Exam notes for People and Supervisory Management
Exam notes for People and Supervisory Management
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This 110 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jade Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at Nanyang Polytechnic taught by Ms Soo in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see People & Supervisory Management in Business at Nanyang Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Organizations amp Supervisors An organization is a systematic grouping of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose Supervisors work in places called organizations eg supermarts broadcaster hospitals schools Common characteristics of organizations Di stiincti eliberate Pu rpse Structure Peole Levels in Traditional Organizational Pyramid Supervisors Operative Employees 4 Levels of Organizations Operative Employees Physically produce the org s goods and services by working on specific tasks Generally do not manage or oversee the work of any other employee Supervisors Firstlevel Managers Part of management team but limited to overseeing the work of operative employees They do not manage other managers Represent the first level in the management hierarchy 4 Levels of Organizations Middle Managers All employees below the top management Manage other managers Responsible for establishing and meeting specific goals in their particular departmentunit If each manager at this level meets hisher goals set by top management the entire org meets its objectives Top Management Group of people responsible for establishing the org s overall objectives and developing the policies to achieve these objectives Planning Organizing Setting goals Dfetgrmining and quot39 quot39 organizational to bajd39one direction Management funcons Efficiency amp Effectiveness Efficiency means doing the tasks right and refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs If you get more output for a given input you have increased efficiency Inputresource egs people equipment Supervisors are concerned with minimising resource cost Effectiveness means doing the right tasks which translates into goal attainment The need for efficiency has an effect on the level of effectiveness Supervisors should strive to attain goals effectiveness in the most efficient manner Means Ef ciency ltmmmmc moacomcoso r o E m m 0 co Ends Effectiveness G EXHIBIT 1 2 Ef ciency versus effectiveness Required Supervisory Competencies Technical competence ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Difficult if not impossible to effectively supervise employees with specialised skills if you lack adequate knowledge yrself Interpersonal competency Ability to work well with people understand their needs communicate well and motivati others Required Supervisory Competencies Conceptual competency refers to mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situations Political competency ability to enhance hisher power build a power base and establish the right connections in the orgz How competency demands vary at different levels of management Top 5 a E a O CO 5 Middle 2 E T gt 3 Supervisory Technical Interpersonal Conceptual Political Supervisory Competencies Basic Organization Concepts Work specialization lndivs specialise in doing part of an activity rather than the entire activity lncreases economic efficiency by allocating the most difficultcomplex tasks to those with highest skill level and paying people less in less skilled tasks Span of control the number of employees a supervisor can efficiently and effectively direct the narrower the span of control the more supervisory levels are nec to directly oversee activities more vertical levels in the org wider spans create fewer managerial levels and flatter structures Basic Organization Concepts Chain of command The continuous line of authority in an organisation States that an employee shld have one and only one supervisor to whom heshe is directly responsible Authority Line Refers to rights inherent in a supervisory position to give orders and expect the orders to be obeyed Staff supports line authority by advising servicing and assisting but need not be obeyed Functional represents rights over indivs outside one s own direct areas of responsibility Basic Organization Concepts How do authority amp responsibility differ Supervisory jobs come with authority and responsibility as both need to go hand in hand to be effective Where are decisions made centralizationdecentralization is a degree phenomenon greater decisionmaking given over to those closest to it Departmentalization Grouping departments based on work functions product or service target customer or client geographic territory or the process used to turn inputs into outputs Functional departmentalization A form of departmentalisation that groups together common functions or similar activities to form an organizational unit Eg HR engineering IT accounting Plant Manager N Manager 39 Manager L EM nage Managgr Information Human Managgr39 nglneering kg Accounting I Systems Resources Purchasnng Functional departmentalization Advantages Efficiency through specialisation Better top management control of functions Minimises costly duplications of personnel and equipment Disadvantages Total performance only apparent at the top Narrow function at manager s level Manager lack training to oversee across functions Complex coord betw functions as size grows Subgrp loyalty identification tunnel vision Product departmentalization A form of departmentalization that groups together all the functions associated with a single product line usually based on problems or issues relating to the product President 2 VicePresident VicePresudent Lubricants ViceFresndent Fuels and Waxes Chemicals