PSY 313 EXAM 1 STUDYGUIDE
PSY 313 EXAM 1 STUDYGUIDE PSY 313
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Harris on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 313 at Syracuse University taught by Amy Criss in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Intro. to Research Methodology in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
PSY 313 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Sources of Belief Mythbuster s Video Method of Tenacity information is accepted as true because it has always been believed or because superstition supports it believing something because it s been around for a long time Example Opposites attract You can t teach an old dog new tricks Method of Authority Faith a person relies on information or answers from an expert in the subject are someone you trust says it s true Example Believing what Professor Criss teaches us because she is a professor in Psychology Method of intuition believing something because it feels rightquot selfdriven Example Hands free devices are safer than holding a phone Rational Method uses logic and reason to infer based on previous reasoning and logic Example The sun will rise tomorrow I will eat dinner at 7 PM All y year olds are afraid of the dark Julie is 3 years old therefore Julie is afraid of the dark Empirical Method based on direct sensory observation should see data yourself evidence based Example hands free devices do not prevent accidents Research Ideas Logical Follows from facts or observations provides rationale for hypothesis Example Premise 1 Academic success is highly valued by society Premise 2 Being values by others contributes to happiness Hypotheses Higher levels of academic success lead to higher levels of happiness Testable All constructs can be measures Example Cannot test what would happen if a certain actor wasn t cast in a movie amp another actor was not appropriate scientific hypothesis RefutableFalsifiable Can be wring specify direction Positive or negative Example A hypothesis may state that a particular drug may decrease effects of a particular condition It must also be possible that the effects of the condition may increase or not change at all Casual vs Formal Sources Observation Lab Characteristics of Science Empirical Answers are obtained by making observations answers may be obvious to certain things but can t be scientifically accepted until empirically proved Objective Observations are structured so the researcher s biases amp beliefs don t in uence the outcome of the study Public Makes observations available for evaluation by others should be able to replicate process stepbystep made public by publishing in scientific journals The Cycle of Science Cycle of science is a never ending process uses observations to build and refine our current knowledge Project ADAM Lego Lab Methods of an experiment must be extremely specific allowing others to replicate experiment exactly Structure of a Scientific Paper Hourglass structure Broad introduction focused hypothesis methods focused discussion broad conclusion Defining and Measuring Variables Theory An idea about how the world works based on empirical data Hypothesis a specific idea about the relation between constructs derived from the theory Testable and Refutable o Testable All of the variables events aamp individuals can be defined amp observed 0 Refutable Can be demonstrated to be false outcome can possibly be different from the prediction 0 Example Stress reduces concentration stress may not have an effect on concentration at all Construct Concept of interest not directly observable Operational Definitions Specifies how each construct will be measured 0 Example Bright environment leads to increased levels of happiness constructs are environment and happiness operational definition increasing the lighting in a room should increase happiness Types of Research Descriptive Provides a snapshot of the world not concerned with relationships between variables but rather than a description of the variables themselves Example How many people drive while drunk on campus Correlational How are 2 variables related Example Amount of calories consumed in a week and weight Experimental Establishing a cause amp effect relationship between 2 or more variables Example Does sleeping longer lead to better memory Independent Variable Variable manipulated by experimenter amount of sleep Dependent variable Depends on IV memory Observational Research Types of Data Quantitative quantifiable objective data amount duration usually numerical but can be comparisons Example Number of times you watched TV this week Qualitative quality of data type subjective description themes Example Observing people using their laptops during class Data Collection 0 What Behavior categories 0 Identify every category of behaviors PRIOR to observation 0 List everything that qualifies as a member of each category 0 Need clear operational definitions When Frequency Method 0 Count of times one observes behavior in a fixed amount of time 0 Example People looked at their phone 10 times over the course of a 60 minute class Duration 0 Measure the amount of time spent engaging in behavior 0 Example Person spent 34 minutes watching TV How Event sampling 0 Observe behavior 1 observe behavior 2 etc 0 Example Observe the number of times a child cries Individual sampling 0 All behaviors from person 1 all behaviors from person 2 0 Example Observe child 1 crying observe child 2 crying Time sampling 0 Observe record observerecord most difficult Types of Observations Naturalistic Try not to disturb the subjects being observed hide habituate Example Iane Goodall lived in Tanzania with chimps observed their behavior amp took careful detailed notes Participant Become one of themquot engage Example On Being Sane in Insane Places Rosenhan 1973 wondered how accurate medical staff were at diagnosing mental illness he and 7 others pretended to be schizophrenic amp were admitted to psychological hospitals once admitted they resumed normal behavior took observational noted during their stay Contrived Structured Construct situation so that you can measure relevant behavior Example Bobo Experiment Transmission of aggression children broken up into 2 groups aggressive and nonaggressive results experimental group aggressive displayed more aggressive behavior than the control group nonaggressive Potential Problems Reactivity people modify natural behavior when they know they re being watched Example Observing how well sales associated treat customers if associates were to know this observation was occurring they would obviously treat their customers better Demand Characteristics Participant based people might do what they feel is expected of them based on clues from the researcher or research design Example Rosenhan 1963 Students worded with lab rats to learn a maze Some RA s were told they were working