PHIL 11100 Final Exam Review
PHIL 11100 Final Exam Review PHIL 11100
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Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Hipskind on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 11100 at Purdue University taught by Prof. Kane in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Terms Aristotle39s criteria for the highest good 1 each craft inquiry action and decision is aimed at an endgood 2 the ends of ruling craftsarts are to be preferred to those of subordinate crafts Thus 3 if there is an allcontrolling craft there is a highest good 4 there is an allcontrolling craft political science Thus 5 there is a highest good Criteria for the highest good Completeness always choiceworthy in itself not for the sake of something else Selfsuf ciency all by itself it makes a life choiceworthy worth living Comprehensiveness a life with it would be lacking nothing nothing could be added to make it better Happiness the highest good complete selfsufficient and comprehensive can include pleasure honor virtue wealth etc but is not exhausted by any of them Aristotle39s function argument 1 For all things that have a function the good and well depends on that function 2 Humans in roles have functions job 3 Parts of humans have functions organs 4 There probably is a human function 5 The human good depends on the human function if there is one 6 The human function is the activity life of action of the soul in accord with reason by elimination of shared functions with other living things 7 For an F and a goodF with the same function the goodF is and F that performs the function well 8 The human good is the activity of the soul in accord with virtue In a complete life With an adequate supply of external good Moral virtue an excellent state of a human something that makes a human being good and makes him perform his function well having to do with feelings and actions doing and or feeling the right way results from habit repetition of good actions 39 a mean state intermediate most stable and critical element of happiness The doctrine of the mean 1 the mean is relative to us not in the object but as determined by the quotscienti c expertquot the quotprudent personquot 2 no mean for adultery theft murder etc vicious acts 3 mean is not always in the exact middle may have to compensate our aim for biases in us 4 avoid the worst extreme and easiest extreme be careful with pleasures Bravery mean between insuf cient fear rashness and excessive fear cowardice standing rm at the right time bravery needed to protectadvance important parts of happiness ne and honorable and pleasant insofar as it attains the end Generosity concerned with giving and receiving of wealth using it for right things aiming at what is ne and taking pleasure in it does not depend on quantity of gift but on the state of character of the giver not concerned with wealth but does not give to just anyone balance between wastefulness and stinginess Magni cence concerns largescale giving of wealth heavy expenditure for a large purpose typically spending money for the common good esp for achievement of public purposes or large private purposes longlasting achievements aims at what is ne spends gladly and readily 39 balance between stinginess and vulgarity Study contemplation a special kind of mental activity NOT quotseeking knowledgequot or new discoveries NOT memorizing individual facts quotgazing onquot like studying a face that is already before you studying the completed sciences and disciplines math philo cosmo astro the understanding is the supreme element in us highest element of our rationality objects of understanding are the supreme objects of knowledge study is the most CONTINUOUS activity easiest to sustain study is the most PLEASANT activity quotremarkably pure and rm pleasuresquot quotown proper pleasurequot needs fewer External Goods supplies friends money leisure sought because of itself not for a further result quotHappiness extends just as far as study extends and the more someone studies the happier he is not coincidentally but insofar as he studies since study is valuable in itselfquot Aquinas no perfect amp true happiness cannot be had in this life 1 since happiness is a perfect and sufficient good it excludes every evil and ful lls every desire 2 this life includes many unavoidable evils and leaves many desires unsaUs ed 3 True perfect happiness cannot be found in this life true happiness revolves around quotthe vision of the divine essence Perfect happiness vision of the divine essence not attainable in this life beyond our power of acquired by a life of moral virtue we need something to make us capable of enjoying perfect happiness Imperfect happiness virtue possessions friends pleasure etc can be had in this life to some extent Theological virtues i object is God directed us ii source is God quotinfusedquot in us iii learn about them from God divine revelation Faith preparesenables the intellect Hope preparesenables the will helps it to see that happiness is attainable Love preparesenables the will transformsuni es the will with God is friendship with God Natural law a set of selfevident precepts of practical reason naturally knowable directing us toward the common human good as determined by nature Basic goods preservingprotecting human life sexual intercourse amp education of offspring knowing the truth about God living in society Absolute prohibition on murder unlawful to kill an innocent human being unless in moderate selfdefense or capital punishment best for the community Moderate selfdefense permitted if one is acting on a good intentionend and is acting in proportion to that end and so long as one never intends to kill the other Doctrine of double effect quotNothing hinders one act from having two effects only one of which is intended while the other is beside the intention Now moral acts take their species according to what is intended and not according to what is beside the intention since this is accidentalquot Friendship 1 wishing someone goodwell for hisher own sake with felings of fondness 2 mutual wellwishing 3 both knowing of the mutuality 3 kinds of friendship utility mutual usefulness less intimate than other kinds of f ends pleasure mutual pleasure more stable than utility but still impermanent character long lasting and stable complete friendship quotbetween good people similar in virtuequot based upon character takes time to develop most complete in quotliving togetherquot implies you can only have a few complete friends you must be relatively virtuous to be able to be a complete friend and have complete friendships the friend as a quotmirrorquot complete friend as quotanother selfquot alter ego 3 obj to Aristotle on friendship 1 complete friendship is still conditional 2 Aristotle sees differences as a defect in friendship 3 Pride and quotmanlinessquot in friendship friendship argument for virtue 1 humans cannot be happy without complete friendship 2 humans cannot have complete friendships unless they are virtuous 3 humans cannot be happy without being virtuous nature of virtue arg for virtue virtue is a good state to be in virtue is a big and rather stable part of happiness virtue is FINE choice worthy even wo other consequences magni cence objection 1 each moral virtue is needed for happiness and for full excellence 2 magni cence is a moral virtue distinct from generosity 3 magni cence is needed for happiness and for full excellence 4 the poor and those of modest means cannot be magni cent 5 the poor and those of modest means cannot be happy or fully exceHent BUT everyone knows that 6 the poor and those of modest means can be happy and fully exceHent AWhat is a moral virtue according to Aristotle Explain with reference to a particular virtue B Brie y explain Aristotle s three criteria for the highest good or happiness CPresent Aquinas s argument for the claim that happiness cannot be found in this life
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