Marketing Marketing Marketing Planning and Economics Supply and Distribution Manufacturing Planning and Economics Supply and Distribution Manufacturing Planning and Economics Supply and Distribution Manufacturing Product departmentalization Advantages Directed attention on specific product linessvs Better coordinated functions at prod division level Clearer profit accountability Managers better trained in running total entity Disadvantages Require more personnelmaterial resources Duplication of resourcesequipment Top management assumes greater coordination and control within each productsvs line Customer departmentalization Grouping activities around common customer categories Eg eg retail wholesale govt Increasing focus on customers so customer departmentalization emphasized Government Military Corporate Small Business Nonpro t Accounts Accounts Accounts Accounts Accounts Process departmentalization Grouping activities around a process this method provides a basis for the homogeneous categorizing of activities usually on the basis of work or customer flow MVD Director 1 Lz g jijreiziiit gt Treasury i tifi39ii ii i39i t quot Department Department up of 3135 SuperVisor S U pervisor Geographic departmentalization Grouping activities into independent units base on geography or territory VicePresident for Sales Sales Director Midwestern Region Sales Director Eastern Region Sales Director Sales Director Western Region I Southern Region Job description A formal statement of job duties working conditions and operating responsibilities eg in next slide Why is it useful Formal document describing what each employee is supposed to be doing hence acts as a standard against evaluating how well heshe is performing Helps employee learn job duties and clarifies the results expected from them Employee Empowerment The process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think behave take action and control work and decision making in autonomous ways It is based on the concept of giving employees the skills resources authority opportunity motivation as well holding them responsible and accountable for outcomes of their ac ons Globalization Parochialism Seeing things solely thru our own eyes from our uniquely local IS porean Asian perspective Thinking that what we do is best Cultural environments Understanding differences in values morals customs and laws help avoid parochiallsm A country s culture has a major effect on employee s workrelated values and attitudes eg indiv vs collective societies Globalization Study found that supervisors and employees vary in 4 dimensions of national culture a Individualism vs collectivism loosely knit social framework where people look after own interestsimmed family vs tight soc framework where pple expect others in grps in which they belong to look after them In return they give absolute allegiance Globalization there39s a hierachy can you accept that hte big bus is so far away b measure of extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutionsorgz is distributed characterized by the level of anxiety among its people which manifests itself in greater nervousness stress and aggressiveness Mechanisms created to provide and reduce risk IfEff 39 ff ilitiyfifgfvea ijhb2fjifayrmg be of structured them they check on how the higherups want to fix it Globalization d represents a dichotomy like in a Quantity of life value things like assertiveness acquisition of and material goods Quality of life emphasize relationships and showing sensitivityconcern for welfare of others quality things you value like family and for yourself quantity never mind about worklife balance and just work for the money to give myself and my family Workforce Diversity The composition of the workforce to include men women whites blacks Hispanics Asians Native Americans the disable homosexuals heterosexuals the elderly and so on Workforce Diversity Orgz need to accommodate these different lifestyles family needs and work styles flexibility in practices broader range of policies egwork schedules motivation techniques Mature worker Baby boomers born 19461964 sheer numbers make them a force to reckon with Generation Xers 19651977 Ys 19781993 Zs 1994 gt Characteristic Gender Race Ethnic origin Age Family status Physical abilities 19503 Predominantly male Caucasian European 20 to 65 Single or married with children Abled The New Millennium Male and female Caucasian African American Hispanic Asian American European Mexican Japanese Vietnamese African 16 to 80 Single married with children married with no children cohabha ngdependent elders dualcareer couple commuter relationship Abled and disabled Diverse Worle Environment Challenges Prejudice A preconceived judgment about an individual or group of people Discrimination Unfair or inequitable treatment based on prejudice Stereotypes Generalized fixed images of others Sexism Discrimination based on gender stereotypes Diverse Work Environment Challenges Ageism Discrimination based on age Advantages of hiring older workers Offer invaluable experience Possess strong work ethic Add diversity of thought and approach Take work seriously Can serve as mentors to young coworkers Loyal less likely to quit Human Resource Management HRM amp Process The process of finding hiring training and keeping employees in the orgz While it is the job of HRM team many supervisors are involved in hiring their team members Eight key componentsactivssteps in the HRM process which when properly executed will staff an orgz with competent high performing employees capable of sustaining their performance level over the long term momzcacnam Diversity The Human Resource Management Process coz anoa O a u m J o u w a u 1 Employment Planning Assessing current HR and future HR needs developing