Study guide 1
Study guide 1 HCAD 222
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by katielynn21 on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HCAD 222 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Artisensi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Aging in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Myths Normal Aging Simulation Giving Tree Aging Demos Life course perspective mmuowgt Q 7lt I 3 O pnompz Lifespan of years in your life Life course pattern of passage of time Rites of passage D con rmation graduation quotNormal agingquot l vision hearing mobility decrease over time Cohort D group of people together baby boomers Senior population changes trends D the older you live the longer you will live projected increase to 20 and 70 million in 2030 Population Shift lower fertility rate wait till older infertile cost of raising children don39t need them for the farm longer life expectancy baby boomer aging medical advances Youngold D 6574 OldOld l 7584 OldestOld D 85 13 of adulthood retirement In uences on Life Course D time and life course successful aging order and predictability Modernization theory D old people become less important less important society goes forward technology Disengagement theory l mental perspective Activity theory D more active happier more satis ed they would be Continuity theory D be inclined to similar personalities and sameness Life span amp expectancies D life span 82 amp expectancies 70 Ageism discriminating on people with age ntroversy 1 Does old age have meaning Activity vs Disengagement D more activities are better because less depressed and gives something to do usually have similar activities that they have been doing before in life Leisure time and disposable income D Americans comprise 40 of all consumer spending education and income have to do with exibility Spiritualityreligion and wellbeing l multidimensional disengagement adults don39t go to church as often but increase in prayer and spirituality positive effects on wellbeing Religion amp Spirituality changes over time religious habits remain stable increased faith and spirituality as people search for meaning Life satisfaction power of relationships continuation of midlife values into old age discovering some new or special challenge that belongs to the last stage of life Controversy 2 Why do we grow old 1 Biology of Aging A Senescence vs Aging D aging whole body aging a process of gradual change resulting in maturation through childhood puberty and young adulthood and then decline through middle and late age senescence aging at the cellular level the process by which the capacity for cell division growth and function is lost over time ultimately leading to an incompatibility with life B Compression of MorbidityD pushing back onset of disease enhance quality of life extend life expectancy and reduce health care costs Chance vs Fate D chance not preprogrammed what you do to your body result of external events amp Fate preprogrammed result of an internal necessity Immune Decline l Declines immunity with age 1 WeakerT cells and slower macrophages don39t work as well when you get older 2 Thymus shrinks with maturity not working as effectively 3 T helper cellsfewer less effective aberrant 4 Mucosal antibodies decrease rst line of defense 9 Bad news higher risk of infections disease cancer autoimmune disease 9 Good news produces less lgE gt quotoutgrowquot allergies 9 Vaccines Pneumococcal vaccine In uenza vaccine Tetanus Cross Linkage theory D Proteins DNA develop attachments or cross Iinks to one another accumulate but this decreases function in skin cataracts arteries kidneys and brain which is a component of aging but lacks of other direct experimental evidence Free Radicals D toxic byproducts of normal cell metabolism Missing an electron will steal an electron and sets of fa negative process causes mutations or damage to cell membranes crosslinking suspected link to many chronic diseases Parkinson39s cancer stroke heart disease arthritis Antioxidants they neutralize the electrons and you can get them from healthy food like berries Wear and Tear Theory years of damage to cells tissues and organs eventually wears them out killing them and then the body DNA sustains repeated damage from toxins radiation and ultraviolet light which is less effective at repairing damage over time like brittle bones and joints If we x the mutated DNA it wouldn39t be a longterm solution Aging Clock Pacemaker Theory Fate biological clocks The neuroendocrine are connections between the brain nervous system endocrince glands are hormones the pituitary gland is the master gland that releases key hormones ovaries testes and thyroid gland When people get older they have a higher risk of diabetes impaired sugar metabolism and sleep abnormalities and puberty menopause that decreases estrogen levels In mice when they replaces the pituitary gland arti cial hormones lived longer Immune System D protects by distinguishing between self and oneself but response is when we experience symptoms such as redness swelling pain 9 Immune related diseases a Two peaks for auto immune 30 s and 70 s Autoimmune MS Lupus IBD body starts attacking itself more in women than men b AIDS P Q c Cancer and its treatments suppressing immune system to kchancer Cellular Theory freezing can halt the replication level limits may occur as cells specialize As limit is approached genetic programming prevents replication Cancer results from uncontrolled multiplication HeLa cells Telomeres l it gets smaller and smaller and when it39s gone hay ick limit Hay ick limit cellular theory l maximum number of divisions cells from older organisms fewer divisions Tests to predict on how long a person will live biomarkers nothing foolproof yet but CNS changes brain shrinks with age age at menopause early menopause tend to not live as long compared to later menopause teomere length gets shorter as cells replicate genes Longevity l is from 10039s of different genes likely a polygenetic trait Klotno is a variant related to longevity that increases cognitive function and protective of stroke but if you have two copies that increase risk of stroke EpigeneticsD different impacts on expression of genes Gene Therapy and Cloning D replace defective genes and cloning holds promise of cell tissue and organ regeneration Healthy Aging A Dr 02 on aging aging is not the same as disease aging with vitality balancing the damage with repair mechanisms 3 major agers short teomeres exercise slow down teomeres inef cient mitochondria no nitric oxide gas in our body to let blood open up help with deep breathing Malnutrition in seniors appetitive goes down less active medication not interested disability poverty transportation lack of nutritional knowledge