Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide SCED 305
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SCED 305 at Towson University taught by Dr. Jamie Silverman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
SCED 305 Midterm Study Guide Ch 2 9 Cognitive Language and Literacy Development Nature v Nurture 9 development is affected by qenetics nature or environment nurture o Considered to be a mix of the two Continuous v Discontinuous Theories 0 Continuous Theories of Development information processing models development occurs in a smooth progression as skills develop and new expenences o Discontinuous Theories of Development progress through predictableinvariant stages abrupt changes but rates of change are different Jean Piaget 18961980 0 Theory Cognitive Development Child s intellect cognitive ability progresses through four stages 0 Scheme patterns of behaviorthinking in order to make sense of environment 0 Assimilation and Accommodation Adaption adjusting schemes in response to environment Assimilation process of understanding new objectsevents in terms of existing schemes Accommodation modifying existing schemes in light of new information o Goes through diseguilibrium imbalance between what is understood and what is encountered o Constructivism 9 view of development as a process in which children actively build systems through experiencesinteractions 0 Stages of Development Sensorimotor Stage 02 explore world with sensesmotor skills object permanence move to goal directed behavior Preoperational 27 use of symbols thinking remains eqocentriccentered belief that everyone sees the world the way they do Concrete Operational 711 logical thinking reversibility ability to change direction in one s thinking return to a starting point thinking less egocentric Formal Operational 119 abstract thinking problem solving Lev Vygotsky d 1934 0 Theory intellectual development only understood in terms of historicalcultural context of children depends on sign systems of individuals SelfRegulation internalizing signs to thinksolve problems without help Private Speech incorporate speech of others to help solve problems Zone of Proximal Development tasks a child cannot do without help but can do with assistance where learning happens Mediation complex skills reasoning problem solving done with adultshigherpreforming peers modeling Scaffolding gradually decreasing assistance great deal of help 9 less 9 independent performance Cooperative Learninq children work together to help each other learn a skill Urie Bronfenbrenner 0 Theory bioecological approach Emphasizes interconnectedness of the many factors that influence development o Microsystemhomefamily o Mesosystem parents students teachers friends o Exosystem community neighbors school board church o Macrosystem culturalreligious values mass media laws Ch 3 9 Social Moral and Emotional Development Social Development Erik Erikson 0 Theory Stages of Psychosocial Development Each stage has a crisis to be resolved before moving on in development 0 Stacie 1 Trust v Mistrust 018 months 9 develop basic trust in worldbasic needs 0 Stacie 2 Autonomy v Doubt 18 months3 9 dual desire to hold on and let go if not given independence can create powerlessness o Stacie 3 Initiative v Guilt 36 9 maturing motorlanguage skills aggressive in exploring environments 0 Stacie 4 Industrv v lnferioritv 612 9 desire to succeed failure or perception may hinder further learning 0 Staqe 5 Identity v Role Confusion 1218 9 need to question their psychosocial identity Who am I o Staqe 6 Intimacv v Isolation Young Adulthood 9 relationships of trust and intimacy o Stacie 7 Generativitv v SelfAbsorption Middle Adulthood 9 need to continue to grow 0 Stage 8 Inteqritv v Despair Late Adulthood 9 acceptance of life and death Moral Development Piaget 0 Theory Theory of Moral Development Cognitive abilities develop first then determine reason about social s ua ons Heteronomous Morality inflexible rules rules are permanent must be followed egocentric punishment depends on how bad the results of action were misbehavior will always be punished Autonomous Morality intentions gt results of actions rules can be broken view what is right differently punishment depends on intentionsdegree of behavior coincidental bad outcomes are not punishments Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Reasoning o Elaborationrefinement of Piaget Monitored responses to moral dilemmas 1Preconventional Level 2Conventional Level 3PostConventional Level Rules are set by others Individuals adopt rules as Individuals define needed will cater to values valuesrules in accordance of familyfriends with own ethical principles Stage 1 Punishment v Stage 3 Good BoyGood Stage 5 Social Contract Obedience Girl Rightness individual Physical Goodness rights and society Consequences pleaseshelpsapprov standards determine ed of by others 9 Laws can be changed goodnessbadness niceness depending upon a society Stage 2 Instrumental Stage 4 Law and Order Stage 6 Universal Ethical Relativist Right Duty Respect Principle Rightness satisfies for Authority and In accordance with