BISC Midterm Study Guide
BISC Midterm Study Guide BISC 1005
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by SophieSol on Friday October 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
An ecosystem consists of all the living and nonliving factors in a de ned area 0 Living Biotic ingredients Organic molecules proteins nucleic acids fats carbohydrates 0 Nonliving Abiotic ingredients It took about 10 billion years for living things to come to come into existence so until that happened abiotic ingredients came about Atoms Hydrogen was the rst stable atom that was formed as the universe aged 0 More reactions occurred to make bigger atoms Origins of life 0 Earth did not originally have oxygen 0 Within waters complex substances began to form that became organic molecules Some of these contained at least one carbon and one hydrogen atom hydrocarbons o Biotic ingredients came together and compounds were formed Created our common ancestors We came from a single common ancestor Components of this ancestor 0 Cell membrane Fatty inside waterloving outside 0 InheritanceDNA o Reproduction Asexual or sexual exchanging genetic information Detecting and responding to environment 0 Energy all organisms need it use it and store it Growth and Development 0 Sustainability Homeostasis 0 Evolution and Reproduction Evolve as a living organism Commonalities between friends 0 Endosymbiosis One organism lives inside of the other h they have a very close association with each other It is not always bene cial O O o Associations Competition 0 Two species interact but what they are doing is harmful to both of them 0 We forced this in food production with the use of pesticides fertilizer etc stresses other species in the area Niche everything you need to live 0 Combination of all abiotic and biotic needs of a species or population to survive and reproduce During a competition some part of the niche is interrupted 0 Friend Relationships Exploitation One is harmed one bene ts 0 Examples Herbivoresl eat plants Predators kill other animals for food Parasitesive in and on the organisms eaten They often cause harm Pathogens Commensalism One species bene ts and the other is unharmeddoes not cost them 0 Example Barnacles on whales Mutualism Both species bene t 0 Survival and reproduction are both increased with both species Microbiome All organisms which live in symbiotic relationships with humans 0 Affects digestionabsorption immune system stresspsychological issues development 0 Have enzymes that digest substances we cannot Communicate with our immune cells Amphibiosis Transitions of one type of speciesspecies interaction to another 0 Example switching from commensalism to exploitation o This is based on population size and other present microbes Trophism Movement of food from one organism to another 0 Producers to consumers Food 0 It is an organic substance meaning it is a hydrocarbon 0 Inorganic source C02 0 Organic products are produced from inorganic sources by organisms Who makes food and who eats food 0 Autotrophs produce their own food Chemoautotrophs These are prokaryotes They transform light energy into chemical energy Photoautotrophs These are prokaryotes protists pants Or anything green or that has color and can make their own food from sunlight o Heterotrophs eat food produced by autotrophs humans are heterotrophs Photoautotrophs These are prokaryotes Chemoautotrophs Can t make their own food Rely on autotrophs to make food for us in the form of sugar which we then use to make other substances Humans prokaryotes plants fungi protists animals Prokaryotes 0 Single ceed organisms that have a simplistic structure and funcUon Include archaea Live in many extreme environments Include bacteria 0 Live everywhere 0 When they are pathogens they can harm us Can be intracellular Enter into our cells and survive 0 They produce a substance that causes harm 0 They kill the cell that causes it to burst Apoptosis cell death Can be extracellular They multiply outside 0 Produce a substance that causes harm 0 Cause an imbalance in our normal ora microbiome Can be toxins Endotoxins 0 Something structural that is there for a different purpose and unintentionally helps the cell Example lipopolysaccharide Exotoxins 0 Produce mainly as a defense Proteins How to prevent foodborne illness 0 Cooking food properly ie not prepping veggies and raw meat on same