PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 2 Lecture Notes UGA
PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 2 Lecture Notes UGA Psych 3230
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3230 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Exam 2 Lecture Notes Chapters 56 and 8 Lecture notes Week 6 September 21 2015 Stressor stress trigger Stress response reaction to a stressor o Judgement of an event not every stressor effects different people the same way Stress Coping and the Anxiety Response Arousal and fear 0 If a situation is especially traumatic more vulnerable Vulnerable o PTSD o Dissociative disorders Fight or ight response Hypothalamus area of the brain that sets in motion the ght or ight response 0 Two systems activated 0 Autonomic nervous system ANS Sympathetic nervous system pupils dilate tear glands are inhibited dry mouth digestion slows heart beats faster Parasympathetic nervous system calming the sympathetic system constriction of pupils heart slows salivation increases 0 Endocrine system glands that release hormones into your blood stream Sympathetic Nervous System Pathway Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal HPA Pathway hypothalamusljpituitarstecrete ACTHljadrenal cortexljrelease corticosteroids 0 Acute and PostTraumatic Stress disorder 0 Became a topic of research after Vietnam incorporated into the DSM 3 o Anybody who experiences an especially traumatic situation experience anxiety afterwardstotally normal Not everyone will develop PTSD 0 MOST people don39t develop PTSD so what is different physicallybiologicallyenvironmentally different about ppl who do Symptoms Reexperiencing the event by stimuli Vietnamthunderstorms Avoidance amnesia for parts of events avoiding anything at all to do with event 0 Reduced responsiveness reduction in positive emotions surfacing of anxietypanic attacksdepression Alterations in cognitions or mood problems concentrating trouble sleeping guilt for surviving After 911 0 20 of survivors amp rescue workers had symptoms of PTSD Triggers Combat 29 of Vietnam vets had ASD or PTSD Natural and accidental disasters more people are likely to be exposed to naturalaccidental disasters than combat Physicalsexual assault Terrorismtorture PTSD chart in class 0 Suburban police lowest abused children highest American Sniper trailer shown in class Why do People Develop PTSD Biological and Genetic Factors 0 Extreme trauma can cause physiological changes in neurotransmitters and brain areas 0 Norepinephrine and cortisol o Hippocampus and amygdala fMRls show structural and functional differences in these areas 0 Childhood experiences 0 Kids are especially susceptible to trauma not as emotionally stable and able to handle stressors especially younger than age 10 divorce September 23 2015 0 Review of exam Why do People Develop PTSD Childhood experiences 0 theory is lack of social support 0 Personality factors 0 Preexisting high anxiety 0 Negative worldview o Resiliency or hardiness there is research being done now to determine what makes some people more resilient than others ideas social support optimism etc Treatment 0 Drug therapy Psychological debrie ng o A form of crisis intervention 0 Attempt to stop PTSD from developing Behavioral Exposure Techniques 0 Typically imaginative 0 Insight therapy if time allows and client is willing gain insight to your feelings getting a person to have insight and understand why they feel the way they do about their feelings 0 Controversy September 25 2015 Dissociative Disorders 0 Memory loss and identity change Dissociative Amnesia Loss of memory Triggered by a speci c upsetting event May be Localized lose memory for that speci c event Selective remember bits amp pieces Generalized forget entire life history Continuous cant remember anything past a point in timepresent Dissociative fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder formerly multiple personality disorder quotsubpersonalitiesquot Primary or host personality Switching is usually sudden amp may be dramatic Mutually cognizant all personalities are aware of each other One way amnesic 000 0 How do subpersonalities differ Dramatically different characteristics 0 How common in DID o Iatrogenic unintentionally produced by clinicians Explanations Psychodynamicview o Repression September 28 2015 Explanations Psychodynamic view 0 Repression defense mechanism used to protect oneself from thoughtsmemories Behavioral view o Dissociating is negative reinforcement o Statedependent learning when people can39t remember what the other personalities have done they are extremely statedependent learners At rst people with DID may not be aware of their other personalities but as time goes on often the fact that time doesn39t add up may clue them in How are Dissociative Amnesia and DID treated