Intro to Comparative Politics 2300 Midterm Study Guide Tulane
Intro to Comparative Politics 2300 Midterm Study Guide Tulane POLC 2300
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Midterm Format Identification 4030 of the final grade You can pick 810 terms out of a total of 12 You must identify either the name or the concept and be able to explain it in a paragraph Essay 6070 of the final grade will be similar to essay topics hinted at asking a question similar to What would so and so think of so so s ideas Adam Smith s view on marXism etc essay must include thesis statement August 24th 2015 Introduction of Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method Terms 1 10 Post Hoe ergo Propter Hoe erroneous conclusion that if one thing happens after another the previous event caused the event that followed Correlation vs Causation association of 2 variables does not mean one variable caused the other T eleology presupposed outcomes inevitable events Stephen J Gould biologist see reading for ndings Punctuated Equilibrium point in which a state of growth becomes stable and little to no change occurs for a long time Hannah Arendt see reading in week 6 political writer theorized prospective view of revolution Dependent Variable element that is being measured ie responds to independent variable Independent Variable element that is manipulates dependent variable Ceteris Paribus principle that all else is equal meaning we do not account for factors that are either small or impossible to measure Spurious Correlation an association between two things that have no direct relation to each other August 26th Paradigms Politics Language and Problems of Interpretation Terms 1 Empiricism theory that knowledge comes from our sensory experience 2 Normal Science new knowledge is derived from research or assumptions stemming from accepted facts and paradigms 5 Notes Paradigm Shift when a widelyaccepted set of assumptions and beliefs is proven false and a new explanation surfaces Phlogiston example of a paradigm shift Phlogiston Theory was the theory that ame came from some invisible substance Later replaced by the Oxygen Theory of Combustion Antoine Lavoisier founded Oxygen Theory of Combustion Empiricism idea of facts as being fixed things allows blindness to facts that are not as obvious Kuhn s Theory most science and knowledge has been developed through Normal Science research and creating new theories off of foundational ideas empiricism Paradigm O coined by Kuhn O a set of basic assumptions from which knowledge is developed Kuhn noticed that rejection claims rarely became accepted ie confirmation bias is extremely prevalent Paradigm Shift rejection of a paradigm Politics Aristotle people come together under politics pairing anarchy is very rare politics apply to everyone not just elites Politics is what determines Who gets What How much and from Whom Aristotle theorized that men are inherently political due to their use of language George Orwell had preoccupation with language manipulation August 31st The Industrial Revolution and Adam Smith Prophet of Liberalism Terms 1 2 The Enlightenment period during the 18th century in which political and philosophical thought was particularly emphasized Adam Smith was a political scientist during The Enlightenment Labor Theory of Value theory that the value of a good should be equivalent to the amount of labor that was put in it The Wealth of Nations published in 1776 by Adam Smith examined the question Why was the economic basis changing The Invisible Hand Adam Smith s theory that human tendencies and behavior drove the market and therefore it was selfregulating 5 Moral Sentiments Adam Smith s theory that people will restrain themselves in treatment of others ie everyone possesses some level of empathy 6 Organic Notion of Society notion that the market was a living thing it needed to be kept healthy to be able to sustain a level of productivity Notes Industrial Revolution 0 gradual transformation of nearly every aspect of life 0 4 separate events 0 revolutions in production output I textile industry boom created ripple effect for profit and demand 0 relations in town and country I England transitioned from agrarian society to heavily urbanized society 0 working conditions I transition to regimented work day 14 hours a day 6 days a week 0 social class I created two new classes working and middle Working class had no legal protections I Enclosure Acts drove peasants to the cities by government seizure of land as well as the poor houses in the cities 0 Fundamentally a EuroAmerican event Global Industrialization 0 Countries industrialized in different ways due to timing 0 Each country had a leading sector England textiles 0 Britain was a pioneer because of the supply of labor the supply of capital and the accessibility to markets abroad Navy The Wealth of Nations 0 Markets are not natural they are created through politics Markets are selfregulating not selfsustaining introduced concepts of the Invisible Hand the Organic Notion of Society showed Classic Liberalism more freedom to the market however recognized the aws and inhumanity in laissezfaire O wanted government regulation to the extent of a healthy society 0 did not trust society to not collapse on itself Moral Sentiments 0 people tend to have a level of empathy 0 there are limits to exploitation 0 introduced Labor Theory of Value 0 Smith Put people together and human nature will provide economic efficiency September 9th MaX Weber and the Spirit of Capitalism Terms 1 Martin Luther instrumental gure in the Protestant Reformation founded idea of a Calling 2 Karl Marx essentially turned Weber s ideas upside down see notes on Karl Marx 3 Protestantism embodied ideas of Belief The Calling Asceticism and Predestination 4 Rationalization logic causeandeffect movement argued that world is calculable antihierarchy