a program to meet future HR needs Ensuring the right number and kinds of people in the right places and at the right times to help efficiently and effectively meet orgz goals Assessing current HR needs by generating a HR Inventory listing to gauge what talentsskills are currently available eg Name Education Training Prior employment and experience Specialised skills Employment Planning Assessing future HIi needs are determined by Dept Goals Sup can attempt to establish the number and mix of HR needed to say reach a revenue target When both done better able to estimate shortagesover ss in number and kind gtdeveop program to match these forecasts Recruitment Sources N I Recruitment Process of locating 4 identifying attracting a capable applicants lt1 Recruitment Sources Hiring from within Advertising Employment agencies Educational institutions Professional organizations Walkins Internet websume OtherSrecommendations referrals Are certain recruiting sources better than others Downsizing A reduction in workforce and reshaping of operations to create lean and mean orgz The goals of orgz downsizing are greater efficiency and reduced costs Options firing layoffs attrition transfers reduced workweeks early retirements job sharing Selection Selection Process The hiring process designed to expand the orgz s knowledge about an applicant s background abilities and motivation Success criteria Prediction Reliability whether selection device measures the same thing consistently Validity proven relationship betw a selection device and some relevant criteria Selection Devices a Written tests intelligence aptitude ability interest personality related knowledge Selection b Performance simulation tests Based on actual job behaviours rather than substitutes For eg work sampling a miniature replica of the job and assessment centers simulating real problems faced on the job c Interviews Structured or unstructured sessions Structured ones are standardized and controlled wrt questions asked their sequence interpretation of replies and y weightgiven to the replies 1 5 toward final decision Selection Interviews though can be fraught with potential biases if not well structured or standardized Can be made more valid and reliable by adopting the following interview skills Review the job description and job specification Prepare a structured set of questions Review the applicant s information Put the interviewee at ease Ask questions and listen carefully Inform the applicant of the next step in the process Write the evaluation immediately Orientation An expansion on information that a new employee obtained during the recruitment and selection stages an attempt to familiarize new employees with the job the work unit and the organization as a whole Reduces anxiety felt by new employees Familiarise new employees with the job Facilitate outsiderinsider transition Introduce employees to company policies and culture Employee Training A learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in employees such that their ability to perform on the job improves Involves changing skills knowledge attributes or behaviour of employees This may mean changing what employees know how they work or their attitudes toward their jobs coworkers managers and the organisation Typical training methods ApprentiCeShipindividual under guidance of a master JOb instruction trainingon the job training Classroom lectures Multimedia 39 Si m u Iation exercisescase analysisrole play or group decision making 00m pUter39based trai n ngsimulate work environment in a computer program VGStlbUIG trainingaraining on actual eqpt eg simulated workstation Programmed instruction eg eIearning Workforce Diversity Refers to policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are to be considered to be in some way different from those in prevailing constituency As a social responsibility As a resource imperative As a marketing strategy As a business communications strategy with stakeholders As a capacitybuilding strategy wide range of talents experiences knowledge insights with unique qualities and perspectives The decisionmaking process 1dentify Aswanstep process that quot 39Taquot quot provides a amass I rational and aggraal t name I analytical way of aw aimest J looking at aquoti quot3quotfquot decisions 6 33133quot i 7 Follow up I 909 evalyase hvv u Identify the Problem What is a problem A discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs Eg Carol the head of programming at MediaCorp Ch 5 has just heard that the syndicated series which is scheduled for the 7730pm slot America s Funniest Home Videos Yr 18 has been cancelled by the syndicator Define the Problem Need to fill an early evening timeslot with a similar or higher rated show which attracts similar type of audience Collect the Relevant Information Find answers to questions such as What was she paying the syndicator for the series For how much longer will the episodes from the series last ie how much time has she got to find a replacement What are the other channels running in that slot What is its ratings Are there any contractual constraints in this timeslot Etc Develop Alternatives Identify all possible alternatives creatively Don t discard anything no matter how silly just yet Egs i buy a syndicated tabloid news show for the time slot eg Entertainment Tonight ii buy a syndicated programme Wheel of Fortune iii buy comedy reruns in syndication eg The Andy Griffith Show iv move Friends from the 730pm slot and fill the gap with a local programme v develop a new show around local topics vi extend the 630pm slot to an hour long programme or play 2 episodes back to back Evaluate Each Alternative Evaluate all the strengths and weaknesses of each alternative What will each cost How long to implement