cutting board Salting Pickling Drying Being clean Eukaryotes o A cell that absorbed energy from another in the form of sugar 0 0 produced oxygen as a byproduct More mitochondria in muscle cells because they are the ones that contain energy Protists Examples Algae 0 They are photosynthetic Phytoplankton Zooplankton Plants Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms A owering plant 0 Mostly what we consume If it is green it is a photoautotroph Roots exist below the ground 0 Circulatory system involves moving minerals and water to the photosynthetic cells Shoots exist above the ground 0 Includes the leaves and stem cells 0 Perform photosynthesis Uses sunlight and pigments Stomata pores of leaves allow C02 in What we eat 0 Below ground vegetation o Tubers roots and bulbs Above ground vegetation 0 Leafy greens 0 Fruit this is really the ovaries of the plant 0 Fruit Flowers 0 Production of ower attracts pollinators and then seed dispersal can occur 0 Most are hermaphroditic meaning they have both male and female parts 0 Male parts include a stamen which has a lament that can project out of the ower and project the anther contains the sperm pollen 0 Female parts are collectively referred to as the carpel Stigma the top part that has a sticky substance that the pollen can stick to The sperm travels down the style into the ovary and then into the ovule where individual eggs are Different types of fruit 0 Simple fruit 0 From a ower that has one ovary such as the pea fruit 0 Aggregate fruit 0 From one ower with multiple ovaries such as a raspberry Multiple fruit 0 From many owers such as a pinapple Photosynthesis 0 To make food Photosynthetic eukaryotes have specialized organelles called chloroplasts Sunlight is needed Water and minerals come from roots C02 is taken in through pores Pigments come from the chloroplasts 0 Step 1 light reactions Photosystem Light energy is converted to electrical energy and then to chemical energy 0 Photons packets of energy are measured in wavelengths and are part of the electromagnetic spectrum Antennae complex reaction center Arrangement of pigments 0 Any substance that can absorb light energy 0 Color is determined by wavelength it re ects 0 Light is converted into heat light or chemical energy 0 The most important one is chlorophyla Electron Transport Chain 0 Lost electron is replaced 0 H20 splits to produce 02 and H 0 ATP and NADPH are produced 0 Electron from chlorophyll a is energized Energy carriers 0 ATP has three groups of phosphates 0 Tridi 0 They receive store and deliver energy Electron carriers are NADH FADH2 NADPH o The rst two pick up electrons and hydrogen atoms that have been released and NADPH deliver energy by providing electrons and hydrogen atoms 0 Dark reactions Transforms chemical energy into food via the Calvin Cycle 0 4 steps 0 Carbon xation Remove carbon from C02 by Rubisco enzyme and it is xated to RuBP o Energize sugar to incorporate it into existing substance Sugarex s o Recycle RuBP O Fungi o Decompose and release nutrients that would otherwise not be available Can be single celled like yeast or multicellular These are chemoheterotrophs o Metabolism Facultative switch from oxygenproducing metabolism Anaerobic cellular respiration fermentation Fungi can live by either aerobic or anerobic cellular respiroation 0 Animals 0 Cells do not have a cell wall which plant cells do have Allows animals to have exibility o Invertebrates and vertebrates o Mollusks o Arthropods o What do we consume Fish 0 Both freshwater trout and saltwater salmon High in good fats Consider farm raised sh and over shing Meat land animals 0 High protein bad fat 0 Nutrition 0 Chemical building blocks of life Fats Phospholipids Triglycerides aka cellulite what we think of as fat 0 O 0 Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule Built from saturated fatty acids Fat tissue can be brown converts chemical energy l heat or white storage Lipolysis fat cells break down triglycerides to release individual fats to produce ATP 0 Cholesterol 0 Both cholesterol and fats are hydrophobic o Sterols Fats that have the same structure with different ingredients attached to them Contain four hydrocarbon rings fused together 0 Hormones o Anabolic steroid resembles testosterone 0 Examples EggssheH sh because it affects blood cholesterol and consistently increases bad cholesterol 0 Saturated fatsfatty