Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 BIOL 101 - 011
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Desireeceara on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 101 - 011 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Benjamin Paul Keck in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Intro Bio: Cell/Genetic/Physio in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Biology Digestion Alimentary canal Consist of oral cavity tongue pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine colon appendix rectum and anus Digestion mechanical vs chemical 0 Digestion breakdown of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb 0 Mechanical physical process of chewing 0 Chemical breakdown of food into enzymes via hydrolysis chemical reactions breaks down polymers into monomers Accessory digestive organs secretes enzymes and other chemicals into the digestive tract consist of salivary glands liver gallbladder pancreas Photosynthesis 2 steps products and inputs 6Carbondioxide 6Water gt Glucose60xygen From Where does a plant gain most of its mass water Causes of seasonality in C02 concentrations photosynthesis Industries secondarily dependent on photosynthesis 0 Manufacturing Researcl education Financial sector Commodities Transportation Digestive system Alimentary canal and accessory organs 0 Alimentay Canal mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine and anus 0 Accessory Organs tongue salivary glands pancreas liver and gallbladder Pancreas produces enzymes ex Lipase in the small intestines secretes liquid that neutralizes acidic chyme Liver produces bile salts that blend fats Gall bladder stores bile salts and releases them into small intestine Mouth Mechanical digestion teeth process food and saliva chemically digest food Stomach SmalMarge intestine stores breaks down and digests proteins Chyme acidic patially digest food that leaves small intestines and enters the stomach Amylase breaks down carbohydrates Lipase breaks down fats Pepsin protein digesting enzyme in the stomach Olestra Olean fatty acid that cannot be broken down by lipase inhibits absorption of some vitamins Essential Nutrients carbohydrates protein fat vitamins minerals and water Calorie energy required to raise temperature of one gram of water by 1 Celsius Nutrition label Carnivore mainly eats animals Herbivore mainly eats plants Omnivore eats both plants and animals 4 Stages in food processing Ingestion taking in foodnutrients placing food in moutl eating Digestion use of mechanical and chemical means to break down molecules Absorption uptake of molecules in the digestive tract Elimination disposal of left over food PharynX connects mouth and esophagus moves trachea when swallowing Epiglottis structure that moves down depressed to swallow or up to breath Mastication chewing Bolus ball of chewed food pH in stomach around 3 or 4 Gastric bypass when the stomach is divided into two with the small intestine connecting to both division Malnutrition lack of nutrients caused by insufficient diet Cardiovascular Diffusion movement of molecules from higher to lower concentrations Circulatory System exchange of materials in simple animals 3 components of the circulatory systemConsist of central pump vascular system and circulating uid Compare open and closed circulatory system is one more primitive than the other Open heart pumps blood into open ended vessels and blood moves freely invertebrates Closed blood stays in tubes but is distinct from interstitial uid that surrounds it invertebrates and vertebrates gtkNeither system is more primitive Simple can be efficient Heart Blood vessels veins arteries capillaries 0 Arteries carry blood from away from heart to arterioles 0 Capillaries place where blood exchanges with interstitial uid width of on blood cell 0 VenulesVeins form veins by collecting blood from capillaries and returning it to the heart Arterial and venous blood pressure Blood pressure is the force blood pushes on vessel walls Human double circulatory system 0 Pulmonary Circuit carries blood from heart to lungs 0 Systemic Circuit carries blood from heart to rest of body Typical human blood pressure 12070 Heart murmur indicates a defect in heart valves Heart arrhythmia medical fixes Heart arrhythmia is the occurrence of an irregular heart beat Can be aided by meds and pacemaker Composition of blood 0 55 plasma water proteins salts nutrients 0 45 cellular elements red and white blood cells platelets Red Blood Cells help transports oxygen made in bone marrow Contains 250 million molecules of hemoglobin and iron Hemoglobin protein that transports oxygen in blood Anemia when blood has few red blood cells or hemoglobin not enough oxygen Respiratory Respiration and gas exchange integrated into the cardiovascular system 3 stages of respiration 1 Breathing control consciously and unconsciously by inhalation contraction negative pressure and exhalation relaxing positive pressure air moves from mouthnose to lungs 2 Transport the movement of oxygen from the lungs to the body through the circulatory system 3 Diffusion the diffusion of oxygen from blood and the release of C02 into blood Breathing center in brain monitors what Automatically controls breathing unconsciously in response to C02 levels Pathway of breathing Air enters the nostrils or mouth then passes through the oral pharynxAfter that the air