Complex and dif cult to treat 0 Recovering memories is the goal 0 Sometimes antianxiety drugs are used 0 Integrating the subpersonalities Fusion merging all personalities into one single person Chapter 6 Disorders of Mood Mood disorders exist along a continuum extreme sadness D extreme elation Normal to experience varied and extreme emotions o What makes it abnormal 0 Frequency extreme emotions are experienced how often they switch between moods how long each extreme emotion is felt Disorders of Mood Depressive disorders unipolar depression more common Bipolar disorders 8 of adults in the US in any given year 19 lifetime prevalence Women are twice as likely There are environmental amp social factors that affect depression rates Recurrent Around 40 will experience another episode later in their lives 0 Less likely to be recurrent if people get treated professionally Symptoms of Depression Symptoms vary from person to person diagnostic criteria requires a certain number of symptoms but not all to be diagnosed Zang selfrating depression scale 615 of people experiencing depressionlike symptoms report suicidal feeHngs SOMETIMES not recommended people who experience bouts of depression can recover eventually on their own Emotional symptoms feeling quotmiserable empty humiliatedquot Lack of drive initiative spontaneity Less active less productive Hold negative views of themselves Pessimistic Physical symptoms Diagnosing Unipolar Depression In class I am going to focus on biological approachesread the book though September 30 2015 a two years or more considered reaction to external stressor Blue Mood Dysthymic Disorder Major Depressive Disorder Biological Factors Key neurotransmitters Norepinephrine and serotonin 0 Low activity of these neurotransmitters is one cause of depression Biological Treatments for Unipolar Depression Antidepressant Drugs 0 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAO inhibitors lnhibit production of an enzyme called MAO MAO breaks down norepinephrine Leads to rise in norepinephrine Very effective but not prescribed often severe diet restrictions Discovered by happenstance tuberculosis treatment noticed it made patients happier o Tricyclics Block the reuptake process thus increasing NT activity in the synapse Proven more effective than placebo treatments by drug companies 0 Secondgeneration antidepressants Structurally different than MAO inhibiters and tricyclics Signi cantly less and lesser side effects Increasing serotonin levels Ex Prozac rst on the market and Zoloft There are also Selective Norepinephrine drugs on the market h o Majority of patients do bene t from medications but not for everyone 0 Alternative Treatments Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT shock treatment Controversial but methods have improved a LOT loss of longterm memory is a possibility but less likely 612 sessions 24 weeks apart Amnesia and muscle relaxers are used now 6080 improvement rate 0 People don39t REALLY know how it works Deep Brain Stimulation TMS Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Implantation of an electrode deep in the brain circuit Brodmann s area 25 that is thought to be involved in depression to stimulate brain activity 0 Very new and experimental October 2 2015 Psychological Models Behavioral Model 0 During treatment increase positive rewards Cognitive Model 0 Learned helplessness Beliefthat they no longer have control over the reinforcements of their life Seligman39s work with laboratory dogs discovered that when he put dogs in the lab through a procedure that was stressful lamp they had no control depressionlike symptoms were induced Cage with divider and metal grid oor that could emit an electrical current on one or both sides 0 Signi cant research support for this eld 0 Negative thinking Aaron Beck People with depression typically have maladaptive attitudes Cognitive Triad individuals typically interpret 1 their experiences 2 themselves and 3 their futures in negative waystepression Bipolar Disorder 0 Both the lows of depression and the highs of mania o Mania very talkative high energy productive happy feelings of creativity 0 Mania makes it hard to treat bc people want to get rid of depression but not mania 0 Full Manic Episode full blown episode that also has psychotic symptoms hallucinations and delusions o Hypomanic Episode lesser than full manic episodes Bipolar 1 Disorder 0 Substantial time between episodes of full depression and full mania Bipolar 2 Disorder 0 Full depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes Cyclothymic Disorder 0 Mild depressive and mildly manic episodes What Causes Bipolar Disorders Neurotransmitters lon activity 0 Remember quotaction potentialquot discussion 0 lons may be improperly transported 0 Causes neurons to re too easily mania or resist ring depression