What is the most un favourable outcome from each Guard against biases evaluate as objectively as possible acknowledge biases and attempt to control them See eg on above case Evaluating Alternatives Strong competition from High cost Leave little 25k 15 to 25 potential profit Would Ch8 drama split tabloid mkt further 16k 8 to 12 Known entity Average mkt potential Cld prov strong leadin to 30k 20 to 35 8pm Good I ngh cost Would leave counterprogram against almost no profit competitors Could prov storn leadin to Very high cost May or may 50k 30 to 40 8pm Better not yield proilts May counterprog than get complaints for comedy reruns content at that timeslot 18X13 20 to 25 Higher local assocnatlonand Extremely high cost May Interest Govt funding or may not yield profits Take from existing stock One hour duration may be 30k 20 to 25 progs Established too long for this hour series high recall Risk of overkill Selecting the Best Alternative How do you arrive at deciding on the best alternative Which alternative do you think Carol would Choose Why Implement the Decision Convey decision and details to those affected and get their commitment Assign responsibilities allocate nec resources and clarify deadlines Carol did the following called a meeting with programming staff gt explain the decision process gt encouraged discussion on anticipated problems gt assigned the relevant personnel to execute it gt approve the resources required amp deadlinegt to report progress in 2 weeks time Follow Up and Evaluate Did your choice accomplish desired result Did it correct the problem For Carol did she fill the timeslot with a profitable highrated show Won t know till a few months later If not review the decision process to see where it went wrong Seek new perspective with the new problem Decision Making Styles High ll gt 4 g Analytic Conceptual 9 39 39 Q E lt 0 O C g Directive Behavioral 395 l Low Rational Intuitive Way of Thinking People differ along 2 dimensions i Way of Thinking logicalrational vs intuitivecreative iiToerance for Ambiguity low vs high gt 4 styles of decision making Decision Making Styles Directive Low tolerance for ambiguity seek rationality Efficient and logical make decisions with minimal info quickly Focus on the short term Analytic Greater tolerance for ambiguity Desire for more info and seek more alternatives Careful decision makers Able to adapt to new situations Conceptual Broad in outlook consider many alternatives focus on long term Good at finding creative solutions Behavioural Concerned with others and work well with them Seek achievement of employees receptive to suggestions Avoid conflict seek acceptance Group decisionmaking Advantages Provides more information Generates more alternatives Solution acceptance Increases legitimacy Disadvantages Time consuming Minority domination Pressure to conform Groupthink Ambiguous responsibility Control Process Controlling is the management function concerned with monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations The control process consists of 3 separate and distinct steps of 1 measuring actual performance 2 comparing results with standards and 3 taking corrective action Correct Standards 2 Compare Results with Standards 3 Take Corrective Action Beau The Control Process Variability Control Techniques Causeeffect diagrams A depiction of the causes of a problem Groups the causes according to common categories such as management finance personnel methods machinery etc Looks like a fishbone where the bones represent the possible causes of the problem Provides guidance for analysing the influence alternative courses of action will have on a given problem Autofeed h39 h v Frequent variability 399 breakdowns Maintenance Calibration problems incorrect Steel rods offsize Scheduling Needed problems rod sizes not available Steel carbon content incorrect Poor training Manpower Fishbone Diagram Types of Controls 3 Types lnputs Outputs i A Work process activities gt l Concurrent Control If Corrective Control 1 Preventive Control Anticipates and prevents undesirable outcomes Prevention is better than cure Examples maintenance programs inspecting raw materials practise drills training and exams hiring staff in anticipation of new business 2 Concurrent Control A type of control that takes place while an activity is in progress Able to correct problems before they get out of hand or become too costly Day to day activities usually involve this type of control While delay occurs it is minimal Error detected by system to correct potential problem 3 Corrective Control Provides feedback after an activity is finished in order to prevent future deviations Shortcoming often too late Prevent future deviations Examples Final inspection of products Annual employee appraisals Financial audits Sales report Cost controls 4 main areas of control costs inventories quality and safety Direct labor costs expenditures of L directly applied to the creation or delivery of the prcductservnce Indirect labor costs expenditures of L not directly applied Raw material costs expenditures for materials directly Supportive supplies costs Utility costs Maintenance costs Waste costs Reducing costs 6step program as a guide Improve methods Level the work flow Minimize waste Install modern equipment Invest in employee training Make outs selectiver Conflict A process in which one party consciously interferes in the goalachievement efforts of another party Can be between a supervisor and worker two workers two managers etc Disruption of goaldirected behavior 20 of a supervisor s time is spent resolving conflict Mistaken impressions and invalid perceptions can be as harmful as real problems Where do conflicts come from Arise from misunderstanding and different meanings attached to words is not