own needs Maintaining the Social conscience and self Fairnessreciprocity is Order chosen ethics limited In the abstract Socioemotional Development during MiddleHigh School Years 0 Identity Development Reflectivity tendency to think about one s own mind and study yourself 0 SelfConcept how we observe strengths weaknesses abilities attitudes values 0 SelfEsteem how we evaluate our skills and abilities James Marcia 3 Four Identity Statuses 0 Foreclosure establish identity based on parents choices 0 Identity Diffusion no occupational direction nor ideological commitment o Moratorium midst of identity crisis 0 Identity Achievement identity consolidation Ch 4 9 Student Diversity Socioeconomic status an individual s income occupation education prestige in society 0 Social Class Groupings Socioeconomic Class Family Income Description Top 5 186000 or more Upper Class 100000 or more Upper Middle Class 63000100000 Occupations require Lower Middle Class 4000063000 significant education Working Class 2000040000 Stable jobs not requiring higher education Lower Class 20000 or less Unemployed living on government assistance Resilience ability to succeed despite many risk factors StereotVDe threat individuals know about a stereotype and become anxious about confirming it and their anxiety causes them to perform below their abilities Bilinqual education programs in 2 languages while English is being learned Four Types of Programs 1 English Immersion ELs taught primarily or entirely in English a Structured English immersion 2 Transitional Bilingual Education transitions from being taught in native language to English throughout 24th grade 3 Paired Bilingual Education taught in both at different times of day 4 TwoWay Bilingual Education teach all students in English and another language Content inteqration use of data examples information from a variety of cultures Knowledqe Construction helping children understand how knowledge is createdinfluenced by race ethnicity and social class Preiudice Reduction advancement of positive relations among students and development of more democratictolerant attitudes 0 Equity pedagogy use of teaching techniques that facilitate academic success from various ethnicsocial groups ex Cooperative methods 0 Empowering school culture school practices are conductive to academicemotional growth of all students Implicit Bias 0 White teachers occupy 84 of teaching force US schools have more nonwhite students than white student 0 Attitudesstereotypes that are activated unconsciously Learned at as young an age as 3 0 Changing the Bias Make individuals aware of them o Done like breaking a habit o Requires active reflection o Reflecting Awareness is the first step Reflectiveness is asking why you have these biases ex Who do you call on How often Give your students equality in their responsibilities Believing in our students helps them achieve academic success Ch 5 9 Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning O Behavioral learninq theories focus on the ways that pleasurableunpleasant consequences change individuals behavior over time and how individuals model their behavior on that of others Social learninq theories focus on the effects of thought on action and action on thought Coqnitive learninq theories emphasize unobservable mental processes that people use to learn and remember new informationskills Pavlov Classical Conditioning 0 O O Unconditioned stimuli without any prior trainingconditioning Unconditioned response response to stimuli occurring without prior trainingconditioning Neutral stimuli stimuli have no effect on response Conditioned stimulus a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus and neutral stimulus now a CS and prompts similar response to that of an unconditional stimulus Called classical conditioning Skinner Operant Conditioninq O Operant behavior behavior that operate on environment in absence of unconditioned stimuli Operant conditioninq use of pleasantunpleasant consequences to change behavior Controlled Situations and observing changes in behavior because of systematic changes in consequences ex Skinner Box Reinforcers pleasurable consequences strengthensincreases behaviors O 0 Primary satisfy basic human needs Secondary acquire value by being associated with primary or wellestablished secondary reinforcers Social reinforcers activity token symbolic Positive reinforcers praise grades stars Neqative reinforcers escapes from unpleasant situations The Premack Principle promote behavior by making access to desire contingent on doing something less desirable Grandma s Rule Intrinsic Reinforcers intrinsically motivated to do a behavior Extrinsic Reinforcers rewards given to motivate one to do a behavior one wouldn t normally do Punishers unpleasant consequences weakens behavior Presentation punishment use of unpleasant consequences aversive stimuli Removal Punishment withdrawal of a pleasant consequence o Response cost a cost to students each time they behave wrong o Timeout Consequences that follow behavior closely in time affect behavior more than delayed consequences Immediate feedback makes clear the