Practice Test for Test 2
Practice Test for Test 2 BIOL 1020
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kendall Mansfield on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by Min Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Biology Practice Test for Lecture Test 2 1 When a molecule of NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide gains a hydrogen atom not a proton the molecule becomes ADehydrogened BRedoxed COxidized DHydrolyzed EReduced 2 Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen 02 is present or absent A oxidative phosphorylation B chemiosmosis C glycolysis D the citric acid cycle 3 The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event A the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP B accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain C the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA D glycolysis E the citric acid cycle 4 In addition to ATP what are the end products of glycolysis A H2 0 FADH2 and citrate B C02 and pyruvate C C02 and H20 D NADH and pyruvate E C02 and NADH 5 The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to A act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen forming water B combine with lactate forming pyruvate C catalyze the reactions of glycolysis D yield energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain E combine with carbon forming C02 6 When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space the result is A creation of a protonmotive force B restoration of the NaK balance across the membrane C reduction of NAD D formation of ATP E lowering of pH in the mitochondrial matrix 7 The electron transport chain A is a series of substitution reactions B is driven by ATP consumption C takes place in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells D is a series of redox reactions 8 In the absence of oxygen yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation resulting in the production of A ATP pyruvate and acetyl CoA B ATP C02 and ethanol ethyl alcohol C ATP NADH and pyruvate D ATP C02 and lactate 9 How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction A by changing the free energy change of the reaction B by binding at the active site of the enzyme C by changing the shape of the enzyme39s active site D by acting as a coenzyme for the reaction E by decreasing the activation energy of the reaction 10 Which of the following statements is true about enzymecatalyzed reactions A Enzymecatalyzed reactions release more free energy than noncatalyzed reactions B Enzymecatalyzed reactions require energy to activate the enzyme C The reaction always goes in the direction toward chemical equilibrium D The free energy change of the reaction is opposite from the reaction that occurs in the absence of the enzyme E The reaction is faster than the same reaction in the absence of the enzyme 11 The lockandkey analogy for enzymes applies to the specificity of enzymes A interacting with water B as they form their tertiary and quaternary structure C interacting with ions D binding to their substrate 12 Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics A The entropy of the universe is decreasing B The entropy of the universe is constant C Energy cannot be created or destroyed D Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter E Energy cannot be transferred or transformed 13 Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions A A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed B The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy C The reaction goes only in a forward direction all reactants will be converted to products but no products will be converted to reactants D The reactions are rapid E The products have more total energy than the reactants 14 Which of the following involves a decrease in entropy A condensation reactions B reactions that separate monomers C depolymerization reactions D hydrolysis reactions 15 Which of the following is true of metabolism in its entirety in all organisms A Metabolism depends on a constant supply of energy from food B Metabolism consists of all the energy transformation reactions in an organism C Metabolism manages the increase of entropy in an organism D Metabolism uses all of an organism39s resources 16 Most cells cannot harness heat to perform work because A heat is not a form of energy E heat must remain constant during work C temperature is usually uniform throughout a cell D heat can never be used to do work 17 Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II A The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADP which is thus converted to NADPH E Light energy excites electrons in the thylakoid membrane electron transport chain C Photons are passed along to a reactioncenter chlorophyll D The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water E The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a byproduct 18 When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis it is a direct by product of A splitting water molecules B the electron transfer system of photosystem II C chemiosmosis D reducing NADP E the electron transfer system of photosystem I 19 In autotrophic bacteria where is chlorophyll located A in the ribosomes B in the enfolded plasma membrane C in chloroplast membranes D in the nucleoid 20 The NADPH required for the Calvin cycle comes from A glycolysis B oxidative phosphorylation C reactions initiated in photosystem I D reactions initiated in photosystem II E the citric acid cycle 21 The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with A sugar and 02 B C02 and ATP C light energy D H20 and NADPH E ATP and NADPH 22 Compared to C3 plants C4 plants A can continue to fix C02 even at lower C02 concentrations and higher oxygen concentrations B have higher rates of photorespiration C do not use rubisco for carbon fixation D make a fourcarbon compound oxaloacetate which is then delivered to the citric acid cycle in mitochondria 23 CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime thus reducing loss of water They can do this because they A use the enzyme phosphofructokinase which outcompetes rubisco for C02 B use photosystem I and photosystem II at night C fix C02 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells D fix C02 into organic acids during the night E fix C02 into sugars in the bundlesheath cells 24 Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during A respiration B photorespiration C both photosynthesis and respiration D neither photosynthesis nor respiration E photosynthesis 25 Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll A Oxidative phosphorylation B Photophosphorylation C Dephosphorylation D Substratelevel phosphorylation Answers bub innwugtgtcwnm Biology