acids 0 All carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are linked with a single covalent bond 0 Solid at room temp 0 You can stack them 0 Examples Tropical fruits Animal products meat Unsaturated fatsfatty acid 0 One or more atoms have a double bond so there is a kink preventing them from being able to lay at Natural peanut butter with the oil on top is due to the kinks whereas hydrogenation of peanut butter makes it consistently smooth 0 Examples Veggies sh 0 Functions 0 Make up membranes of cells 0 Signals within cells Can act as hormones 0 Provide body heat 0 Provide insulation and cushioning Problems with food labels 0 If a product has less than 05g trans fatserving it is allowed to be listed as quotOquot 0 So a reduced serving size allows companies to put Og trans fat 0 Look at ingredients to determine if there is transfat Sodium It is an ion with a charge usually found as an additive Carbohydrates Monomers individual units of a macromolecule Polymers chains of monomers bonded together 0 Include carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids 0 How to build Dehydration synthesis 0 Remove water molecules so monomers can bond 0 How to break Hydrolysis Add water breaking apart polymers 0 Food label Listed as sugars and bers 0 15g sugars 5g ber but total carbs 25 g 5g that are missing starch l glucose 0 Not all carbs are sugars but all sugars are carbs Monosaccharides Glucose and fructose Love water Disaccharides Sucrose formed through dehydration synthesis Glucose and fructose are bonded Polysaccharides On food label is listed as ber Monomers are linked together in different ways 0 Glycogen is a storage molecule 0 Chitin is produced in fungi and invertebrates for structure Proteins Built from amino acids there are 20 different ones 0 Make you who you are 0 Storage 0 Energy contribute 4caIg Structure 0 Cytoskeleton scaffolding of cells 0 De nes function 0 The sequence of amino acids is their structure This is 3D o The folding determines their function 0 Transport 0 Blood cholesterol High density lipoproteins HDL Bring fats home to the liver while LDL does its job Low density lipoproteins LDL Brings fats to cells 0 Contain a lot of cholesterol phospholipids and a lot of fat Saturated fats keep both of these high while unsaturated fats keep HDL high and LDL low 0 Channel proteins tunnels in cells that allow speci c substances in and out 0 Carrier proteins move to bring a substance in or out of cell Catalysis 0 Speed up reactions by way of enzymes 0 Defense 0 Antibodies are produced to defend against speci c invaders Communication 0 Insulin and glucagon regulate blood sugar 0 Leptin and grelin regulate appetite Gene regulation 0 Transcription factors turn the gene on or off 0 Can be in uenced by diet Denaturation o Destruction of the 3D shape by heating them up changing the pH or making it very acidic increasing the salt concentration Nucleic acids Nucleotides are the building blocks of hereditary material 0 DNA is turned on and l RNA produces proteins Vitamins Needed in tiny amounts 0 Organic molecules 0 Fat soluble Can get locked up in fat stores 0 Water soluble Can consume at high rates and is okay in short term Vitamin D is the only one that human can synthesize but people still don t get enough Minerals We need trace minerals The ones we need come in the form of ions lodine is critical for metabolism 0 From salt and seafood Fluoride for teeth Coba Digestion o GMOs We don t have to label GMOs Drug production Food production Curing genetic disease Roundup prevents plants from making an essential amino acid 0 A gene inserted into a plant makes it produce its own insecticide and doesn t really effect farmers as much because they produce more crop 0 We have to break food down in order to digest it and utilize the nutrients o Ingestion digestion absorption elimination lngeonn Animals are consumers so we eat other organisms in some way or another Digestion We break down the consumed organism Absorption 0 Outside the cell we consume monosacharides disaccharides etc 0 As we consume proteins we must degrade them 0 We absorb the vitamins and minerals Enzymatic reactions 0 Reactant undergoes some sort of change that makes it become a product and produces ATP as well This process or change requires activation energy 0 Enzymes are biological catalysts Without them reaction time would be way too slow