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Study Guide for chapters 3, 7-9

by: Alexandra Downs

Study Guide for chapters 3, 7-9 PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology

Alexandra Downs
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins

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About this Document

Study guide with important topics that will be on the exam! Exam focuses heavily on chapters 3,7 & 8
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Downs on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
STUDY GUIDE CH 3 What is consciousness Can we be influenced by stimuli of which we are unaware What is priming What are subliminal stimuli How effective is subliminal persuasion What is attention What is selective attention What is the cocktail party effect What is divided attention How does dividing attention affect accuracy What is change blindness What is a circadian rhythm What structure controls circadian rhythms What are some factors influencing whether a person tends to be more alert in the morning or evening What are circadian lowpoints when are people at their sleepiest What does an electroencephalogram measure What are the stages of sleep In what order does one progress through the sleep stages during a complete sleep cycle What is slowwave sleep How do EEG recordings brain waves change during the stages of sleep What happens during REM sleep Why is REM sleep paradoxical Does the evidence suggest that other animals dream during REM How does the amount of time spent in the stages generally change as a night s sleep progresses What happens when someone goes without sleep What are microsleeps Does sleepiness impair driving ability Can we adapt and function normally with less sleep than we need What are the theories we covered regarding the functions of sleep What is REM rebound What might be some functions of dreaming What is the activationsynthesis hypothesis Know the parasomniassleep disorders we covered and the symptomscharacteristics of each What are psychoactive drugs How do psychoactive drugs generally produce their effects What are agonists and antagonists What is addiction withdrawal syndrome tolerance How does the body s attempt to maintain homeostasis relate to tolerance and withdrawal What are some biological psychological and social factors involved in drug useabuse and addiction see added notes on Blackboard for psychological and social factors Know the different categories of drugs their general effects and the examples we covered within each category For instance what are the effects of alcohol What are benzodiazepines and how do they work What do opiates do and how do they work What drugs are stimulants How do they compare with each other How addictive is nicotine compared to other drugs What are examples of psychedelic hallucinogens and what are their effects What are the effects of marijuana Which drugs produce the most dangerous withdrawal syndromes What is hypnosis Can hypnotists control a person s behavior against their will For what is hypnosis effective and not effective see added notes on blackboard in Ch 3 folder CH 7 Study Guide What is learning What areasubdiscipline of psychology is associated with learningconditioning What is the relationship between geneticbiological control of behavior and the capacity for learning among species Who was lvan Pavlov How did he discoverinvestigate classical conditioning What is classical conditioning Know the components of classical conditioning UCS UCR CS CR and be able to identify them in examples What is acquisition What factors generally optimize acquisition timing sequence What is biopreparedness how do biological predispositions affect classical conditioning What is conditioned taste aversion and how is it unique compared to other forms of classical conditioning In classical conditioning What is stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination What is extinction and how does it occur What is operant conditioning How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning Who was BF Skinner What is a Skinner boxoperant chamber What is shaping How do biological predispositions affect operant conditioning ln operant condition What is stimulus discrimination What are discriminative stimuli What is stimulus generalization How can stimulus discrimination and generalization be used to nd out what animals know and perceive How is reinforcement de ned What is positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement How is timing important when it comes to reinforcement or punishment What is a continuous reinforcement schedule A partial reinforcement schedule How is an operantly conditioned behavior extinguished What is the partial reinforcement extinction effect What is punishment What are the two types Know the differences among positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment and be able to identify these in examples What are some problems with using punishment see added notes on blackboard What is observational learning What did Albert Bandura do What is vicarious reinforcementpunishment see pp 290291 What does research indicate regarding the in uence of exposure to media violence also see p 295 CH 8 Study Guide What is memory What basic processes are involved What is automatic processing Effortful processing How does maintenance rehearsal differ from elaborative rehearsal What is the serial position effect including the primacy and recency effects Which effect persists longer What does linking involve What is the selfreference effect The spacing effect What is the best way to form lasting memories What are the three stages of memory processing according to the Information Processing Model What is the function of sensory memory What are the characteristics of STM and LTM What is working memory What is the immediate memory span and what is the magic number associated with it What is believed to be the duration of shortterm memory What is believed to be the capacity and duration of longterm memory Know the different typescategories of longterm memory and the characteristics of each What are retrieval cues How do retrieval cues relate to spreading achann What is contextdependent and statedependent memory see text Why are some possible reasons for why we forget What evidence supports the idea of retrieval failure For what reasons is forgetting believed to occur as regards information stored in STM ln LTM What is the forgetting curve What does it indicate about forgetting How is memory constructive What are schemas and how do they in uence our memories schema theory What is the misinformation effect What happened in Loftus classic traffic accident experiment Is it difficult to create false memories Are people more likely to repress or remember traumatic events see notes on Blackboard What is infantile amnesia see notes on Blackboard Can we reliably distinguish between false memories and real memories How do synapses change when memory is formed What neurotransmitters play a large role in memory What is the role of hormones and emotion in memory see notes added on Blackboard What is the role of the hippocampus in memory What structures are involved in implicit memory Where are explicit memories generally stored What characterizes retrograde amnesia What characterizes anterograde amnesia Who was H M


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