Test 2 Study Guide Fill in the missing de nitions for the following terms Chapter 6 Cell Structure and Functions Know Cell theory and common features of cells Microscopy Know the magni cation and resolution for Light and Electron microscopes Cell Fractionation Explain the Procedure 0 Homogenization centrifugation at a series of speed and collection at those speeds Two Cell Types Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic 0 Know the differences and characteristics of each Tour of the Eukaryotic Cell Know Characteristics of these Organelles o Nucleus o Ribosome o Endomembrane system Smooth and Rough ER l know the differences Vesicles Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes o Vacuoles Food contractile and central Energy Converting Organelles o Mitochondria include Cristae and Matrix Space 0 Plastids Amyloplasts Chromoplasts Chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place Stoma space and thylakoids Explain the Endosymbiotic Hypothesis for the Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts What is the Endosymbiotic Theory De ne Peroxisomes Oxidation Single membrane bound Special metabolic compartment What does it break down Cytoskeleton De ne the Following Functions 0 Cell shape and movement 0 Organelle Movement 0 Facilitation cell division De ne the Following Components 000 o Micro laments 0 Intermediate laments o Microtubules Centrosomes Microtubule organizing centers MTOCS Contains 2 centrioles Centrioles Aids in cell division 90 pattern Cilia and Flagella De ne the following o Basal Body 0 Dynein Micro laments De ne the following o Contractile structures 0 Form cell extensions 0 Pinch in during cell division Motor Proteins consume ATP Intermediate Filaments support cell shape Extracellular Components ECM extracellular matrix of animal cells CeHjunc ons 0 De ne the different types of cell junctions o Plasmodesmata Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junctions Cell wall Polysaccharidesceuose Chapter 7 Cell Membrane Plasma membrane and its functions 0 What does it Isolate What does it regulate How does it communicate What does it create What does it provide Fluid Mosaic Model De ne o Fluid portion 0 Phospholipid bilayer amphipathic nature Fluidity of Membrane De ne o Homeoviscious adaption Cholesterol in animal membranes 0 O O O How does it stabilize membranes and what are the ways it stabilizes them Mosaics membrane proteins De ne 0 Peripheral proteins 0 Integral proteins 0 Categories of membrane proteins Receptor recognition enzymatic attachment and transport Transport and Transfer Across Cell Membranes Diffusion in Fluids 0 De ne the following Diffusion Concentration Gradient Transport across membranes 0 Passive Transport no energy needed 0 Active Transport energy needed referred to as pumps Simple Diffusion Through the Phospholipid Bilayer 0 Doesn t need proteins or energy Diffusion Rate 0 Higher temp l faster rate 0 Greater concentration gradient l faster rate Concentration Gradient drives simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis 0 Cannot move molecules rapidly for a long distance Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane 0 lsotonic same concentration on both sides of membrane no net ow of water 0 Hypertonic higher concentration of solutes water moves towards cell 0 Hypotonic lower concentration of solutes moves water out of cell De ne the following Dialysis Facilitated Diffusion Aquaporins CoTransport Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis ces import substances 0 De ne the following Pinocytosis Receptor mediated endocytosis Phagocytosis Amoeba White Blood Cell Exocytosis move material out of cell Chapter 8 Energy and Metabolism De ne Energy De ne Work The Laws of Thermodynamics De ne o Thermodynamics Kinetic Energy Potential Energy ATP Hydrolysis of ATP 1st Law of Thermodynamics 2nOI Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Metabolism What is the Ultimate Energy Source Catabolic pathways Anabolic pathways Energy Flow in Chemical Reactions De ne Chemical Reactions Exergonic or Endergonic De ne 0 Free Energy 0 Exergonic Reactions 0 Endergonic Reactions 0 Coupled Reactions What are Phosphorylated Intermediates De ne 000 0000000 ATP Regeneration Electron Carriers Enzyme What is an Enzyme Competitive Inhibitor and Drugs Inhibitor substance that interferes with an enzymes activity Cofactors Nonprotein enzyme helpers May be inorganic or organic Coenzyme organic cofactor Regulation of Enzyme Activity De ne o Allosteric Regulation 0 Activators Chapter 9 o Inhibitors How Do Cells Obtain Energy Photosynthesis Glucose Breakdown Redox Reactions Aerobic Respiration De ne o Photosynthesis Equation 0 Glucose Breakdown 3 main parts Aerobic Respiration 0 De ne the four stages Glycolysis What are the 2 phases and what do they produce Pyruvate Oxidation forms The Krebs Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Chemiosmosis Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation 0 Two types LacticAcid Alcohol 0 Products 0 Redox Reactions Oxidized Reduced Aerobic Respiration o EnzymeCatalyzed Reactions Substrate Level Phosphorylation Dehydrogenation Reactions Decarboxylation Reactions Preparation Reactions Coenzymes 0 NAD and FAD accept and to the andbecome and ETC Versatility of Catabolism Proteins o What are proteins composed of 0 De ne Deamination Lipids o Glycerol o FattyAcids Regulation Feedback Inhibition 0 De ne Phosphofructokinase Inhibitors Activator Chapter 10 Photosynthesis is the ability to capture and convert it to in complex organic molecules releasing as a byproduct What are 5 Photoautotrophs 1 2 3 4 5 Adaptions for Photosynthesis De ne 0 Leaf Structure 0 LeafCoat o Stomata o Thylakoids 0 Light Reactions 0 Grana o Stroma Chloroplasts contain and accessory De ne The Calvin Cycle 0 Where does it take place o Is light necessary 0 3 phases Carbon xation Carbon reduction RuBP regeneration o What are the 3 steps of the cycle Energy in Visible Light Photons Light Captured by Pigments Action of lightcapturing pigments What happens when 1 Certain wavelengths are absorbed 2 Certain wavelengths are re ected 3 Certain wavelengths are transmitted De ne Pigments What common pigments are found in Chloroplasts 0 These pigments absorb all wavelengths of light except De ne Accessory Pigments Cartenoids What is a Photosystem What are the two types and how do they differ PS PS ll Electron Flow De ne Linear Electron Flow What does it produce Cyclic Electron Flow Where does Light Reactions take place What type of Reactions do light reactions drive De ne Glucose Synthesis What is Photorespiration What is the C4 Pathway Mesophyll Cells Bundlesheath Cells De ne CAM Plants What does CAM stand for
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