prorules 5 The Calling Weber s notion that people must act according to God s plan and this drove people towards economic rationale Capitalism 6 Asceticism grew out of protestantism it is the distancing of oneself from materialism in order to get closer to God Notes MaX Weber 0 proposed the Spirit of Capitalism was born out of Calvinist Protestantism O by fulfilling your jobduty you were fulfilling God s presupposed plan Vocational Calling 0 took the Calvinist notion of either being destined towards salvation or damnation O believed that ideas and culture drove economic and political change 0 Protestantism encourages rationalization which then created a large labor force 0 One was theologically inclined to work but not indulge 0 this idea A created a cycle of production and investment without consumption Capitalism Calvinist Protestantism notion of The Calling from Martin Luther encouraged Asceticism it was a sin to indulge Contrast of Smith and Weber innate tendencies driving economic patterns vs culture and ideas religion driving economic behavior September 14th Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto and the ClassBased View of History Terms 1 Bourgeoisie dominant class during Marx s time the elite that mutually reinforced itself by using their wealth to drive political interests 2 Proletariat the working class the masses of labor exploited by the Bourgeoisie 3 Economic Theory of History history is moved by class struggles three phases according to Marx Feudalism Capitalism and Communism 4 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel german philosopher who theorized that the clash of old and new ideas created a synthesis of new thinking historical view 5 Dialectal Materialism idea that social classes instead of ideas clash to create new thought Notes Marx viewed capitalism as exploitation of the many by the few product of the capitalist society that he lived in theorized that Capitalism created two new classes Bourgeoisie and Proletariat social and political relationships are defined by the economy class is determined by access to capital everybody but the Proletariat had capital Contrasted with Smith s view of Capitalism as a society of individuals Historical View of Class Con ict O Aristocracy vs Peasantry Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat 0 Government favors the dominant class 0 Political power is determined by who has capital Economic Theory of History 1 Feudalism state could not continue to maintain a grip on the economy 2 Capitalism subsistence labor exploitation to maximize output 3 Communism abolishment of private property Teleological View Marx s notions that these events were inevitable Communist Manifesto 0 not characteristic to Marx s writing it was a unique work 0 summarized economic climate of Europe at the time 1848 0 called for revolution while also explaining how revolution was inevitable September 16th Marx s World Alienation The Working Class Terms 1 T eleology presupposed outcomes events are inevitable 2 Division of Labor the allocation of different steps in the manufacturing process to specific persons who only performed that step in the process 3 Alienation Marx s argument that the division of labor alienated the worker their sole purpose is the job they perform 4 Labor Theory of Value the value of a good is equal to the amount of labor put into it 5 Surplus Value the labor theory of value minus the subsistence wage made pro t this is surplus value the added value that comes from the worker working for more than the actual price of the good 6 F etislzism of Commodities the larger value of a commodity due to its appearance or label ie the value is more than its actual functional purpose 7 Raw Materials Labor Value Profit Wages the equation of how surplus value exploits the worker and creates profit for the business Notes Marx s Economic Ideas 0 Marx argued that Smith s idea of division of labor in industrialization allowed for the exploitation of the worker through surplus value 0 this specialization created a debasement of the worker s identity almost animallike O Marx argued that the social ties and tendencies for harmony is undermined by Capitalism 0 Marx saw work and identity as being inseparable concepts in Capitalism Class Con ict 0 process of proletarian revolution turning into a proletariat dictatorship Leninism 0 class con ict is part of industrial society 0 Political Side of Class Con ict 0 state only re ects interests of the ruling class bourgeoisie 0 therefore improvement of the working class can only be achieved by revolution 0 differential interests in the workplace define a modern era The Labor Theory of Value 0 Marx saw the labor value being taken away from workers the surplus value was not being returned to the worker 0 workers are alienated due to the loss of the value of labor Fetishism of Commodities O commodities become ends they are not valued by the process of manufacturing 0 value is forgotten by consumers practicality of the object is ignored Base V Superstructure base economic institutions factories vs superstructure social institutions in uenced by the base September 21st The Best of All Possible Worlds Terms 1 Containment US s duty to be police of the world essentially stop the spread of communism 2 Marshall Plan model policy to recover Europe s markets made up 2 of Europe s GDP definitely not the chief contributor to its recovery 3 Modernization Theory dominant framework during the US s postwar prosperity 4 USAID economic aid for international development 5 Alliance for Progress JFK s policy of recovery aid mostly to Latin America Notes 1945 unbridled optimism there was cries not for progress but for openness PostWar 0 developed American view of superiority of Capitalism and Democracy and inferiority of communism and totalitarianism o All Good Things Go Together Geopolitical sources spread this notion 