travels through the glottis and into the trachea Once in the lungs it goes into the bronchi and further into the bronchioles The last stage ends in the alveoli Surface area length and capacity of airways 0 Length 2400km or 1500 miles 0 Surface Area 70 100 m2 half a tennis court 0 Capacity 6 liters of air Portions of the airway affected by diseases 0 Chronic Obtrusive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema damage to lung tissue 0 Asthma abnormal smooth muscle in airways limits air 0 Pneumonia bacteria in lungs 0 Cystic Fibrosis mucous blocks airways Concurrent vs counter current flow 0 Concurrent two uids ow in the same direction 0 Counter current two uids ow in opposite direction Animal respiratory examples 0 Bird vocalization Syrinx two pathways that allow birds to basically inhale and exhale at once 0 Insects use diffusion with spiricals and trachea to transport oxygen throughout the body Evolutionary outcomes of various oxygen levels Neural and Musculoskeletal Purpose of Nervous system transmits and response to stimulus Neuron function and parts 0 Neurons basic cell of the nervous system 0 Cell Body contains the nucleus and organelles 0 Dendrites receives signals from other cells 0 Synaptic Terminal Sends signal to other cells 0 Myelin Sheath makes signals move fast protects axon 0 Synaptic Cleft the space in between neurons Sending signals and action potential Signals are electrical They are sent after a stimulus activates the cells action potential A cell has a resting potential a threshold and action potential In order for a neuron to send a signal its energy must surpass the threshold voltage Actions of stimulants and depressants 0 Depressants inhibit transmission of signals 0 Stimulants Mimic neurotransmitters Main types of neurons 0 Sensory Neurons touch smell taste sound vision rods and cones 0 Interneurons found in spinal cord and brain 0 Motor Neurons transports signals from central nervous system to muscles and glands 0 Bundles of Neurons are called nerves Function of rods and cones 0 Rods neurons with a cylinder shape that are better at seeing black and white and peripheral vision nighttime vision 0 Cones neurons with a cone shape tip that are better at seeing color daylight vision Purpose and parts of central and peripheral nervous systems Central Nervous System 0 Purpose transmit information from senses and signals 0 Brain control center of nervous system 0 Also has cerebrospinal uid that has nutrients white blood cells and is a cushion 0 Spinal Cord bundle of nerves in the spine Peripheral Nervous System 0 Purpose 0 Contains motors system and autonomic nervous system 0 Motor system transmits signals through skeletal muscles 0 Autonomic system regulates internal body muscles organs endocrine system Autonomic nervous system and divisions 0 Parasympathetic Division helps body rest and digest food 0 Sympathetic Division prepares for energy consuming activities Integration of muscles and skeleton The Skeleton is the anchor that the Muscles use for leverage and provides muscles protection Composition of muscles Bundle of fibers like nerves Skeletal system functions produce blood cells Immune Purpose of immune system to neutralize pathogens threats Innate defenses responses that our body is ready to respond to instinctively Adaptive acquired defenses Responses the body learns after first encounter with a specific pathogen Purpose of secretions and mucous membranes these substances helps to stop particlespathogens from entering the body White Blood cells and types 0 Phagocytic cells eat foreign cells or left over dead cells 0 Natural Killer NK cells recognize viruses and release proteins to get rid of diseased cells Defensive Proteins and types 0 Interferons are released by diseased cells to help healthy cells make an antivirus 0 Complement proteins attack pathogens In ammatory response infected cells signal nearby cells that there is a problem 0 When tissue is damaged chemicals are released to warn cells 0 Phagocytic cells rush to area and take out bacteria Lymphatic system 0 Complementary to cardiovascular system 0 Has branching networks of vessels 0 Lymphatic vessels carry lymph uid Lymphatic organs thymus spleen tonsils and appendix Lymphocytes and response to antigens 0 B bone cells made in bone marrow 0 T thymus cells made in thymus in the chest 0 The body responds to antigens by remembering the invaders to respond faster next time Passive vs Active immunity 0 Passive Immunity temporary immunity to a pathogen by receiving antibodies or through emergency response 0 Active Immunity receiving a more permanent immunity through vaccination or infection Vaccination Link between vaccination and autism vaccination and autism has no link Claims by AJ Wakefield have been found to be false claims of overstimulation and other ingredients causing Autism BUT 0 There have been outbreaks of measles and whooping cough due to anti vaccine movement Primary vs Secondary Immune response 0 Primary produces effecter cells and memory cells lifelong immunity 0 Secondary memory cells activated by second eXposure faster response Allergies and allergens 0 Allergies harmless antigens the body over responds to 0 Allergens the antigens that cause a allergy Cleanliness hypothesis those eXposed to more bacteria viruses have a better immune system and fewer allergies
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