Module 3 & 4 Notes
Module 3 & 4 Notes GOV 312L
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leyla Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GOV 312L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Moser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Intro to Foreign Policy in Political Science at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Wednesday September 2 2015 Module 3 Grand Strategy the set of overarching ideas that guide the conduct of foreign policy includes a series of theoriesassumptions about the nature of political order appropriate means to achieve interests set of calculations for how to optimize these interests plays an organizingcoordinating role among different dimensions of policy foreign policy defense policy economic policy more of an ideology than a theory think about debates over grand strategy correlation somewhat between grand strategy and partisanship ex Rand Paul and John McCain both republicans but both have very different ideas and visions about the role of the US in the world different views of grand strategy Components of Grand Strategy 4 main 0 SCOPE 0 CHOICE OF MEANS 0 KIND OF POWER 0 CENTRAL PROBLEM GS is a broad vision of how the world works and what the US should do to combat threats within that world tends to be concrete enough to come in several identifiable varieties and forms different typesviews of grand strategy are best understood in relation to one another as relative rather than absolute positions must define the central problem that the US is facing at the time defining the problem and the characteristics of the threat must also define the identity of the threat characterizing the nature of the threat isolation emphasizes national security of the homeland liberal internationalism sees US interest as ensuring the security of homeland but also the security of its allies including economic protection and human rights democracy etc GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE OF INTEREST regional orglobal choice of means unilateralism vs multilateralism hard military force vs soft power economic culture diplomacy central problem to be addressed nuclear revolution and the threat of great power war preventing the rise of a major rival Obama West Pointe Speech the US must lead as the indispensable nation combat terrorism cannot always rely on military power to get what we want be more judicious partnershipalliances with other countries Yemen lsolationism goal is to reduce foreign interventions and avoid future commitments prefers the smallest role for the US in world affairs nonintervention amp low global commitments starts from the premise that US threats from abroad are minimal and less important than domestic problems foreign intervention itself can create a threatenemies and create domestic conflicts America first scarce resources should be devoted to domestic problems US is relatively safe minding its own business resources are scarce so there needs to be a wise use for the greatest chance of significant benefit Washington s Farewell Address warns against foreign entanglements antipathies or alliances sets up a tradition of isolationism by recommending detachment from Europe much less isolationism during the Cold War rebirth after collapse of USSR as part of peace dividend partial retreat again with emergence of Al Qaeda return of neoisolationism in current climate Module 4 Selective Engagement shares key elements with isolationism recognize America s power limitations main goal to maintain balance of power and avoid great power wars supporters embrace America s position as a global power threats against the US are global supporters are also more comfortable with diplomacy balance in power politics 0 Eisenhower push more responsibility for defense of Europe on Europeans to make Cold War sustainable at home pull back ground troops rely on allies increase reliance on nuclear weapons worried about isolationists at home thought could increase risk of war with Soviets 0 HW Bush cautious with impending collapse did not hasten or expand US influence in E Europe relied on NATO to reassure USSR and manage German unification contrast with Clinton and NATO expansion Liberal lnternationalism main objective achieve security for US by using multilateral means to create liberal national order liberal meaning emphasis on freefair elections individual rights and freedoms civil rightsequality private property free market economy sees American interest and threats as global and expansive emphasize multilateral over unilateral means great value in international organizations such as NATO Obama and Liberal lnternationalism still supportive of democracy willing to use military force Primacy primary goal is to avoid emergence of a strong rival to American power goal is to use unilateral means to establish American hegemony over all rivals power American interests abroad are global security is achieved unilaterally through preponderantsuperiorAmerican power reliance on military power hard power gt soft power emphasis on a world view that is primarily realist material or idealist values critique primacy can lead to overreach and isolation Neoconservatism politically started on far left then moved to right original hero Leon Trotsky pushed rightward by social upheaval of 1960s deplored rise of cultural relativism use American power to promote liberalismdemocracy around the world US should purse moral foreign policy supported Clinton interventions in Haiti BosniaUS should always strive to work with allies in combatting threats emphasizes values liberal values like democracy free trade etc often an activist strategy sees US engaged in a variety of conflicts and areas around the world 0 Woodrow Wilson champions collective security system through League of Nations national selfdetermination antiimperialism democracy free trade open navigation of the sea problems how to enforce system couldn39t secure domestic support through congress Readings 0 Posen American activism has prompted antiAmerican balancing started unending conflict with nationalism and enabled allies to shirk on their own defense a restrained American foreign policy should focus on preventing a powerful rival fighting terrorism amp stopping nuclear proliferation reduce global alliance commitments avoid counterinsurgency reduce the size of the military 0 Brooks et aI advocates of restraint overstate costs hard to calculate real economic costs countries do not balance against US do not get pulled into unnecessary wars forget real benefits keep the peace by deterring bids for national hegemony military dominance yields economic dominance fosters multilateral issues on new issues
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