0 Cold War strengthened victory of liberalism and capitalism o Marxism was rebuked Capitalism was thought to be inevitable Modernization Theory 1 New Conception of History a history is staged not driven by class con ict 2 Dichotomous Conception of Change a transition between Traditional Backward State OR Modern Industrial state 3 Notion of Inevitable Progress a goes back to rationalization in the Enlightenment reinforced by American PostWar optimism 4 Interconnectedness of All Aspects of Change a All Good Things Go Together all aspects of modernization are mutually reinforcing Limitations to Modernization Theory 1 No mechanism of change a no initiator of change 2 No eXplanation of institutional differences a different avors of capitalism and democracy 3 No eXplanation of different rates of change a different systems developing faster than others September 28th What are Revolutions Competing Understandings of Political Violence Terms 1 RevoltsRebellions isolated events that did not result in social or political change 2 Social Revolutions class revolts that lead to changes in social institutions 3 Zionism belief in a Jewish independent state Israel 4 Isaiah Berlin created theory of positive and negative freedom Notes Revolutions 0 word is overused revolutions are very rare and extremely speci c 0 de ned as fundamental transformation in a given political order brought by violent sustained revolts Purely a postmedieval type of event Medieval era was static hierarchal O Revolutions need a previously established political order and a political organization fighting to replace that order 0 Results in a nogoingback type of situation 0 Outcome must be somewhat consistent with the ideas of the replacement organization Differences between Revolutions and RebellionsRevolts l 9599 Revolts do not result in any systematic change Revolutions need every citizen involved Revolts are shorter Revolts are disorganized reactive have no defined purpose Revolts are negative against mentality while Revolutions are affirmative they create something new Skocpol and Social Revolutions emphasized revolt by the lower classes marXism Structural frame she looked for the circumstances and conditions before a revolution Nobody makes revolutions they come they can come by fiscal pressures and weak political authority Theorized that the state is a set of lasting institutions that eXpress interests in a political arena where they are contested Hannah Arendt s View She was a Zionist Philosopher lived through many examples of a lack of freedom Revolutions came down to the search for freedom Isaiah Berlin s Positive and Negative Freedom 0 Positive freedom to de ne one39s life the dignity in pursuing what you wanted O Negative absence of constraint Arendt was pessimistic in the success of revolutions Problem of analysis if they all fail how can we compare them September 30th Revolution as Modernization Terms 1 Samuel Huntington theory of Revolutions as Modernization see notes 2 Thomas Paine American political activist wrote Common Sense 3 Mao Zedong Mao T seT ung political gure in China s Communist Revolution founded the People s Republic of China 4 Josef Stalin communist dictator of USSR from mid 1920s 1953 5 Bolshevik Revolution of 191 7 example of an elite driven minority driven revolution Notes Huntington O theory of Revolution as Modernization 0 caused by lag between political institutions reacting to social and economic change 0 emphasized that it is not the type of government but the degree of government that leads to revolutions Degree of Government was de ned as the ability to absorb new interests revolutions often happen in nondemocratic societies because they have poor mechanisms to gauge feedback 0 Refusal to adopt broad political processes huge focus on broad political processes gt Modernization is negotiation between institutions 0 Huntington and Skocpol had the structural frame that Politics must have institutions to negotiate between each other Explaining Revolutions con ict of interests causes an erosion of institutions Revolutions rise to fill a void Violence is a symptom not a cause of a revolution Political climate must be unstable along with a political group willing to replace This political group is eager to Participate showing a huge element of Modernization Mechanism of legitimation of a Democracy is an election Nondemocratic societies breed revolutions because they are missing this legitimacy there must be a middle class evidence that revolutions accompany Modernization external pressures International threats class con ict and fiscal pressures often cause revolutions system of original government Authoritarian Monarchy matters a lot Skocpol rapid transformation defines revolution France Russia and China 3 Similarities 1 Institutions are unwilling to adapt 2 Revolt by Peasants 3 Successful political organization to replace old authority Western vs Eastern revolts start in city Western v revolts start in countryside Eastern October 5th The English Revolution Terms I Magna Carta 1215 set stage for the questioning of noble authority 2 Henry VII I 5 09 5 4 7 his wives were executed tried to raise money by seizing Church lands slush fund created Church of England 3 James I 16031625 after Queen Elizabeth died peak of Absolute Monarchy rst appearance of con ict with Parliament start of the Stuart King Dynasty catholic 4 Charles I believed in unrestrained Absolutism catholic hated protestants 5 CalvinismPresbyterianism called into question the social hierarchy Catholicism 6 Long Parliament I 640 648 long ght over money and religious issues abolishment of the book of common prayer rst time Parliament met in session after 1628 7 Roundheaa s Supporters of Parliament named so by the helmets they wore 8 Royalists catholic supporters of the monarchy 9 Oliver Cromwell leader of the puritans made them highly disciplined I 0 