connection between behavior and consequence o Increases informational value of feedback 0 Shaking teaching of new skillsbehaviors by reinforcing learners for approaching desired final behavior Teach skills stepbystep Reinforced for behaviors within current capabilities o Extinction weakening of a behavior Extinction burst increase of behavior in early stages 9 consequences for classroom management 9 rarely a smooth process Response Patterns required for reinforcement reinforcement Schedule Definition During During Reinforcement Extinction Fixed Ratio Constant Steady Rapid drop in number of response rate response rate behaviors pause after after required number of responses passes without reinforcement reinforcement is available Variable Ratio Variable Steady high Response rate number of response rate stays high then behaviors drops required for reinforcement Fixed Interval Constant Uneven rate Rapid drop in amount of time with rapid rate after passes before acceleration at interval passes reinforcement end of each with no is available interval reinforcement Variable Variable Steady high Slow decrease interval amount of time response rate in response passes before rate Cueing antecedent stimuli precedes a behavior 0 Inform about which behavior will be reinforcedpunished 0 Hints to when we should shouldshould not change behavior 0 Stimulus discrimination ability to behave one way in presence of a stimulus and another in the presence of a different stimulus Discrimination use of cues signals information to know when behavior will be reinforced 0 Must have feedback on correctnessincorrectness 0 their responses tell students Generalization transfer of behaviors learned under one set of conditions to another 0 Must usually be planned for 0 Techniques Using examples from different contexts Repeat instructions in different settings Bandura 0 Theory Social Learning Theory o Modeling imitating behavior 0 Observational learning 0 Attentional Phase students pay attention to role models attractive successful interesting popular 0 Retention Phase model the behavior you want students to imitate and let them practice 0 Reproduction students try to match behavior to the model s o Motivational Phase imitate a model because they believe it will increase their own reinforcement o Vicarious learning learn by seeing others reinforcedpunished for behaviors o Selfregulated learning judge behavior off own standards and reinforcepunish themselves 0 Techniques need to be applied in many contexts so it doesn t become limited 0 Set daily goals grade work setting personal standards Meichenbaum s Model of SelfRegulated Behavior 0 Cognitive behavior modification 9 selfregulated learning 0 Selfinstruction Cognitive Modeling Overt external guidance Overt selfguidance Faded overt selfguidance Covert selfinstruction Selfreinforcement regulate own behavior Information about one s behavior can change behavior Ch 6 9 Cognitive Theories of Learning Updated Info Processing Model of Learning and Memory Original Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Executive Processes Sensth I Waring I Longeterm Register it39llemery Memory a 2 E3 kg round Knowledge Lost Lost Ba kg round Kn owledgse Executive Process 9 determines what a person is interested in transferring into long term memory and how hard one thinks about the stimuliinformation to form new memories Conscious and unconscious Sensory Register 9 receive large amounts of information from the senses and hold it for a short time a couple of seconds If not focused on it is rapidly lost Educational implications o Must pay attention to information to retain it o Takes time to bring information into consciousness Perception 9 mental interpretation of stimuli based on longterm memoryexperiences Attention 9 limited shift in priorities so other stimuli are screened out Gaining Attention 9 Cues to show importance Increase Emotional Content UnusualSurprising Stimuli Personal ImportanceSignificance Workinq Short Term Memory 9 hold a limited amount of information for a few seconds what we are currently thinking Hold information in Short Term by saying it over and over rehearsal o Must leave room in lesson for rehearsal Capacity 59 bits of information o Chunking related ideas put together Sorting and connecting new information with existing knowledge Individual Differences 9 Background Knowledge o The more they know the better they can absorb new information 0 Long Term Memory 9 stores knowledgeskillsmemories and organize them for easy retrieval Episodic Memory 9 personal experiences 0 Flashbulb Memory occurrence of an important event fixes mainly visual and auditory memories in a person s mind Sematic Memory 9 facts generalized information problem solving skills learning strategies 0 Schema networks of concepts stored in individuals memories to allow them to understandincorporate new information Procedural Memory 9 knowing how 0 Stored in stimulusresponse pairings Neurons9 a long cell that receive stimuli from the environment translate them into electrical impulses and pass them across synapses to other neurons 0 Dendrites 9 one end of a neuron with