DESMA 8 midterm essays
DESMA 8 midterm essays DESMA 8
Popular in Design Media 8: Media Histories 1850-2050
Popular in Art
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diana Kweon on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DESMA 8 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Peter Lunenfeld in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see Design Media 8: Media Histories 1850-2050 in Art at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Prompt 2 What does photography take from painting and what does cinema take from photography How do older and newer media relate and in what ways does each new medium relate to and differ from its predecessors Painting photography and cinema are three different stages of media history These three forms of media share similar goals and uses and at the same time they have differences which show the developments of media through history These three forms of media have a common goal to capture and preserve some sort of reality Andre Bazin explains in his book From What is Cinema that people s mummy complex 166 or their desire to preserve their current appearance or a moment of their lives gave birth to photography He also explains that Louis XVI and his contemporaries resorted to making realistic detailed paintings of themselves as a way of satisfying their preservation desire The rst form of photography the camera obscura was also meant for making an identical copy of images in reality Juliet Hacking explains in her book that first forms of camera were used to take pictures of landscapes Of course as cameras became more developed photography became a more preferred method for taking photos of people than paintings as it takes less time and effort to capture more realistic and detailed images By leaving such images people can remember and be remembered even after their deaths Roland Barthes mentions in his writing that he searched for traces of his deceased mother in photographs as well Cinema also has a lot to do with capturing of reality with cinema we can capture not only detailed images but also actions and later sounds of people and events As technology of media developed from painting to photography and then to cinema people became closer and closer to capturing and preserving more precise and longer moments of reality that they wanted to see recall and pass onto others However the various stages of the development of media have significant differences in the extent of their in uence on the audience Forms of media have developed from sketches paintings photographs animations silent movies to high quality videos we see on YouTube today With the changes in media the extent of their in uence on people have changed as well while paintings and drawings cannot serve much more purpose than expressing the artist s creativity or depicting a certain image photographs and videos have the power to convince people of the image s authenticity as they can be used as evidence Lunenfeld qtd Sontag 1212015 as Susan Sontag states The closer to reality the media is that is equipped with high quality sound movement and color the more convincing it becomes to its audience For example if we were to compare Gertie the Dinosaur 1914 animation to Voyage to the Moon 1902 the latter would obviously seem more like a real event regardless of the content Though animated movies and clay animations like The Cave 2008 are recently made and can be based on true events they carry the feeling of being unreal or imagined whereas movies like The Great Train Robbery 1904 make us feel like a real historical event though we know it is made and produced just like the animations Thanks to that the animations and paintings are more often viewed as art works while photographs and movies are seen as standing in the shady commerce between art and truth Lunenfeld qtd Sontag 1212015 In conclusion painting photography and cinema are three forms of media which are all used to capture parts of real life that people want to preserve and see but they also have significant differences in their effects on the viewers By observing them we can see what kinds of developments and changes occurred in the history of media and how we are getting closer to capturing the reality Prompt 3 Walter Benjamin talks about the work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction How does industrialization affect the process of making and understanding art and media Walter Benjamin stated That which withers in the age of mechanical reproductions is the aura of the work of art Lunenfeld qtd Benjamin 1142015 He argued that mass production reduced the value and appreciation of art works and that industrialization in general had negative effects on producing and understanding of art and media However with negative in uences there must be positive ones too I believe that industrialization has changed the meaning and uses of media from unique art and preservation to wide spread sources of entertainment and communication Prior to industrialization forms of media were less disclosed to the general public and primarily viewed as unique works of art Paintings craftworks etc had their unique apparition 255 like Benjamin argues in his book as each work of art was unique and never the same even if copied by other artists The massproducing machinery he states extracts sameness from objects and artworks Also before industrialization many paintings and photos were used as a method of capturing and preserving reality rather than as entertainment or learning about faraway situations Andre Bazin explains in his book that photography in early stages was used primarily to take pictures of scenery and people to preserve the current reality which will eventually perish Many portraits and posed black and white photos that we have seen in class provide evidence to this idea On the other hand following industrialization forms of art and media became much more wide spread due to booming economy and mass production This idea of mass production is re ected in shows like I Love Lucy in the episode of Lucy and the Chocolate Factory and in Charlie Chaplin s movie Modern Times about working in a factory Many people had access to shows like these and as a result forms of media were used as methods of communication Photographs taken at battlefields revealed the cruelty of wars which people previously failed to imagine and videos and movies were