New Model Army puritan army lead by Oliver Cromwell I I T unnage ana Poundage Act taX by crown on exportsimports eXpanded the range of taxable goods way of bypassing parliament I 2 Petition of right I 628 statement of the Crown not being able to taX without parliamentary approval resulted in Charles I disbanding Parliament until 1640 Notes 17th Century 0 complete opposite to previous history of political stability and peace 0 two civil wars between puritans and catholics O restored different monarchy that derived its power from Parliament Causes 0 Monarchy was constantly contested English monarchy was lowercase absolutist o Monarchy fought with the puritans seen as radical heretics O soon it became institutional Parliament vs Monarchy 0 Queen Elizabeth had reconciled the two religions Catholics and Puritans Charles I destroyed that First Civil War 16421646 Puritans Parliament and Royalists Puritans Won imprisoned Charles 1 Second Civil War 16481649 Charles I escaped returned with army then got beheaded Weaknesses O monarchy was weak due to Military Administrative and Financial Factors 0 Military lacked strong army shortage of money nobility armies were illegal 0 Administrative alliance of King and Landowners against the nobility created more taxes on the nobility 0 Financial parliament could keep monarchy poor taxation system was weak because there was more focus on King Henry s seizure of church lands slush fund Enemies 1 CalvinistsProtestantsPuritans clashed with Monarchy a they rejected the Church of England b Charles I appointed a lot of catholics c Puritans were highly organized very motivated Divine Calling d Religious and political affairs became blurred 2 Parliament a Stuart Kings made a lot of enemies antagonized large factions b referred to themselves as called on by God to be king c huge con ict after Charles I disbanded Parliament in 1628 King s Mistakes 0 there was medievally an affection for the idea of monarchy 0 Charles I in fear of parliament s rising power struck first by arresting Puritan Leaders resulted in first Civil War and his imprisonment in 1646 107 The French Revolution Terms I Parlemerzts NOT Parliaments quasijudicial bodies of the state courts that approved and registered the King s decree 2 Voltaire idea of popular sovereignty representative body of government 3 JeanJacques Rosseau government needs consent of the governed 4 Louis XIV 1714 proclaimed semidivine epitome of the Absolutist Monarchy 5 Louis XVI 1760s pale shadow of Louis XIV scared of the Third Estate made a lot of faulty moves 6 Vingtieme land taX 120 of land value nobility resisted this taX 7 Estates General Clergy Nobility and the Commoners parliamentlike structure that convened prior to revolution 8 Abbe Sieyes What is the Third Estate everyone else besides the clergy and the nobility 9 Jeu a e Paume Tennis Court Oath 20th of June I 789 refuge of the Third Estate assembly while military troops were deployed in Paris I 0 SansCulottes urban mob illiterate urbanized mass stormed the Bastille I I Bastille prison that is the symbolic start of the French Revolution Notes Louis XIV vs Queen Elizabeth unquestionable Absolutist vs constantly contested Advantages between the French Monarchy and the English o no parliament 0 King was supreme judge 0 King had ultimate taX authority 0 France was a military superpower Preliminary Con icts 1 Ideological Con ict a The Enlightenment called into question the King s authority 2 Institutional Con ict a concentrated authority in the Bureaucracy Estates General b bureaucracy was weak and ineffective because it was not loyal to the king and abused its power Parlements c Crown went broke after a while due to this inefficiency O institutional and ideological con icts weakened the King s power 0 resulted in sociallydescending revolts against the nobility Four Waves of Liberal French Revolution 0 resulted in Constitutional Monarchy ended Absolutism not the Monarchy 1 Aristocratic Revolutions a taX revolt fiscal pressure b parallel with British con ict between Nobility and Monarchy over raising revenue c Liberty from the King resistance grew in Parlements d Crown backed down Parlements called for convention of Estates General 2 UpperMiddleClass Revolution a occurred after Convention of Estates General 1789 b pitted the Third Estate against Clergy and Nobility who had more motivation to maintain old order c Third Estate called an assembly to separate from Estates General quasiparliament d King Louis XVI deployed troops in Paris Third Estate was exiled e National Assembly moved to Jeu de Paume Louis XVI backed down legitimized the Third Estate and ordered Clergy and Nobility to join them 3 Popular Revolution a King sent troops once again by order of the Aristocracy sansculottes in fear of this deployment stormed the Bastille July 1789 4 Peasant Revolution a peasants feared Nobility counterrevolution turned violent against Nobility b in response Nobility abolished Feudalism this was too little too late Readings Week 1 William Sewell I 96 7 Marc Bloch and the Logic of Comparative History Hypothesis Testing we can test if phenomena A in one society to the Condition B by seeing if societies exist with A but Without B Purposes of the Comparative Method 1 test explanatory hypotheses 2 discover uniqueness of societies 3 formulate problems for historical research 0 Bloch used the comparative method for invalidation O Bloch never realized that these 3 purposes shared the same logic of hypothesis testing 0 Studying a phenomenon through comparative framework can 0 invalidate local explanations for general phenomena 0 distinguish between genuine local peculiarities and universal occurrences Units of Comparisons O the 2 units being compared must vary in the aspect of social life and explanatory hypotheses we are studyingtesting 0 comparison units need not be geographical units 0 if the units