Exam 3&4 study Guide ~ Intro to Archeology
Exam 3&4 study Guide ~ Intro to Archeology ANTH-18420-700
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheryl Melkey on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH-18420-700 at Kent State University taught by Dana Ormerod in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Cheryl Melkey Intro to Archaeology Study Soup Exam Study Guide Chapters 3 amp 4 Exam Date October 10 2015 Doing Fieldwork Chapters 3amp4 gtkWDue to the large amount of terminology in these chapters these terms have been explained in a user friendly format for studying Chapter 3 terms 0 Archaeological site A location where artifacts provide evidence of a past civilization 0 Projectile points Artifacts that have a pointed edge on them they would have been used mainly for hunting and protecting their familycommunity These objects include spear points arrowheads and darts 0 Seasonal round Seasonal round is a term used to describe the seasonal pattern of movement of native tribes The seasonal patterns of crop growth and animal migration in uenced the timing of the movement of the tribes 0 Mano The mano was used for food and medicine preparation it was a grinding stone that was very useful in the crushing of seeds roots and herbs The powder resulting from this grinding was used for food preparation and medicinal formulas that were used in daily life 0 Metate The metate was the foundation stone that the seeds herbs and roots were placed upon for grinding The preparer would use the mano to crush the natural materials against this foundation stone to prepare the material for use 0 Statistical sampling The process by which a site is determined to be a viable site for the study and excavation of historical remains and artifacts 0 Statistical population The statistical population is the specific area in which artifacts and materials are found as evidence of a specific group of people who once lived in this area 0 Sample universe The sample universe is the area that is determined to be specific to an indigenous population that once lived there that is connected with another specific group of indigenous people by way of artifact and material proof of this 0 Random sample A material object or artifact sampling of a specific area statistical population that represents a daily part of this past civilization s life It would be an object commonly used in their daily life such as eating utensils 0 Sample fraction The percentage of samples that must be collected at a site depending on the size of the area and the variable structures within the area 0 Sample units Depending on the terrain and size of the area that is being surveyed samples may come in small or large material sizes for instance a mountain that is being surveyed to find the composition of it could have a sample that is considerably large compared to a site where arrowheads are found and the arrowheads would be a small sample unit 0 UTM Universal Transverse Mercator This term has to do with the 1X1 meter grid squares that mapmakers divide the world into when drawing maps The grids are written in North to East coordinates 0 Stratified random sample The division of a survey universe into smaller portions so it can analyzed more accurately o Smithsonian number A unique number that is given to each archaeological site denoting the location in the state and county in which it was surveyed 0 Global positioning system Portable devices that are used to triangulate the position of archaeological sites using radio waves emitted from satellites o Plow zone The top layer of a soil sample that has been consistently moved and stirred by repeated plowing 0 Shovel testing A method of uncovering archaeological remains by digging shallow pits in an area that is believed to contain artifacts 0 Remote sensing The use of equipment that emits electromagnetic energy to detect and evaluate archaeological remains that have yet to be uncovered o Proton precession magnetometer A magnetic sensing device that is used to detect the presence of buried walls or other structures 0 Soil resistivity survey An electrical sensing technique that performs the same task as the magnetometer it locates buried walls and structures 0 Ground penetrating radar GPR A radar sensing technique that locates buried walls and structures 0 Geographic information system GIS A computer program for storing and analyzing cartographic data 0 Georeferenced Geographical data that is input into the GIS system for reference so that it can be analyzed 0 Landscape archaeology The study of how ancient humans have in uenced and caused change in the environment 0 Thermal infrared multispectral scanning TIMS Remote sensing equipment that is mounted on aircraft or satellites that use thermal imaging to detect thermal radiation that the ground is radiating this could indicate buried structures or artifacts Chapter 4 terms 0 Provenience The location of an artifact relative to the spatial data collection 0 Pleistocene A geologic period that was characterized by several periods of glaciation o In situ A Latin word meaning In place 0 Test excavation An initial excavation to determine whether a site has potential for providing research data 0 Datum point The reference point 0 that is given to the starting point where an excavation is to begin 0 Natural levels A study of a section of soil in an excavation site to determine composition of the soil and natural breaks in the sample 0 Arbitrary levels The identifying of a lack of natural strata an unnatural recognizable difference in the landscape that would indicate a buried structure 0 Strata The differences in the landscape that could indicate buried structures These differences could be discolored rock and dirt or an unnatural rift in the landscape 0 Living oors A buried surface where people lived in the past 0 Total stations A device that uses the light bounced off a prism when examining an artifact to determine the authenticity of it how old it is and whether it is intact 0 Water screening A process that uses water to wash sediment away from artifacts 0 Matrix sorting The process by which excavators use their hands to sort small artifacts from bulk soil 0 Flotation The use of water at excavation sites to reveal small artifacts and ancient plant soil samples the use of water causes them to oat to the top where they can be skimmed off 0 Systemic context The point in time where artifacts were used in daily life and then discarded or became buried as a result of natural passing of time 0 Graviturbaticn The movement of artifacts by natural occurrences such as rain and mudslide
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