Treatments for Bipolar Disorders Lithium Week 8 Lecture Notes October 5 2015 Manic episodes are usually preceded by a major stressor especially common is dysfunctional relationships Treatments for Bipolar Disorder Lithium Mood stabilizer 0 Helpful in majority of people 60 of patients seem to improve on lithium 0 Most helpful in leveling manic episodes Combinations of drugs may be prescribed mood stabilizers antianxiety medication antidepressants antipsychotics Psychotherapy Counseling and Psychiatric Services on UGA s campus CAPS Chapter 8 Disorders featuring Somatic Symptoms Very rare not very well understood appears VERY suddenly 0 May be caused by worry stress unconscious needs quotsomaquot body Psychological factors may contribute to somatic or bodily illnesses o Blindness paralysis loss of feeling that has no neurological basis Freud 190039s quothysterical disordersquot 0 Conversion Disorder 0 No apparent medical cause or is inconsistent with known medical diseases Conversion disorder induced paralysis does not have any evidence of muscle atrophy Conversion disorder induced blindness people with still react if you throw a ball near them but still truly believe they can39t see it o Glove anesthesia quotwhole hand is numbquot The way the nerves run they should also not have feeling in their arm but that isn39t the case Clue to doctors that it is conversion disorder bc numbness in just hand is physically impossible 0 Attention seeking to quotget outquot of something unconsciously motivated people don39t WANT their symptoms 0 Typically found in people described as anxiousvery excitablehighly emotionaldramatic o Affects women more than men 0 La Belle indifference when people are very casual about their symptoms speak matteroffactly about them Only about 13 of people present la belle indifference 0 May go away and come back as following major life stressors o Dysfunction is selective one symptom or the other typically only one Factitious Disorder Munchausen Syndrome o Intentionally producing or faking symptoms to get attention People may physically harm themselves or ingest poison in small doses May go to great lengths to research and investigate the iHness Done in secret o Malinger intentionally faking an illness for external personal gain ex insurance money military discharge 0 May suffer from depression or an extreme need for social support 0 Munchausen Syndrome by proxy intentionally making another being sick for attention children and pets commonly To be seen as quotultimate caregiverquot 0 Much more common in women 0 Person is viewed as intentionally lying doesn39t truly believe daughter is sick actually understand what she is doing but keeps doing it anyways h October 6 2015 Somatic Symptom Disorder 0 Two patterns 0 Somatization Pattern aka Briquet39s Syndrome variety of underlying symptoms with no underlying cause 0 Predominant Pain Pattern after an accident or illness that has caused genuine pain Distinguished from lllness Disorder anxiety with symptoms peope with SSD aren39t afraidanxious of their disorders 0 A lot more common in women than men 0 They love quotbeing treatedquot at the doctor for their symptoms Illness Disorder 0 Previously known as hypochondriasis Fear and anxiety 0 Don t really have any real symptoms but are very quotin tunequot with their normal bodily functions 0 Ex Stomach gurglesperson with lllness Disorder thinks it39s stomach cancer 0 Chronic anxiety about their health Repeatedly check for signs of illness 0 Some sufferers recognize concerns are excessive What Causes Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorder Behavioral View 0 May remove an individual from an unpleasant situation 0 May bring attention to individual from others 0 The Cognitive view 0 Emotions are being converted into physical symptoms to communicate extreme emotions Treatment 0 Insight therapy 0 Exposure therapy 0 Drug therapyDantianxiety meds antidepressants Confrontation October 9 2015 Psychophysiological disorders psychosomatic Physical factors affecting medical conditions 0 Actual physical damage 0 Traditional psychophysiological disorders 0 Ulcers asthma insomnia chronic headaches high blood pressure coronary heart disease What factors Contribute to psychophysiological disorders 0 Biological o Defects in the autonomic nervous system Psychological o Repressive coping styles type A personality feelings of hostility time urgency Sociocultural 0 Poverty 0 Belonging to an ethnic or cultural minority 0 Incidence of asthma in African Americans is much higher than in white Americans Stress Social adjustment rating scale 0 Doesn39t take into consideration reaction differences Psychoneuroimmunology o Lymphocytes Treatments 0 Relaxation training Biofeedback Meditation HypnosE Selfinoculation training
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