of comparison depend upon the hypothesis then they are invalid Limits to the Comparative Method 0 one limitation is that it may only be applied to certain problems 0 another is that it does not supply us with explanations to test John Stuart Mill I 843 Of the Four Experimental Methods of Inquiry Method of Agreement 0 comparing different events in Which the same phenomenon occurs 0 the circumstances that are excluded Without the phenomenon disappearing has no connection to its causation therefore What circumstance remains is linked to causation Method of Difference 0 comparison of similar situations that have similar circumstances but the absence of one phenomenon is present in the other 0 if all but effect can be excluded then it is the cause of the given phenomenon Week 2 Stephen Jay Gould2003 The Hedgehog The Fox and The Magistrate s Pox Scienti c Revolution 0 idea that a bad before replaced by a good after is refuted by 0 Science behind Aristotle and Renaissance was more or less continuous into Scienti c Revolution 0 Idea exclusively focused on physical science example of original debate between arts and sciences Arguments 1 initial con ict between science and humanities beham during birth of modern science aka Scienti c Revolution 2 The goals of scientists during Scienti c Revolution failed because they could not do so without insight from humanities 3 This con ict is silly it is time for peace Gould 4 There is a right and wrong way to resolve the con ict 0 Woodward heavily religious geologist railed against humanists O Woodward and Newton only called upon God when natural explanation had obviously failed 0 Myth that science utilizes pure and unbiased observation Science has manifested its preference for clearer language into factual content becomes debased if Author also has talent for decent prose George Orwell 198 Politics and the English Language Politics and Language 0 decline of a language ultimately has political and economic causes 0 language becomes ugly because we are lazy but then the ugliness of the language makes it easier to have lazy thoughts Dying Metaphors womout metaphors that are worthless people still use them to save the trouble of reinventing new ones Operators of Verbal False Limits extra syllable padding Pretentious Diction unnecessary words that suggest impartiality to bias Meaningless Words long artistic criticisms with no meaning 0 language covers up the true cruelty of mass oppression Rules 0 never use a gure of speech that you are used to seeing 0 never use a long word in place of a short word 0 if you can delete it delete it 0 never use passive if you can use active 0 never use a foreign or scienti c word instead of plain english Thomas S Kuhn 1996 Normal Science Normal Science 0 based on the assumption that experts know what the world is like 0 therefore normal science suppresses novelties because of its commitment to basic assumptions Paradigms Scienti c Revolutions shift of scientific commitments required the rejection of a oncehonored theory in favor of one that was incompatible with it Paradigms O rarely copied more likely to be added upon and applied to different conditions 0 paradigms allow scientists to be assured within the world that they know and can solve problems in O Wittgenstein networks of identification are made through marking similarities Aristotle Trans I 992 The State the state is an association that which is political distinct roles by the king or master of slaves ie they do not have similar jobs the state is the natural final state of all other associations just as man is at the end of his natural process 0 The Two Pairs 0 man and wife ruler and the ruled This is created by nature for preservation 0 Formation of household and village is made by pairing two entities State and the Individual 0 the conception of good and evil allows the formation of the household and state 0 man is at his best when apart of the whole the state he is worst when separate from law and justice Week 3 Max Weber trans 2010 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Chs 23 and 5 The Protestant Ethic o the acquisition of money in modern times falls under a vocational calling a concept stemming from the Calvinist movement 0 this is the social ethic of modern capitalism the notion of duty for individuals to work and never to consume for one s own enjoyment by way of economic selection Capitalism binds people to whatever positions or class they were born into approach to economic activity as a realization of selfpotential and dispassionate selfcontrol yields extreme productive capacities Luther s The Calling Beruf in german it means one s task given by God Asceticism withdrawal from the world is now replaced by the morality of ful lling one s duty as designated by God The Reformation achieved a sense of work by a Calling and putting religious value to it Asceticism and Capitalism English Puritanism is most consistent with the idea of a vocational calling to which it can also be referred to as Ascetic Protestantism The wasting of time is considered the most serious of all sins within this sect this virtue of maximum potential from Puritanism leads to Adam Smith s division of labor which does provide the most output and efficiency Asceticism also shines light on the selfmade man of the middle class the transformation of social and economic from Ascetic Protestantism is the beginnings of the Spirit of Capitalism Adam Smith 1776 The Wealth ofNationS Division of Labor greatest improvement in production separation of different trades is result of advantage production increase in production due to 0 increase in dexterity O saving of time lost in switching transitions 0 invention of machines that maximize work Came from natural tendency to barter and exchange by exchanging we came to specialize in a particular good different talents and skills are brought into common