Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide Biol 1000
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by nl0003 Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1000 at Auburn University taught by Matthew Aaron Kearley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Test Two 1 2 Plicae circulares folds in the walls of the small intestine covered with thousands of ngerlike projections called Mabsorption Each villus houses a lymph vessel called a lacteal and blood vessels and nerves K Large Intestine colon 1 2 P P FPquot 09 1o 11 12 lndigestible residue passes through the ileocecal valve and into the large intestine The large intestine concentrates and stores feces mixture of water undigested material and bacteria Much of the water is absorbed into blood vessels Not enough water absorbeddiarrhea too muchconstipation Foods high in fiber increase peristalsis The cecum pouch like where undigested material enters the large intestineappendix Ascending colon rises along right side of abdominal cavity Transverse coloncrosses abdominal cavity Descending colon down left side of cavity Sigmoid colon S shaped Rectum Anus L Nutrients 6 major categories 1 Fats most concentrated source of energy 2x as much as carbs or proteins per mass 2 Carbohydrates provide a quick source of energy starch glycogen 3 Proteins must get 9 essential amino acids from protein rich foods a Kwashiorkor not enough protein in diet 4 Minerals have to be obtained from food or liquids sodium calcium iron iodine etc 5 Vitamins a Vitamin K and D provided by the body Dsun b Vitamin Anight blindness c Folic acid important during pregnancy found in green veggies d Vitamin 312 meat helps nervous system 6 Water a Food b Water you drink c Metabolism M Liver 1 Liver has hundreds of functions 2 Carbohydrate metabolism changes glucose to glycogen breaks glycogen down into glucose 3 Storage stress glycogen iron and vitamins 4 Secretes bile 5 Detoxi cationremoves toxins from the blood a Too much toxins cirrhosis of the liver IV Circulatory System A Function rapid internal transport to and from cells 1 Interstitial uid bathes cells 2 Blood interacts with interstitial uid B Blood Transports oxygen nutrients and other solutes to cells Transports metabolic wastes Maintains internal pH 7375 Highway for phagocytic cells prevent sickness Equalizes body temp Plasma liquid portion of the blood a Contains proteins b Nutrients glucose amino acids etc c Oxygen and C02 d Hormones e Wastes 7 Blood cells a Ervthrocvtes red blood cells i No nucleus ii Produced in bone marrow iii Contain hemoglobin iron based protein carries oxygen and carbon dioxide b Leukocytes white blood cells i Larger but less numerous than RBC ii Nucleus iii 5 kinds of WBC 1 Neutrophils eosinoohils basoohils a Lobbed nucleus produced by red bone marrow 2 Monocytes lymphocytes a Round or kidney shaped nucleus produced red bone marrow b Lymphocytes produce antibodies c Platelets thrombocytes i Cell fragments no nucleus ii Lasts 59 days iii Blood clotting 8 Blood types a 4 types of blood A AB B and O b Types are identi ed by the type of antigens agglutinogens c When antigens contact certain antibodies agglutins RBCs clumb agglutination P P FP NE 9 Blood type a Blood type Antigens Antibodies A A antiB B B antiA AB both A amp B neither 0 neither both A amp B b Genetic alleles IA IB and i i IA and IE dominant l recessive ii A IAIA or W ABIAIB B IBIB or lBi Oii c Rh antigens Rh positive or negative i DRh d Rh dd ii People don t normally have antibodies against Rh anUgens iii An Rh recipient of transfused Rh blood can develop antibodies against Rh over time iv Rh women Rh man kid may be Rh v Mom may develop antiRh antibodies vi lf second child is Rh then her antibodies will cause fetal blood cells to rupture vii 6 Erythroblastosis fetalis fetus dies C Blood Vessels 1 Arteries carry blood away from the heart 2 Arterioles capillaries venules veins 3 Veins carry blood to the heart valves a Skeletal muscles contract against veins D Pulmonary circuit 1 Short loop oxygenates blood 2 Right side of heart to lungsthen back to left side of heart E Systemic circuit 1 Long loop starting at the left side of heart 2 Oxygenated blood is pumped out through the aorta main artery 3 Blood goes to cells and then is pumped back to the heart s right side oxygenated blood F Heart Structure 1 Pericardium connective tissue anchors protects heart 2 Coronary vessels transport blood for heart s needs 3 Atria 2 upper chambers 4 Ventricles 2 lower chambers Right side quotCO2 left side quot02 G Cardiac cycle 1 Each time the heart beats its 4 chambers go through periods of systole contraction