconscious Inference i The Likelihood Principles 2 Gestalt Psychologists i Gestalt shape form PATTERN ii Principle of Pragnoz a Seeing things as concise and meaningful 3 Learning Based Inference i Physical regularities ii Semantic regularities 4 Bayesian Inference i Quantification of inference Wundt Illusion 19th Century 0 Two red vertical lines may appear to look bowed inwards however they are in fact straight lines o The distortion is induced because of the crooked lines in the background a 1 f A f K r39 A rquotX CI 17 is Eff A x Muller Lger illusion Sets of arrows appear to be of diferent lengths however they are the SAME length gestalt Psgchologist Perception Sensation knowledge 0 h figuregroud poblem i 7 7399 Your mind can only see one thing at one timeit can switch very rapidly between the different images but CAN39T simultaneously view both https onenoteoffi ceapps ivecomoonenoteframeaspxF i SD91 68A8436C BD FA95955ampH em u ampC 5810D M 2SKY WACWSH ampui en U Samprsen U S 34 1052015 OneN ote Online 0 Camouflage figureground problem When animals blend in to their surroundings or a hunter dresses in leaves to blend in with trees so deer wont see him gestalt Principles of Form 1 Proximity a Elements that are are often grouped together 2 Similarity a Similar elements are grouped together 3 Good continuation closure a Perceptual mechanisms tend to preserve smoothly continuity in favor of abrupt edges 4 Common fate a Things that move together are grouped together 5 Orientation amp Symmetry a Objects oriented with horizontal and vertical axes or ones that are symmetric are often more percieved as figures Perception Based on Knowledge Depth Perception PerceptualConstancies Depth is CALCULATED not simply quotseenquot https onenoteoffi ceapps ivecomoonenoteframeaspxF i SD91 68A8436C BD FA95955ampH em uI ampC 5810D M 2SKYWACWSH ampui en U Samprsen U S 44
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