thousands of tiny branches 0 Synapses 9 spaces between these branches 0 Axons 9 at the end of a neuron that pass information to other cells Hir ll u i iiiin HEmgng facetE mmfmmibm lm Ether tumult lies 1q r mcumma tl39ll cugi39l 39 U lE Llhdl lijb of Sy39 dpi f39 7 H lift the cell Emily and 3 u bade inquot dendrites quot lr39rluzagral or wine I39L I39 w Neural 39fIIIquoti i1339H IFl 5 Marian tie2f trough Axon the axons 39 EEIH39izlJE39IllCFl gne Ain39t quot 39 l 1 terminals w W 1 j 39 b 39 Emmi It 39 pone o The Brain Stem 9 part of the brain that controls the most basic functions common to animals o Heartbeat body temperature blood pressure 0 Limbic System 9 above the brain stem four important components Thalamus 9 information from the senses not smell go Hypothalamus 9 controls the release of hormones to keep the body in balance controls sleep foodliquid intake Hippocampus 9 controls transfer of information from working to long term memory Amygdala 9 regulates basic emotions Cerebral Cortex 9 carries out highest mental functions 0 Cerebellum 9 coordinates movement important role in thinking 0 Corpus Collosum 9 connects two hemispheres coordinates functions throughout the brain V0 unlary rr39loxe39rle39it V0 u ttanj are movement 39 Motor skins dot390 opmcnt l talctor and speecn 1 product on Sensation Language 39 Cunpiel iension Hig39w39 nl llpa Se f cont39o Inhibit on Ernot ons 39 v s on 5 Memory 1 Jill Um and muscle cordva Dr Brain Physiology and Functions CT er b im Th3 MIVUS Tmsz 1091391 I L 39 Hypotaaemus L mum Avea Al39TI39deAla Hippocampus Bamsle39r39 ERAS Major Areas of the Brain 0 Applications of Brain Research to Classroom Teaching Shift away from linear hierarchical teaching towards complex thematic integrated activities Similar to principles of progressive education of John Dewey Consensus Conclusions o Not all learning is equally likely 9 some learning is easier than others language understanding objects and their behavior natural number system are easier than fractions algebra 0 Brain development constrains cognitive outcome 9 behavior change through learning cannot exceed the developmental status of the neural structure 0 Some regions of the brain may be particularly important for cognitive outcomes and supporting certain sorts of neural activities related to learning and cognition 9 prefrontal cortex is immature in adolescence mediator of behavioral planning and reasoning attention impulsivity control cognitive functioning ability to use rules Forgetting occurs because information in working memory was never transferred to long term memory 0 Lost access to information in longterm memory 0 Forgetting and Remembering Interference 9 information gets mixed up withpushed aside by other information 0 People are prevented from mentally rehearsing new information Retroactive Inhibition 9 previously learned information is lost because it s mixed up with new and similar information Proactive Inhibition 9 previous knowledge interferes with learning later information Individual Differences in Resistance to Interference 9 ability to focus on key information and screen out interference is subjective important in cognitive performance Facilitation 9 previous learning o Proactive Facilitation previous learning help retain similar information o Retroactive Facilitation learning new information helps understand old information better Primacy and Recency Effects 9 o Primacy Effect tendency to learn the first items presented o Recency Effect tendency to learn the last elements Automaticity 9 level of rapidityease that a task involves little or no mental effort 0 Practice 9 Massed Practice 9 practice new information until it is thoroughly learned Distributed Practice 9 practice a little each day over a period of time Enactment 9 learn better if asked to enact a task than read instructions Generation 9 create something using the new information summaries concept maps etc Verbal Learning Paired Associate Learning 9 learning to respond with one member of a pair when given the other member o Associate a response with each stimuli o Imagery Serial Learning 9 learning a list of terms in a particular order 0 Loci Method think of a familiar set of locations and imagines each item on the list in one specific location 0 Pegword Method memorizes a list of pegwords that rhyme with the numbers 110 0 InitialLetter Strategies initial letters of a list are arranged in an easily remembered word Free Recall Learning 9 memorizing a list in no particular order What Makes Information Meanindful o Rote versus Meaningful Learning Rote Learning 9 memorization of factsassociations Meaningful Learning 9 relates to informationconcepts learners already have 0 Uses of Rote Learning Inert Knowledge 9 can beshould be applicable to a wide range of situations but is applied to a restricted set of circumstances 0 Schema Theory 9 information fitting into an existing schema is more easily understood and learned Hierarchies of Knowledge specific information grouped under general categories which are grouped under more general categories 0 Meaningful learning requires the active involvement of the