and diastole relaxation 2 The superior and inferior vena cava carry blood into the relaxed right atrium the pulmonary veins carry blood into the left atrium 3 Atrioventricular AV valves located between the atria and ventricles right tricuspid left bicuspid are forced open by rising uid pressure 4 Blood starts to ow into the ventricles then the atria contract and eject the remaining blood into the ventricles 5 Chordae tendinae prevent AV valves from swinging up into atria 6 Filled ventricles contract AV valves shut 7 Semilunar valves open pulmonary semilunar right aortic semilunar leftblood ows out of heart 8 Blood leaves left ventricle through aorta 9 Blood leaves right ventricle through the pulmonary trunk H Cardiac muscle contraction 1 lntercalated disks span cell membranes 2 Wave starts at SA nodewall of right atrium 3 Wave passes through the wall to the AV node electrical bridge between the atria and ventricles 4 lmpulse travels down the ventricle walls 5 Ventricles contract I Blood pressure 1 Blood pressure uid pressure imparted to the blood by heart contraction 2 Svstolic pressure diastolic pressure lower than 12080 3 Pressure is highest in contracting ventricles and lowest in the relaxed atria a Highest in left ventricle b Arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins highest to lowest blood pressure J Capillary function 1 RBC squeeze single le through capillaries 2 Blood slows down and allows for exchange of substances through the capillary walls 3 When the force inside the capillary is higher than substances diffuse out of the capillary ex 02into the interstitial uid 4When force outside the capillary is greater substances diffuse into capillary from interstitial uid ex C02 reabsorption Chapter 25 DNA structure and function 0 DNA has 4 bases2 complementary pairs 0 AdenineThymine o GuanineCytosine 0 DNA replication 0 Each parent strand remains intact and is a template 0 Every DNA molecule is half old and half new Enzymes unwind the two strands DNA polymerase attaches complementary nucleotides DNA ligase joins fragments on lagging strands 0 DNA contains instructions for how to build proteins 0 Messenger RNA mRNA carries protein building instructions from the nucleus to the ribosome Transfer RNA tRNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome RNA is also a nucleic acid and has uracil U instead of thymine T o Transcription single strand of mRNA is formed from a DNA template 0 DNA is transcribed to form mRNA in the nucleus the mRNA travels to the ribosome Codons composed of 3 nucleotide bases found on the mRNA these triplets of bases code for speci c amino acids genetic code 0 61 different codons code for amino acids 3 are stop codons 0 Translation at the ribosome RNA is translated to form polypeptide chains that make up proteins 0 tRNAs attach to amino acids in the cytoplasm and bring them to the ribosome o tRNAs have base triplets called anticodons that complement the codons found on mRNA 0 tRNAs attached to the amino acids bind to the mRNA strand bringing the amino acid to the ribosome in the process 0 Amino acids are strung together to make polypeptides that compose proteins 0 Gene expression process through which genetic info ows from genes to proteins turned off and on by turning transcription off and on Chapter 26 Biotechnology Dolly exact genetic replica of another sheep 0 Cell was taken from udder of one sheep and the egg from another sheep was used but the nucleus was removed from this egg no DNA o The egg and the udder cell were fused together using an electrical stimulus mimicked the stimulation provided by sperm when it enters an egg 0 Fused cell develops as an embryo implanted into a surrogate mother hat gave birth Reproductive cloning exact genetic copy 0 Scientists may clone livestock with desirable traits cattle have been produced from the cells from a side of beef 0 Cloning and use of DNA could also be used to increase numbers of species bring back extinct species maybe Therapeutic cloning transplant nucleus from patient s cells into developing embryonic stem cells and then harvest the stem cells at a very early stage stem ells then used to replace patient s damaged cells Adult stem cells can also perpetuate themselves in culture and give rise to differentiated cells 0 But they are harder to culture than embryonic stem cells 0 They generally give rise to only a limited range of cell types in contrast with embryonic stem cells Homeotic genes program the development of organisms Cancer develops in a cell 0 Multiple mutations are required to produce a cancer cell 0 Changes in DNA often result from longterm exposure to carcinogens cancer