stock and benefits others extent in which one can divide labor depends on populus Money free competition allows failure without mass consequence Unproductive Labor does not add value to subject of labor Robert L Heilbrorzer 196 The Wonderful World of Adam Smith Adam Smith Smith was famously absentminded 1759 The Theory of Moral Sentiments by Smith made him a prominent philosopher Smith s description of the market cannot be applied to today s industry although industrialist society is much different today principles of selfinterest and competition still explains behavior 0 Smith was optimistic about capitalism no ceiling of growth Law of Accumulation accumulation of Capital is primary aspect of Capitalist society this accumulation would raise wages increase size of working class Law of Population workers want higher wages demand for labor increases market expands EJHobSbowm I 968 Industry and Empire An Economic History of Britain Since I 750 Britain History 0 most free trade and empire moved through Britain 0 Single Liberal World Economy collapsed between 1917 and WWII O The British two party system expresses 2 classes that count namely middle and working Marx Britain had revolution combination of ideology vs institution superstructure British system was based on government concern for needs of middle class Industrial Revolution acceleration of growth due to economic and social transformation Noted Reformation Protestantism happened 2 centuries before Industrial Revolution Week 4 Robert L Heilbrorzer 196 The Inexoroble World of Karl Marx 1848 fear of revolution by the Communists spontaneous disorganized revolts occurred but failed Marx O coauthor of the Communist Manifesto was Friedrich Engels member of the Bourgeoisie O Marx was a revolutionary wrote at several newspapers moved to Manchester where he witnessed the terrors of capitalism 0 Ultimate causes of all social and political revolutions result from changes in the mode of production and exchange it is in the economics of the epoch O theorized that the base and the superstructure of the capitalist system were incompatible and that this would lead to revolution 0 base was interdependent all of society s output came from the base 0 superstructure was highly individualistic all the output went to very few 0 result in Capitalism destroying itself and breeding communism O hypothesis that the surplus value is what makes capitalism work for the individuals Takeaways from the Manifesto o Heilbroner sees a mistake in the surplus value exploitation the world is based on prices not labor value 0 Marx predicted two very capitalist events 0 business cycle 0 domination of big business 0 USA proves Marx wrong in the exibility in the social institutions to adapt to Capitalism Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto pgs 245271 Class View of History 0 history is a constant battle between classes it has grown into the division of society into two now very distinct classes Bourgeoisie and Proletariat the Bourgeoisie set up Free Trade direct brutal exploitation they agglomerated population centralized production and concentrated property in the hands of the few 0 Bourgeois created weapons of their destruction the Proletariat O Proletariat lost identity due to division of labor 0 they develop in stages alongside the development of industry I small civil wars break out into open revolution 0 idea that in the ght between Bourgeoisie and other Bourgeois either abroad or domestically the Bourgeois asks for help from the Proletariat arming them 0 Fall of the Bourgeoisie and the Victory of the Proletariat are equally inevitable Communists O aim is to overthrow the Bourgeoisie by the Proletariat as a class and hold the political power 0 Biggest feature is the abolishment of Bourgeois property private property 0 abolishment of the family classbased education rights and nationality o Proletariat will use political power to seize all capital centralize all production to the state and to increase total productive force 0 property is now all public 0 graduated income tax 0 one single State bank 0 Public education and abolishment of child labor Types of Socialism l Reactionary Socialism a Feudal Socialism aristocracy battling the bourgeoisie by appealing to the proletariats b PettyBourgeois Socialism pseudobourgeois petty seeks to restore old order of society c German or True Socialism antiliberalism antirepresentative government 2 Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism a faction of the Bourgeois that seeks reformation to continue Bourgeois society 3 CriticalUtopian Socialism and Communism a seeks to destroy class struggle reconcile class con ict Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The German Ideology pgs 184200 Division of Labor 0 divides society into opposing parties locks Man into whatever he is born into Alienation of the Worker interests of the worker community separates from that of the State these conditions of life decide whether the revolutionary force will be strong enough to overthrow the current political system The class that has access to the means of productions control the mental production ie the State Revolution 0 proletariats now make the mass of means of production subject to each individual 0 every revolutionary struggle in the past has been directed towards the class in power 0 for this reason only revolution by the proletariat will improve the conditions Egoism and Communism communists acknowledge that egoism is central to the assertion of the individual Karl Marx Das Kapitale pgs 4 72480 488508 The Fetishism of Commodities O as soon as the good becomes a commodity it transcends its functional purpose 0 this fetishism this mystique of the commodity comes from the social relations between producers of the good 0 a portion of society consumes the subsistence of the goods produced the other portion desire these