enzymes lower the activation energy needed and therefore increase the speed of the reaction 0 This could be one million times the actual rate of the reaction 0 Structure of enzymes 3D shape determines the function There is an active site within the enzyme 0 A substrate binds to this site 0 Substrate reactant in a typical chemical reaction o If you require a substrate this means that an enzyme is involved 0 Anabolic Reaction Enzyme has an induced t and it can store energy for later use 0 Catabolic Reaction There is a big substrate that docks into a different type of enzyme which causes it to change shape through different processes Involves breaking down energy for current use 0 Metabolism C02 H20 l glucose Glucose l glycogen o Endergonic reaction series storing energy Anabolic building up something big happens during photosynthesis Makes monomers into polymers during dehydration synthesis Break down glycogen by adding water through hydrolysis This makes it a catabolic reaction l cellular respiration o AKA exergonic reaction Metabolic pathways in the body involve several reactions and there are several intermediates each one of which has its own enzyme 0 Food Processing 0 Enhancing coors For example farmraised salmon has food coloring added to it o It naturally is not pink because it is not eating the natural things that make it turn pink 0 Augment the avors Hydrogenated oils are trans fats Hydrolyzed food products are added to foods to make them tasty Sweet sour bitter salty umami o Sme is essential for taste 0 Extend shelf life by using preservatives GRAS substances generally recognized as safe compoundsquot Old techniques include smoking salting drying freezing suganng Improve texture by adding trans fats Reduce calories by removing trans fat 0 High Fructose Corn Syrup Naturally occurring carbohydrates are digested to create fructose You need less so it ends up being cheaper OO 0 Food Labels 0 Organic vs natural You can have an organic product that isn t natural Organic Grown and processed using organic farming methods that recycle resources and promote biodiversity Crops grown without synthetic pesticides bioengineered genes petroleum based fertilizers and sewage sludge based fertilizers Natural Can t be highly processed More regulated in poultry and meat industry 0 Adding heat to a system 0 Denatures proteins 0 The vitamins can also degrade 0 Burning ie Grilling causes carcinogens to form 0 Mouth 0 Chemical salivary amylase mucus 0 Physical smelltaste tongue teeth hardsoft palate o Digestion starch 0 Absorption glucose Esophagus 0 Chemical no enzymes mucus 0 Physical smooth muscle peristalsis Sphincters upper and lower Epiglottis shuts off respiratory system from throat to prevent food from going into respiratory system 0 Digestion none 0 Absorption none Stomach 0 Chemical HCL acid denatures protein Pepsin enzyme in stomach can chew it up mucus protects stomach lining 0 Physical rugae folds that churn the food allowing for more ef cient digestion phonic sphincter o Digestion breaking down proteins 0 Absorption amino acids and alcohol You only get about 10 of nutrients here Pancreas 0 Chemical enzymes lipases carbohydrates proteases These all get sent to the small intestine 0 Physical na 0 Digestion na 0 Absorption about 80 0 Small Intestine o All ingredients from pancreas as well as mucus Chemical na Physical na Digestion fats proteins carbs Absorption amino acids fatty acids cholesterol monosaccharides minerals vitamins LiverGall Bladder 0 Makes bile o Goes around food and pulls apart fats allows lipases to get in there and chew them outquot Chemical na Physical na Digestion na 0 Absorption na 0 Large Intestine 0 Chemical mucus 0 Physical villi microvilli o Digestion not much 0 Absorption water vitamins minerals due to mutualistic bacteria that live there Fiberrich food will absorb more sacccharides 0000 000 1 7 V r LP 7 g M H W MMWWW TM Mw A 39 m 07 Ehmi nsmwswmmd Eh I 112 M 900669 emm amt mm hm gD39Od mm mm 515 a m 1 gmggmag j 39 5am mqnmanMEmm gag u EukWWquotQMDWm U L Chi im 39 m SQ Q amtKg 319 s RUIN swam g y w M W g smmzarsW Q W Hg w f bust awuhs q UkrmR i It I sQIM 0ng W 3 MC 1 d quotWEE39 39 F EH 1 mg mamas 16 I quotW a cm gt w It quot 39 7 SN QS smilemua mink WQS ijgis ujmume quot amers y U ammg I E DPEELR Ubnhc emmkwn WM39EW f mtmmgs Wm W0 lama m mm 9 lms
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