causing agents Oncogene gene that causes cancer uncontrolled growth of cells Protooncogene normal gene that can be converted to become an oncogene o Mutations in the DNA of protooncogenes cause them to become oncogenes Tumor suppressor gene normally inhibit uncontrolled cell division 0 Mutation in the DNA of tumorsuppressor genes may disrupt function allow for uncontrolled cell division Restriction enzymes found in bacteria used to cut DNA and transformation bacteria pick up DNA from surroundings 0 Restriction enzymes are used to cut a gene out of the human DNA then the same enzyme is used to make a cut in the DNA of a plasmid o Bacteria then take up the plasmids containing the human genes and replicate turning out collectible quantities of the desired protein 0 Each gene is then transcribed and translated to produce collectible quantities of the protein Recombinant DNA 2 or more sections of DNA that have been combined by human does not exist in nature Gel electrophoresis sorts proteins and nucleic acids by charge or snze Polymerase chain reaction DNA is mixed with DNA polymerase enzyme and nucleotides which allowed the DNA to replicate 0 Can be used for replicating DNA in fossils and artifacts ex Mummies for medical purposes and DNA found at a crime scene Human genome genome consists of the entire genetic makeup of an individual 0 Human genome project nished in 2000 found the entire genetic makeup Biotechnology and food production 0 In US 45 of corn and 85 of soybeans are genetically modified 0 lnserted a version of a growth hormone gene into salmon that causes them to grow 500 faster 0 Gene from Bt bacteria inserted into the DNA of plants provides resistance against insects Chapter 27 How populations evolve 0 Evolution the modi cation of populations of living things over time can result in new species 0 Species individuals that can interbreed with one another and produce offspring that can also reproduce a Natural selection those organisms better adapted to their environment will be more likely to survive and pass their traits on to future generations 0 Fitness measure of reproductive success the ttest individuals are those that leave the most descendants For selection to be an agent of evolutionary change the traits considered must 0 Vary 0 Be heritable 0 Affect tness 0 Evolution is dynamic very slow life forms are constantly changing 0 Advances in genetics taxonomy paleontology comparative anatomy etc all lent support to this theory 0 Thus evolution is considered the unifying principle of biology Fossil record shows that organisms have appeared in a historical sequence Molecular biology provides evidence by the universal triplet code suggests that different species evolved from common ancestors mutations cause DNA to change slowly over time o Microevolution change in allele frequencies overtime populations evolve individuals do not a Five agents of microevolution 0 Mutations permanent alteration in an organism s DNA Must be inheritable rate of mutation is low only means by which new genetic info is introduced 0 Gene ow movement of genes from one population to another Occurs through migration 0 Genetic drift the chance alteration of allele frequencies in a population Bottleneck effect change in allele frequency due to chance during a sharp reduction in a populations size Ex Northern elephant seals numbers dropped to 50 animals because of commercial harvest Ex Pingelap Micronesian island where 10 of the population is completely colorblind 0 Nonrandom mating mating in which a given member of the population is not equally likely to mate with any other given member Ex 4 females 1 male breed with them all 0 Natural selection the only one of the ve agents that consistently works to adapt organisms to their environment considered the most important agent in having shaped the natural world Chapters 3337 Ecology and Conservation Ecology the study of the interaction of living things with one another and their environment Ecosystem all the organisms in a given area and the nonliving factors with which they interact o Biodiversity the variety of living things includes genetic diversity species diversity and ecosystem diversity Biosphere 0 Atmosphere 0 Hydrosphere water 0 Lithosphere earth and rocks 0 Climate patterns of weather that prevail over years or centuries 0 Climate is driven by the sun which affects the 4 season Northern vs southern hemisphere 0 When top hemisphere is tilted towards the sun it is summer 0 Life requires 0 Nutrients 0 Energy 0 Water 0 Appropriate temperatures 0 Interactions among living organisms 0 Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism Keystone