dental problems social isolation sensory losses Obesity in seniors D chronic conditions disability illness depression and medical expenses older men have slightly higher rate than older women Vitamins D B6 812 Folate Calcium Caffeine vitamin C vitamin E vitamin D and calcium important for osteoporosis Exercise in seniors D 20 minutes 3 times a week improves mood health cardiac health cholesterol levels sugar metabolism improved balance and decrease risk of falls and disabling fractures muscle strength and joint exibility and reduce agerelated losses of bone mass creates free radicals40 no exercise 40 not enough exercise and 20 good amount Men should be careful when plowing snow many falls Sleep D 1 of 3 65 complain about insomnia which leads to poor work performance diminished mood reduced energy level impaired concentration decreased memory irritated mood strained relationships Basal sleep needs to be stable 78 hrs until 80 and then you have to increase your sleep a little more Sleep patterns change to time in bed sleep is lighter onset to sleep lengthens awakenings are more frequent naps are more common frequency of respiratory disorders G Alcohollj 210 65 but have psychiatric consequences such as depression and cognitive de cits Common major health problems cardiovascular disease cirrhosis of the liver seizure disorders pneumonia urinary tract infections gait and balance disorders Why do they drink retirement death of spouse family or friend medical illness pain and disability or loneliness Drinking is more dangerous as we age H Bene ts to smoking cessation l even if you quit smoking you live longer than people who continue to smoke decrease cancer risk harm reduction l Tobacco D single most preventable cause of death decreases your lifespan 58 years and quality of life 1 in 3 cancer deaths J Fight or ight response D how our body reacts to a stressor in our life like an event or attack K Healthy ways of coping with stress D relaxation strategies diaphragmatic breathing progressive muscle relaxation neuromuscular exercise visualization imagery massage support network eliminate stressors change cognitions 3 Sexuality A AgingHealth impacts on sexuality D a second quotpeakquot once empty nest Women have menopause libido hot ashes sleep disturbances mood changes dryness weight gain Men have increased time to arousal shorter duration erectile dysfunction Medications surgeries traumas illnesses how they feel about their bodies chronic pain incontinence B STDs HV 50 D real problem because 50 has fastest growing HIV rate gender ratios dating later in life cohort differences 12 are in 50 category C Privacy Some assisted living centers have privacy rooms for sexual interaction lV Controversy 3 Does creativity decline with age 1 Aging Intelligence and Creativity A Crystallized vs Fluid intelligence D uid applied to new tasks ability to creatively solve problems creativity younger people are better tat uid intelligence amp crystalized re ects accumulated past experience and socialization D category uency tests and wisdom but older people might do a tiny better or about the same Measuring intelligence WAIS verbal and performance B quotClassical aging patternquot what changes gt24 normal range and verbal stays the same while performance declines MMSE C WisdomD quotcommon sensequot re ective judgment in face of uncertainty problem nding integrated thought about one39s life intuition or empathetic ability to understand a concrete situation don39t do a great job measuring Longitudinal vs Cross sectional D younger people are better at taking tests with pressure not Signiant changes as we get older unless we have disease but declines after 60 Seattle longitudinal study few show global decline in intelligence but loss in cognitive reserve capacity because running at full speed all the time to maintain everything you used to do Decrement with compensation l draw on strengths and compensate for losses Someone that cannot make left hand turns decides to take another route and only makes right hand turns Normal cognitive changes D processing speed divided attention memory short visualspatial executive abilities judgement language stays in tact quotUse it or lose itquot D cognitive decline is less in those who engage more frequently in cognitively stimulating activities cognitive training programs can reverse cognitive impairment in many cases keep your mind stimulated will help Remediation of cognitive impairmentD psychoeducational includes info to modify people39s expectancies and beliefs about how the mind works speci c strategies explanations about why they work Arousalmental fatigue build in rest breaks stimulants aerobic reconditioning attention orientation memory external aids rehearsal pictures Depression A Depression in elderlywho Risk factors Often masked why Men 512 women 1025 12 prevalence in elderly Risk factors for depression biological genetic medical illness substance abuse social loneliness isolation lack of support or psychological traumaabuse body image issues fear of death frustration with memory loss Depression is often masked because sadness is a universal emotion Costs of depression D 43 billion each year depressed people have social and cognitive impairment have higher rates of disability poorer physical healthmedial conditions worsen take longer to recover from medical illness and have less tolerance for pain depression increases risk of death comorbid physical disorders and suicide risk Suicide risk of eldery many have visited a primary care physician near time of suicide paradoxically increases as patient responds to treatment have to watch at rst when you give them medication to get them over the quothumpquot DSM lVR Criteria D sleep disturbance decreased or increased interest or pleasure decreased guilt or feeling worthless mood sustained low or depressed energy loss or fatigue concentration problems or problems with memory appetite disturbance weight loss or gain psychomotor agitation or retardation suicidal ideation thoughts of death What are the major clues D somatic symptoms sleep appetite low energy sex drive physical symptoms feeling symptoms anhedoniainability to experience pleasure lack of motivation or drive anxietyworry general dissatisfaction or sadness irritability cognitive symptoms slow to answer questions forgetful poor memory guilt negative delusions behavioral crying worried at expression social isolation refusal of medical treatment Why is recognition dif cult l differentiation from medical illness stigma of mental illness bereavement cost and time constrains in medical delivery Treatment D screening tools medical evaluation diet uids exercise avoid alcohol positives creativity pace appropriately avoid stressors
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