goods and make them commodities O the value of something implies exchange commodities arise from this social exchange Labor Power 0 worker s capacities that he she exercises when determining the usevalue of a good O the consumption of labor power is the same as production of commodities and surplus value 0 Surplus Value 0 the subsistence wage is not equal to the total amount of labor value that the worker makes in a day therefore pro t occurs when the subsistence wage is lower than the total labor value of the goods produced 0 this is evident in the production of raw materials they are not the nal product therefore the nal price does not re ect individual efforts in the process 0 capitalist production of commodities production of surplus value Week 5 Daniel Lerner I 958 The Passing of Traditional Society Con icts O village vs town land vs cash illiteracy vs enlightenment 0 people unite under the problem of modernizing traditional ways of life 0 Europeanization only upper class vs Modernization all classes public and private 0 Urbanization gt literacy gt mass media gt economic participation gt political participation 0 Middle East wants modern institutions but not modern ideologies Empathy O embracing social change encouraging social mobility while protecting equal opportunity 0 empathy is 1 skill for people moving towards modernization o Traditionalism is nonparticipant in contrast to Modernization wide participation Mass Media 0 mass communication facilitated mass increased empathy 0 media manipulates how we see simple and what we do complex 0 mass media and modernization are quasimutually exclusive 0 always oral transitioning to media degree of this change correlates with other social change Statistic 10 of urbanization starts rise of literacy up until 25 where literacy grows independently Stages 1 Urbanization 2 Literacy 3 Mass Media 4 Participation Limits 0 where manland ratio is high urbanization is dif cult 0 density without urbanization Alexander Gerscherzkrorz I 962 Economic Backwardrzess in Historical Perspective Elements 0 difference between industrialization in a backwards and advanced countries 0 readily eager industrial work force is extremely scarce in backwards countries 0 high tensions not small little break outs lead to industrialization Banks 0 German vs English investment vs depository 0 Russia grew out of the English style to German Style 0 Possessing capital leads to banks which shows proof of industrialization Conclusions 0 Due to pressure from highly industrialized countries backwards countries governments have tendency to push the state into industrialization rather quickly and abruptly 0 However quest for largescale industries may not have the same motive as to industrialize 0 Cannot stress enough the importance of native elementsideologies in industrialization of backward countries W WRostow I 960 The Stages of Economic Growth A NonCommunist Manifesto Altemative to Marx s view of modern history 5 Stages 1 Traditional Society a limited production functions prenewtonian science b had increases in output but a ceiling existed c power in those who owned land 2 Preconditions for TakeOff a transforms tradition to exploit modern technologies b arose out of foreign invasion by more advanced societies c decisive factor was often political 3 TakeOff a forces of progress expand and take over b proximate stimulus was technological c growth is usually selfsustained 4 Drive to Maturity a sustained progress technology then dominates all economic activity 5 Maturity a transition from original industries that started the TakeOff to more complex industries 6 Age of High Mass Consumption a real average income allows consumption beyond basic necessities b USSR is ready for this stage but Communist leaders force social and political issues if they try to adjust Joseph R Gusfield I 96 7 Tradition and Modernity maj or focus on India Peasantry O peasantry in India is very much involved with State policy and often feel the effects thereof peasants who own land no longer confront an exploitation by another class relation between State and Peasantry is no longer taxdependent as it was before move to urban areas is no longer a necessity for the peasantry all peasant areas of production are fully integrated into the market there is no longer a subsistence way of living culture has determined a minimum for a decent life that is neither excessive nor wasteful Political Power 0 an independent judiciary a permanent bureaucracy and elected leadership characterize India s current government system 0 the passive revolution was thought of as transitional from colonial to some sort of modernity Informal Sector in India 0 groups are highly organized but are not corporations 0 they have ties to political parties often peasant production is dependent on the success of political parties which is in turn encouraged by democracy Week 6 Special Thanks to Michael 0 notes from 928 and 930 provide additional information on these readings Theda Skocpol I 979 States and Social Revolutions pgs 343 Social Revolutions 0 class struggles are major role in revolutions 0 modern developments foreign and domestic build up revolutionary organizations and dismemberment of old order AggregatePsychological Theories revolutions start through psychological transformation System Value Conscious Theories violent responses to severe inequilibrium PoliticalCon ict Theories different groups vying for power overthrow government revolutions do not usually begin with revolutionary intent Industrialization in England lead other countries to emulate the West heavy emphasis on role of military prior to revolutions de nition of State as arena for social con icts contrast to Marx s dominant class theory there are clashes between upper class and state Hannah Arena t I 963 On Revolution Revolution is Search for Freedom freedom becomes justi cation