Hypothesis Testing PSY 1004 - 001
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1004 - 001 at Temple University taught by Shree Lounge in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see CRITICAL THINKING IN PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Hypothesis testing Evaluating explanations for observed relationships Correlation relationship changes in one variable accompany changes in another Correlational relationships can be used for predictive purposes No independent variables are manipulated Two or more dependent variables are measured and later a relationship is then established Correlational research cannot be used to establish causal relationships among variables Two reasons why correlational data cannot show causality Thirdvariable problem When an unmeasured variable actually causes changes in observed behavior Directionaity probem Not always possible to specify the direction in which a causal arrow points Causal Relationship One variable directly or indirectly causes changes in another Can be unidirectional Can be bidirectional An independent variable IV is manipulated by the researcher Means exposing subjects to at least two levels of the IV One or more dependent variables are measured Variable whose value you observe and measure Can show a causal relationship between the independent amp dependent variables Must be able to manipulate the independent variable Having tight control over extraneous variables limits generality of results Basic experiment consists of Experimental group Subjects receive experimental treatment Control group Subjects do not receive experimental treatment Serves as baseline of behavior Control is exercised over all extraneous variables By holding them constant By randomizing their effects across treatments using random assignment A causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables can be established Internal validity the degree to which your design tests what it was intended to test Internal validity is threatened by Confounding variables and Extraneous variables Internal validity must be considered during the design phase of research External validity the degree to which results generalize beyond your sample and research setting External validity is threatened by using a highly controlled laboratory setting Using Restricted populations Using pretests Presence of demand characteristics and experimenter bias and Subject selection bias Increasing internal validity may decrease external validity and vice versa Internal validity may be more important in basic research External validity may be more important in applied research lssues relating to internal and external validity must be considered when designing a study
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