species species whose in uence on a community is greater than its abundance would suggest 0 Energy pyramid o Autotrophs capture 3 of the sun s energy that reaches the surface of the earth 0 Each level retains 10 of previous level s energy 0 Example Producer wheat 1000Ibs Primary consumer cow 100lbs Secondary consumer human 10le Tertiary consumer python lib OOOO Major threats to biodiversity 0 Number 1 threat is habitat destruction 0 Commercial harvest 0 Introduction of exotic species 0 Possible solutions 0 Live sustainably 0 Education emphasize bene ts of biodiversity o Create reserves and protected areas Chapter 5 Mitosis and Meiosis Sister chromatids identical copies formed before DNA divides when it duplicates its chromosomes 0 When cell divides sister chromatids duplicate 0 Each has complete and identical set of chromosomes 0 Cell Cycle 0 lnterphase chromosomes duplicate o Mitotic Phase when cell division occurs Mitosis division of nuclei of cells equal distribution of chromosomes into daughter nuclei Prophase chromosomes condense spindle forms Metaphase chromosomes move to equator Anaphase chromatids separate Telophase cell begins to divide spindle breaks down Cytokinesis cytoplasm divides in cells Functions of mitosis 0 Growth ex Onion root 0 Cell replacement ex Skin dead skin cells on top of skin 0 Asexual reproduction ex Hydra Cancer cells divide excessively and can invade other tissues and displace normal cells Cancers o Carcinomas cancers that originate in the external or internal linings of the body ex Skin 0 Sarcomas in tissues that support the body bone and muscle 0 Leukemias and lymphomas in blood forming tissues bone marrow spleen lymph nodes Cancer treatments 0 Radiation treatment high energy radiation is used to destroy dividing cells targets cancer cells but can destroy normal cells 0 Chemotherapy drugs that disrupt cell division Ex Taxol impairs function of the mitotic spindle discovered in paci c yew bark Sexual reproduction produces genetic variety among offspring inherit chromosomes from each parent Diploid cells two homologous sets of chromosomes in humans diploid number is 46 Haploid cells gametes egg and sperm in humans number is 23 single set of chromosomes Meiosis is used for sexual reproduction forms gametes Crossing over the exchange of corresponding segments between two homologous chromosomes adds to genetic variability Independent assortment each pair of homologous chromosomes orients itself on the metaphase plate independently of other pairs in Meiosis l Genetic recombination production of gene combinations different from those on the original chromosomes result of crossing over Chapter 23 Genetics Homozygous YY or yy Heterozygous Yy Genotype genetic makeup ex Yy Phenotype physical traits ex Yellow seeds Yy x Yy 25 YY 50 Yy 25 yy szs x nys 14 chance for all phenotypes Rr x Rr 25 red 50 pink 25 white Mother lala or lai x father lala or lai lala or lai or ii A or 0 If a mother has hemophilia her son will have a 100 chance of getting it Father heterozygous for Huntington s disease x normal female 50 chance of having Huntington s disease 50 chance normal Aneuploidy one more or one fewer chromosomes than normal 0 Many miscarriages are aneuploidy 0 Down syndrome extra chromosome where 21st pair of homologous chromosomes is normally located Nondisjunction chromosome pairs or sister chromatids fail to separate causes abnormal number of chromosomes in gametes 0 Changes in number of sex chromosomes Kleinfelter syndrome XXY individual sterile feminine characteristics Males with XYY usually taller Females with XXX metafemales limited fertility Turner syndrome XO sterile short stature webbing of the neck Chapter 1 Study ofLife Characteristics of living organisms 0 Have organization 0 Acquireuse energy 0 Maintain constant internal conditions 0 Composed of one or more cells 0 Respond to their environment Science collection of uni ed insights about nature the evidence for which is an array of facts Scienti c method 0 Observation 0 Hypothesis 0 Experimenttest Chapter 2 Chemical basis of life Protons positive charge determine atomic number Neutrons no charge Electrons very little mass negative charge Water provides basis for life o Freezes at zero degrees Celsius ice is less dense than water molecules spread apart 0 Water has high speci c heat 0 Buffers climates 0 Surface tension water molecules bond to each other more strongly than to air Acids lower pH Bases raise pH 0 Living organisms usually between 68 Monomer single units Polymer string of monomers Carbohydrates 0 Contain C H O o Monosaccharide monomer C6H1206 glucose fructose deoxydbose o Polysaccharide