learner Importance of Background Knowledge provides students with a more welldeveloped schemata for new information Ch 7 9 The Effective Lesson Direct Instruction 9 lessons in which you transmit information directly to students 1 State Learning Objectives and Orient Students to the Lesson 9 setting out objectives at the beginning of the lesson provides a framework for information instructional materials learning activities and establish a positive mental set attitude of readiness in students arouse their curiosityinterest 2 Review Prerequisites 9 link information that students already have with the new information a Assess students on prerequisites before starting a lesson b Do this in order to provide advance organizers 3 Present New Material 9 a Lesson Structure 9 should be logically organized and be pointed out to students b Lesson Emphasis 9 Give clear instructions about the most important elements repeat important points c Lesson Clarity 9 use of direct simple and wellorganized language to present concepts d Explanations 9 emphasize concepts and principles and link to what students already know use strategies that help students visualize and organize complex ideas e Worked Examples 9 model the strategies used by an expert to solve a problem so students can use similar strategies f DemonstrationsModelslIlustrations 9 maintained in longterm memory far more readily than only auditory information g Embedded Video 9 helps children learnretain information because it is easy to understand and links to the main content h Maintaining Attention 9 use variety activity humor to enliven the lecture and maintain attention i Context Coverage and Pacing 9 can increase pace of teaching as long as it doesn t compromise learning 4 Conduct Learning Probes 9 variety of ways of asking for brief student responses to lesson content give feedback on students understanding a Checks for Understanding 9 response can be written physical or oral to gage whether or not the students have understood b Questions 9 prompt students to take the next mental step go deeper into the content or as learning probes to gage how well students are learning the lesson c Wait Time 9 length of time you wait for a student to answer a question before giving the answer i Wait approximately 3 seconds d Calling Order 9 call on students at above and below class average to ensure that all students understood the lesson e AllPupil Response 9 choral response one possible correct answer gives information on entire class s level of knowledgeconfidence 5 Provide Independent Practice 9 work students do in class on their own a Seatwork 9 inclass independent practice b Effective Use of Independent Practice Time 9 i Do not assign independent practice until you are sure students can do it ii Keep independent practice assignments shorts iii Give clear instructions iv Get students started and then avoid interruptions v Monitor Independent work vi Collect independent work and include it in student grades 6 Assess Performance and Provide Feedback 9 contain an assessment on the degree in which students have mastered the objectives of the lesson and give feedback 7 Provide Distributed Practice and Review 9 a Reviewing important information enhances learning i HOMEWORK ProcessProduct Studies observers record the teaching practices of teachers whose students succeed at a high level and compare them to other teachers Concept Learning and Teaching 0 Definitions 0 Examples 0 Teaching for Transfer of Learning Cannot be assumed RealLife Learning 9depends on the degree to which information was learned in the original situation and on degree of similarity between the original situation and the new one Initial Learning and Understanding 9 how well students understood the material and how meaningfully it was taught Learning in Context 9 ability to apply knowledge in new circumstances Teaching of Concepts 9 first present examples of the concept used in similar contexts and then offer different examples Transfer versus Initial Learning 9 in introducing a new concept use similar examples until your students understand the concept and then diversify the examples still use essential aspects of the concept Explicit Teaching for Transfer 9 teaching how to look for commonalities among story problems to show them how to transfer concepts between circumstances How are Discussions Used in Instruction 0 Subjective and Controversial Topics Discussing these increases knowledge about the issue and encourages deeper understanding 0 Difficult and Novel Concepts Searching for theories challenging themselves students gain an appreciation for the meaning of a concept 0 Affective Objectives Objectives that are concerned with student attitudes and values More effective at changing individuals attitudes and behaviors 0 Whole Class Discussions Teacher plays a less dominant role Students come up with own ideas Information Before Discussion 9 ensure students have adequate knowledge base 0 Small Group Discussions Increase student achievement Students need to be wellprepared Encourage engagement in group
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