used to spread political ideas in Germany and Russia in particular Some movies were even used to brainwash audiences like the clip of Adolf Hitler s speech we saw in lecture or spread prejudicial views on racism like some scenes in Gone With the Wind 1939 Also many media forms transformed from genuine artworks into entertainment Laura Mulvey argues in her article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema that cinema has become more focused on showing the audience what pleases them rather than to depict reality or express creativity Compared to the previous concept of art and media this is strikingly different In summary industrialization greatly affected the way art and media are made and understood Their uses purposes availability and meanings changed significantly due to industrialization While Walter Benjamin s opinion about mechanical reproduction withering away uniqueness of art works may be true in some aspects nevertheless industrialization has brought both good and bad in uences to art and media Prompt5 Andre Bazin talks about the photographic image and the cinematic experience as capturing the real Laura Mulvey writes that it is impossible to get at a picture of the real because our perceptions are never natural Is it possible to reconcile these two points of view There have been various opinions regarding the question of whether photography and cinema can actually capture the reality or not Some people like Andre Bazin argue that they do capture the real while others like Laura Mulvey argue that it is impossible to get at a picture of the real because our perceptions are never natural However I think that there is a way to reconcile these two opposite views while photography and cinema cannot actually capture a real event and all the perceptions one would feel at the actual event they can at least make the viewer recall or visualize the event captured and experience that reality in their mind as a way of indirect experience In this way photography and cinema can capture at least a part of the real enough to trigger the viewers imagination Roland Barthes stated in his book Camera Lucida that a specific photograph in effect is never distinguished from its referent from what it represents 2 He argues that photos are one with the reality they represent and when we look at a photograph we are not looking at a photograph but at the image it has captured This means that photography not only captures the reality but also takes us back to and let us experience that reality Similarly Andre Bazin argues that cinema captures the reality and the producers simply choose whether to modify that reality or preserve its pureness Contrarily Laura Mulvey argues that photography and cinema are forms of entertainment and thus they have a primordial wish for pleasurable looking 836 She explains that cinema has evolved a particular illusion of reality to satisfy the audience s desire for fantasy melo and escape of reality and therefore cannot capture the reality at all since it is all setup For example shows like I Love Lucy 19511957 and Voyage to the Moon 1902 satisfy desires for comical pleasure and fantasy Movies like Dark Victory or Gone with the Wind aimed at female audiences make them feel better by showing them that their lives are under better circumstances than the characters These shows are all meant to be shown to people have targeted audiences and thus cannot have natural perceptions as real Both opinions are right while photography and cinema can make us feel like we are experiencing the real it s not like they can actually preserve a moment in reality However I think that serving as a trigger to make us recall or indirectly experience the referent can be defined as capturing the real because it does let its audience experience its referent For example when looking at a picture of my childhood I get absorbed in recalling about my past remembering and refeeling the perceptions thoughts and emotions I felt back then When watching an intriguing movie many people get immersed and experience the story as if they were the main character I think these experiences are enough to be called capturing the real Looking at it this way the two opposing opinions both make sense since setup media can capture the feeling of the real Works Cited Lunenfeld Peter First Wave Photography 18501900 University of California Los Angeles Broad Art Center Los Angeles CA 14 January 2015 Lunenfeld Peter Second Wave Cinema 19001950 University of California Los Angeles Broad Art Center Los Angeles CA 21 January 2015 Mulvey Laura Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema Film Theory and Criticism Introductory Readings Eds Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen New York Oxford UP 1999 83344 PDF Bazin Andre From What is Cinema Film Theory and Criticism Introductory Readings Eds Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen New York Oxford UP 1999 4153 163173 418428 PDF Barthes Roland Extracts from Camera Lucida The Photography Reader Ed Liz Wells City publisher year unknown 128 PDF Benjamin Walter The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility City publisher unknown 1939 PDF Hacking Juliet Photography The Whole Story New York David Company Year unknown PDF Gone with the Wind Dir Victor Fleming Prod David O Selznick By Sidney Coe Howard Max Steiner and Ernest Haller Perf Clark Gable Vivien Leigh Leslie Howard Olivia De Havilland Thomas Mitchell and Hattie McDaniel Loew39s Incorporated 1939 Dark Victory Dir Edmund Goulding By George Emerson and Casey Robinson Perf Bette Davis George Brent and Humphrey Bogart Warner Bros Pictures 1939 Hitler Adolf Triumph of the Will Reichsparteitag Conference Germany 1935 Lucy and the Chocolate Factory 1 Love Lucy Perf Lucille Ball Desi Arnaz and Vivian Vance Desilu Productions 19511957 Modern Times Dir Charlie Chaplin Perf Charlie Chaplin Paulette Goddard and Stanley Sandford RBC Films 1936 A Trip to the Moon Le Voyage Dans La Lime Dir Georges Melies Perf Georges Melies and Bleuette Bernon Star Film Company 1902 The Cave An Adaptation of Plato is Allegory in Clay Dir Michael Ramsey Bullhead Entertainment 2008 Gertie the Dinosaur Dir Winsor McCay Vitagraph Studios 1914 The Great Train Robbery Dir Edwin S Porter Perf Alfred C Abadie Broncho Billy Anderson and Justus D Barnes Edison Manufacturing Company 1903
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