with animals specially bred to learn mazes quickly Others were told that they were working with animals specially bred to have difficulty learning the maze Smart rats learn quicker dumb rats learn slower RA s were told that these rats would have more difficulty therefore they would expect rats to perform slower when in actuality both groups of rats were the same researchers changed data so it looked as thought the dumb rats performed slower Asch 1955 Show a control line Show 3 lines and pick the one that s the same length as the control line 7 researchers pretend to be participants confederates along with 1 real participant on some trials all researchers give the same answer sometimes the answer is right amp sometimes its not shows that people will pick the wring answer even though they know it s wrong because the majority of other people picked a different answer Experimenter expectancy effect researcher based Look at Rosenhan example Single blind study experimenter does not know hypothesis or the condition the participant is in 0 Example Wanting to test a headache medicine to see if it works or not they might only get better because the think they are getting the medicine to fix this have some participants get the real medicine amp some have a placebo Double blind study Neither the experimenter nor participant knows the condition makes sure results are not biased 0 Example Using previous example have someone else other than the experimenter put real medicine amp placebo in envelopes then have a different set of people hand out the envelopes only the people that put the treatments in the envelope know who received what Self Report amp Survey Research Simply asking rather than inferring about one s behavior Open ended vs restricted Opens with a non threatening interesting question as a warm up Put general questions before specific questions Place routine demographics at the end of the survey Types of Questions Openended More freedom to explain hard to quantify no guarantee that people will answer the question being asked Example Are you an emotional person Restricted Don t always identify the dimension on which you are basing your response Example Do you consider yourself to be an emotion person a No b A little emotional c Sometimes d Most of the time e Yes Types of Restricted Questions 0 Likert Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Semantic Differential Weak l Strong Unintelligent Intelligent Quantitative About how you present the response are numbers Never 12 times 34 times 5 times or more Categorical My favorite color is Red Blue Yellow Green Orange Potential Problems with Survey Questions 1 Use appropriate vocabulary eg For surveying economists Of your pecuniary assets what do you consider primary For everyone else What is the most important way of saving money 2 Avoid words with emotional baggage 3 Avoid leading questions eg Do you agree that 4 Avoid tactless questions don t be rude eg Do you have a real job 5 Be clear eg If unclear you may get false results for survey 6 Avoid ambiguous answers Be specific eg How often do you go to church Never Rarely Sometimes Should never give concrete choice 7 Response set people tend to pick a response and stick with it if possible eg give a rating of agree to every question Solution Use both and statements eg The teacher is organized The course is poorly structured 8 Establish a frame of reference You want to know why someone answers that they do Ask broad questions to establish a reference frame 0 eg Do you like SU Why 0 eg How is the weather in Syracuse Does the weather affect how you feel about SU Sampling Research Participants Population group of people you are studying Example College students Sample Smaller than population group of people selected from the population Example College students is the population College students at Syracuse University is the sample Representativeness Serving as an example of the population How similar is the sample to the population of interest Example If the population and sample are similar then they are highly representative of each other Bias Sample differs from the population on important dimensions systematic difference between sample and population Example Taking phone surveys on who people are voting for biased in that they are only getting information from people that have phones Stability Spread of the sample how much quotnoisequot in our data Sampling Plans NonProbability Sampling not drawing from the entire population Convenience take what you can get Quota selectively take what is available according to a plan Example Take the 1St eligible 10 men and 10 women sample every 10th person from each gender Probability Sampling each member of the population has a known amp non zero chance of being selected Simple Random Sample everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected 0 Example Without replacement each person can only be sampled once With replacement people can be selected multiple times randomly select Biology students at Big 10 schools without replacement use random number generator to select NN100 participants from that list Stratified break population into sub samples amp choose randomly from the sub sample 0 Example First select strata that are relevant Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior take 25 from each strata sample may not re ect the distribution of the population Proportionate stratified sample Sample each stratum in proportion to its size in the population 0 Example 5 Sophomore 20 Junior 50 Senior 25 the proportion in the population percentage or the number of Big 10 Biology students that are Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior sample re ects the distribution of the population Measures of Central Tendency Dispersion amp Standard Scored Equations will be given on exam Standard Scores What does it mean Example Where you fall in standard deviation terms a standard deviation score of 1 means the value 1 SD above the mean SAT Score Example Get a 600 on your quantitative SAT test you re told this is the 84th percentile Strength Strength of the relationship Magnitude of correlation coefficient Fuzziness of the cloud on the scatterplot No relationship X amp Y are not related R is near 0 correlation coefficient Cloud is maximally fuzzy Strength is Distance from Zero R 10 perfectly positive R 0 no relationship R 10 perfectly negative Correlation coefficients assume linear relation Either positive or negative If you can t draw a straight line through it you probable shouldn t use a correlation coefficient to compute Direction Positive As X increases Y increases X and Y vary in the same direction Pearson s R is greater than 0 Negative As X increases Y decreases X amp Y vary in the opposite direction Pearson s R is less than 0 Temporal Precedence The cause precedes the effect in time
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