polymer many monosaccherides linked together Starch glycogen cellulose chitin Dehydration synthesis when molecules bond together and produce H20 simple to complex Hydrolysis when a more complex molecule is split into simpler molecules and water is required complex to simple Lipids o Composed of C H 0 more H o Hydrophobic 0 Energy storage insulation 0 Saturated all CC bonds are single bonds 0 Unsaturated at least one CC bond is a double bond Proteins polymer composed of many amino acids 0 All amino acids have an amino group a carboxyl group attached to a central carbon 0 Proteins consist of polypeptide chains made up of amino acids 0 Protein functions are numerous and depend on the protein s shape 0 Change in the environment can change the shape of a protein DNA contains the instructions for putting together proteins RNA takes DNA encoded instructions to the sites in cells where proteins are put together Monomers and polymers 0 Carbohydrates Monomers glucose fructose deoxyribose Polymers starch glycogen cellulose chitin 0 Proteins Monomers amino acid amino group a carboxyl group attached to a central carbon Polymers polypeptide chains made up of amino acids 0 Nucleic acids Monomers phosphate group 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogen containing base G C T A Polymers nucleotides Chapter 3 cells Prokaryotic archaea or bacteria no nuclei single celled many don t use oxygen no organelles o Eukaryotes everything else nuclei many are multicellular most use oxygen organelles Cell organelles o Nucleus membrane bound dept contains DNA 0 Plasma membrane outer boundary 0 Cytoplasm region inside the plasma membrane and outside nucleus Nucleolus within nucleus RNA and proteins combine to make ribosomal subunits Cytoskeleton internal scaffolding maintains shape of cell Cytosol uid in which the cell s organelles are immersed Ribosome structure that translates RNA to proteins Rough endoplasmic reticulum network of plasma membranes that has ribosomes embedded in the surface Smooth ER detoxi es potentially harmful substancesproduces lipids o Golgi complex consists of membranous sacs receives proteins from the ERmodifies themships them to nal destination Vessicle tiny membranous sacs o Lysosome organelles that contain enzymes that break down organelles and return them to cytosol o Peroxisome vesicle containing enzymes which break down fatty acids and amino acids 0 Mitochondria convert energy found in food into a molecular form ATP 0 Plant cells 0 Central vacuole 0 Cell wall 0 Plastids Chapter 4 cell membrane 0000 O O O Plasma membrane regulates materials moving in and out of the cell selective permeability Active transport across a biological membrane requires energy and transport proteins moves a substance against its concentration gradient Passive transport proteins serve as channels that allows substances to diffuse through a membrane moves with concentration gradient Diffusion movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration moves down a concentration gradient Osmosis diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Hypertonic high concentration of solutes Hypotonic lower concentration of solutes o HYPOTONIC TO HYPERTONIC lsotonic concentration same on both sides of membrane Chapter 6 metabolism energy and enzymes Metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions that an organism carries out Exergonic reactions release energy reactants have more energy than the products Endergonic reactions require energy products have more energy than reactants Energy in food is converted to ATP Oxidation a substance that has lost one or more electrons Reduction a substance that gains one or more electrons Enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions and lower the amount of energy required to start chemical reactions activation energy 0 Above or below their range of tolerance for pH enzymes do not bond properly with substrates 0 Extremely high temperatures can change the shape of enzymes Substrateljenzymeljproduct Chapter 7 Respiration Respiration makes energy for cells C6H1206 l 6C02 6H20 ATPs Coenzymes o NAD and FAD accept electrons and hydrogens to become NADH and FADH deliver electrons and hydrogens to the electron transport chain Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria o ECT takes place in mitochondria DRAW CHART Anaerobic respiration does not use oxygen produces less ATP products produced from anaerobic respiration include lactic acid and alcohol Chapter 8 Photosynthesis 6C02 12H20 l C6H1206 6H20 602 DRAW CHART LIGHT DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT
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