Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ANTHROP 2202H
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP 2202H at Ohio State University taught by Lexine Trask in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Common Concepts Holism to understand part must understand whole perspective that attempts to integrate all known information Comparison consider all similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible Relativism view subject only in terms of principles background frame of reference history etc avoid ethnocentrism and interpret what is found at the moment in terms of the system in which it is found Variation biological differences and similarities Evolution change in population from one generation to the next biological and cultural change Adaptation successful interaction between a population and environment usually in order to reproduce more than others 5 SubDisciplines of Anthropology Archaeology reconstruct ways of life from recovered artifacts during excavation PhysicalBiological Anthropology study of human biology in an evolutionary context emphasis on dynamic relationship between biology culture and environment Primatology study of non human primates and their behaviors think Jane Goodall Paleoanthropology human evolution through fossil ancestors and the fossil record Human Population Biology study of human biology in relation to its environmental and cultural contexts Linguistic Anthropology relationship between language and culture how language shapes cognition and thought examine language structure origin and evolution of language Sociolinguistics study of language in relation to its social context Function how variables influence how we speak to each other Cultural Anthropology contemporary and historically recent cultures study all aspects of human behavior through intensive fieldwork Applied Anthropology application of anthropological concepts skills knowledge and methods to provide solutions to real world problems the intersection of 4 subdisciplines Anthropology an integrated scientific and holistic study of human cultural and biological variation and evolution Value insights on humanity Culture a system of shared beliefs values customs behaviors and material objects that members of a society use to cope with their world and one another Enculturation process by which one learns culture ldeal Culture what people say they should do Real Culture what people actually do Emic insiders perspective Etic outsider s perspective Cultural Identity recognizing yourself and your people as distinct from other groups Society group with set of physical boundaries members which share a language and sense of common identity Values beliefs about goals or ways of life that are good or desirable Classification of Reality shared ideas about what kinds of things exist world view how people interpret things in the world context Cultural Knowledge difference between cultural knowledge and individual behavior cultural knowledge influences decisions but doesn t dictate them Biological determinism cultural difference have a biological basis THIS IS WRONG IT DOES NOT EXIST any person of any race can be raised in any culture and learn any language Fieldwork the collection of data during an extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or life ways they are interested Ethnographic Process fieldwork where researchers integrate themselves as much as the people will allow Data Collection use both quantitative and qualitative numbers need context so combine both Fieldwork After Interest location dependent on area of interest or research question Permission from university government officials scholars people Full Disclosure purpose and procedures costs and benefits Informed consent is continual Ethnographic Research question oriented applies problem oriented longitudinal community region culture repeat visits Ethnographic Techniques participant observation basic research method research participants get rid of power imbalance Rapport do what the people do Normalcy spend enough time with them acts drop The Hawthorne Effect alteration of behavior pleasing researcher triangulation a way to get around problems and Hawthorne Effect Sister Method asking femalemale relatives women were comfortable talking about other women allows for mental emotional and physical contact with the individuals conversation active listener steer conversation indepth interviews surveys and questionnaires interview style different based on who researcher is talking to want one on one to avoid one person speaking for both or focus groups scheduled vs impromptu culture dependent Recruiting Chain Referral participant passing on interviewresearch info hard to gain access Problems some populations may not be literate so administer them orally Ethics and Responsibility Do no harm to the people in your study universal anthropology rule AAA standard code of ethics informed consent in many cases use fake names to protect participants Social violence places you39re not allowed to go anymore Disease Culture Shock Unlikeable Subjects not everyone will like you either Language and Culture system of arbitrary coal symbols that human beings use to encode their experience primary means of communication transmitted through learning transmits culture discuss past and future conjure up elaborate images study language in its social context to understand culture we must start with language avoid translators at all costs Beliefs about Language misconception are sometimes harmless make you try to change things way you speak how you speak words you use instruments of prejudice any normal child born anywhere is capable of learning any language to which shehe is exposed Productivity infinite use of finite media Displacement discuss things outside of visual or auditory capacity Arbitrariness sound does not necessarily correspond Combination sounds can be combined and recombined to form different meanings Biological Basis Broca s production of soundassociated with pronunciation and grammatical abilities Wernicke s ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences important for listening and reading Phonology Sounds phonemes finite number of sounds minimal units sounds contrast signaling a difference in meaning Morphology Words study of form word construction Morpheme smallest units of language that convey meaning Syntax phrasessentences Grammar rules for making phonemes into morphemes and morphemes into words rules for determining how phrases and sentences are constructed Semantics language s meaning system Lexicon vocabulary dictionary of all morphemes and their meanings allows for the expression and understanding of thoughts Langauge Acquisition learning a language Passive Acquisition how children learn first language Stages babbling 1 word sentences 2 word sentences longer sentences Theones Imitation Theory children learn by imitating adults Reinforcement Theory children learn to speak correctly through negative reinforcement neither theory is supported by observational or experimental studies and cant explain how children learn the rules to produce new sentences Critical Age Hypothesis biological period where overt teaching is not required Cognitive Anthropology how cultures construct their classifications of reality by perceiving and labeling the world according to different criteria classify objects people natural phenomena into categories depending on features we define as significant Kung intense contact with neighboring populations ethnographic present quick to incorporate new technology into subsistence strategy others have completely resisted westernization no intensive intervention with environment marginal environment rainfall is seasonal soil is sandy implications not a lot of edible vegetation means less animals and herds coming through the area Environmental Factors vegetation is scattered lack of large migratory hers wide variety of animals and plants used selective food foragers Lee s research study with the Kung Selective Foragers eat based on likes Food Hierarchy go after favorites first low energy expenditure limited demand on environment carrying capacity move on before exhaust any one area Population Size need to keep it under a certain number Natural Fertility Population stigmas breast feeding herbs that promote miscarriage post pardem taboos rhythm method Ovulation very active lifestyle with poor diet suppresses it Rainy Season resources available small groups don39t need to move as often less conflict Dry Season large groups more people out looking for food more food coming in less resources migrate towards permanent watering holes Division of Labor diet consists of 70 vegetables and 30 meat women gather and men hunt usually persistence hunting chase down prey until it becomes tired and turns into an easy kill can take 12 days Food Sharing rarely have hunger wont share gathered foods because anyone can do that share meat hunting party and families first any debts owed other people who you want to be in debt to you Insulting the Meat cultural leveling mechanism keeps skilled hunters modest no one person is given privileged status lnuit Arctic region inhospitable few veggies and fruits long dark winters high windspoor soil and short growing season Hunting Fishing Trapping seal whale caribou arctic hare availability of animals determines subsistence strategy migration herds settlement patterns based on seasons lots of stuff to carry around Dispersal Patterns Summer small groups of 2030 people move inland fish runs and caribou migration Winter large groups of 50100 people on ocean ice hunting seals How to Keep Warm role of caribou meat and skin family of 4 needs 30 skins clothing design warmth air vents layers insulation role of modern technology Shelter snow houses mostly underground heated with animal oil and kerosene summer tents made of seal skin Diet storage of food allows for surplus which can lead to accumulation of wealth moving away from egalitarian societies different from the Kung
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