for massive means of destruction military can no longer protect civilians believed in nuclear weaponry as function of policy Negative vs Positive Freedom tradition of believing poverty is part of the human condition rulers deprive themselves of political peers Machiavelli argued that a revolution constituted violence Revolution is inevitable in all societies incredibly rapid in nations under tyranny The French Revolution gave birth to revolutions of modern de nition Samuel P Huntington I 968 Political Order in Changing Societies Revolution as Modernization revolutions are peculiarities of Western Culture occurs when political institutions lags behind social development success only happens when political institutions are stable again Western Revolutions vs Eastern Revolutions 0 Western begin with seizure of capital 0 Eastern end with seizure of capital Political institutions must absorb new social groups in order to be stable peasants are most critical class in revolutions Week 7 Theda Skocpol States and Social Revolutions pgs 4 76 7 I 12128 Revolutions in France Russia and China developed when the old regime failed to deal with international situations 0 the landed upper classes controlled most agricultural product France although the landed upper class and the imperial state worked side by side against the peasantry there is often con ict between upper class and the state one that could destroy the imperial state itself these states also were in competition militarily with industrialized states either defeat in war or revolt by the upper classes resulted in the crippling of the military and leadership that made up the social and political order Intendants representatives of King s authority through taX collection justice etc Between 1715 and 1789 France lost military power and its hold over Europe French agriculture was backwards to English agriculture French growth masked need for fundamental changes needed to match England the dominant class prerevolution was to a certain degree feudal Proprietary Wealth exploitation of tenants through land ownership proprietary wealth was property basis of dominant class Revolution appeared only when international challenges and con icts of interest between the monarchy and the upper class emerged France had difficulty raising revenue due to faulty taX collecting and loaning system the King attempted to equalize all taX burdens but faced resistance from the Parlements the Parlements then called for convening of Estates General the price to be paid for American Independence was a French Revolution By summer of 17 89 the Municipal Revolution had started Peasant Insurrections peasant revolts often sought the hiatus of governmental supervision this helped marginalized political elites to start a centralized massincorporating state revolt by the agrarian peasantry was successful not the urban worker sansculottes the orders most susceptible to peasant revolt included peasant solidarity and autonomy the breakdown of a state lead to irreversible revolts by the peasants before Municipal Revolution had begun urban bread riots had broken out Social revolution started spurred the revolution during the Convention of the Estates repressive military force was disorganized allowing peasant resistance to grow despite huge importance of peasant revolution little redistribution of land occurred after EJHObSbawm I 962 The Age of Revolution The French Revolution the revolution s ideas spread and left more impact than any other revolution in history the con ict between new social forces and the monarchy were more emphasized in the French Revolution than any other the new organization knew what they wanted fiscal pressures pushed landowners to squeeze peasantry more push for peasant revolt 0 American Revolution made France bankrupt O the ideas of Bourgeoisie in classic liberalism made a cohesive unity in the revolution 0 revolution would have happened anyway this just lead to substitution 0 believed in representative body a propertied oligarchy Grande Peur great panic and town uprisings of late July and early August of 1789 O peasantry did not present an alternative but an immovable force in the revolution Timeline 17951799 Directory Regime 17991804 Consulate Regime 18041814 Empire 1 8151 83 0 Restoration of Bourbon Monarchy l 83 01 848 Constitutional Monarchy 18481851 Republic 18521870 Empire All these regimes were attempt to maintain Bourgeois society while avoiding J acobin Democracy and Monarchy Michael Walzer I 965 The Revolution 0fthe Saints Saints those who adopted Calvinist ideology Emergence of Radicalism in Revolutions 0 political factions are a factor of postmedieval era Machiavelli emphasis on individual political skill o revolution in ideology is closely related to that of modernization of a state 0 Calvinism focused political action on work the individual duty of the citizen 0 this novelty was due to inactive participation of the Medieval Era 0 elements of calvinist ideals in English Revolution challenge against Monarch authority welldisciplined Puritan army first effort to rewrite a new political order first call for public demands formation of groups to implement these demands OOOOOO appearance of political journalism 0 awareness of the need for reform O Puritanism advocated for the participation of the Saints in politics 0 Cromwell s New Model Army embodied Puritan belief in asceticism strict rules and organization Developments in Radical Politics 1 separation of politics from the household 2 3 4 Saints 0 O emergence of the intellectual participant in politics the free man the rational consideration of politics rise of large scale of political units appear in brief crucial points in history involved with Calvinists in the process of Modernization through modernization men nd themselves in need of a new ideology
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