the source of all conflict as many believe Disagreement over goals decision alternatives performance criteria and resource allocation I x V Vaue systems and personality characteristics Famiy ties v material possessions Job performance v seniority Background education experience and training Personality clashes Conflict management The application of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the optimum level of departmental conflict Can You Use Avoidance Withdraw from the conflict ignore it Is best course of action when conflict is trivial or when potential disruption outweighs intervention Accommodation Pace another s needs and concerns above your own A good course of action when the conflict is not important to you Aows you to build up markers for a later issue What resolution techniques to use Forcing Use your formal authority to resolve the dispute Use when you need a quick resolution of the conflict When unpopular actions must be taken on important issues Where commitment by others is not critical Compromise Requires each party to give up something of value Typica in labor contract negotiations Aso common in dealing with interpersonal conflict What resolution techniques to use Compromise works best when there is parity in personal power when it is desirable to achieve a temporary solution to a complex issue or when time pressures demand expedient solution Collaboration The ultimate winwin technique Probemsoving approach When time pressures are minimal when all parties in the conflict seriously want a solution and when the issue is too important to be compromised Basic Resolution Techniques High Concern for Others Low Accommodation Avoidance Collaboration Forcing Low Concern for Self High Which Conflicts do you Handle You can t resolve all conflicts Some conflicts are simply so trivial you shouldn t waste your time Choose your battles judiciously Some conflicts are unmanageable such as when antagonisms or emotions run so high that constructive interaction is impossible Those you do choose to resolve must be handled in the best way possible Gnsing the approriate resolution technique a 2 uideline What s my preferred con icthandling style Avoidance Accommodation Forcing Compromise Collaboration What are my goals How important is the conflict ls sustaining supportive relationships important Is a speedy resolution important differences V o What39s the source of the con ict Communication Structural differentiation Personal differences Negotiation Definition A process in which two or more parties who have different preferences and priorities must make a joint decision and come to an agreement Negotiations How Do Bargaining Strategies Differ 1 Distributive bargaining s zerosum any gain you make is at the expense of the other person and vice versa Negotiating of shares of a fixed pie Labormanagement contract negotiations a prime example nvoves a desired target and resistance point in between is the settlement range You attempt to get your opponent to agree to your specific point or as close to it as possible Negotiations How Do Bargaining Strategies Differ 2 Integrative bargaining Operates under the assumption that there is at least one settlement than can create a winwin situation Builds on longterm relationships and working together Requires openness with information and frankness between parties Requires sensitivity trust and willingness of both parties to be flexible How Do You Develop Effective Negotiation Skills Consider the other party s situation Have a concrete strategy Begin with a positive overture Address problems no personalities Pay little attention to initial offers Emphasize winwin solutions Performance appraisal defined A review of past performance that emphasizes positive accomplishments as well as deficiencies a means for helping improve future performance Performance Appraisal Methods 1 Absolute Standards Not compared against any other person Against specific tasks behaviours traits 2 Relative Standards Against performance of other employees 3 Objectives MBO Management by Objectives Set of tangible verifiable and measurable goals key results expected No one best approach Absolute Standards Measurements Written essays A written narrative which describes employee s strengths and weaknesses their past performances their potential and suggestions for improvement Probably the simplest method of appraisal Weakness is that the results often reflect the ability of the writer as much as the employee s actual level of performance Critical incidents Focus attention on those employee behaviors that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively and executing it ineffectively Specific behaviors not traits are cited Absolute Standards Measurements Checklists A list of behavioral descriptions used to check off those behaviors that apply to the employee Weakness is that they are very costly to develop and simply checking off behaviors provides little data to explain or help improve the employee Adjective rating scale One of the oldest and most popular methods in use Most valid when subjective traits are involved nvolves a list of factors with a continuum that best evaluates the employee for each one Absolute Standards Measurements Are less time consuming to develop and administer Provide for quantitative aggregation and comparison Higher degree of standardization than other methods Behaviorally anchored rating scales BARS Combines major elements from the criticalincident and adjective rating scale approaches Employees are rated on items along a continuum but the points are actual behaviors rather than general descriptions or traits Specify definite observable and measurable job behaviors Studies suggest BARS tend to reduce rating errors Costly to develop and maintain Relative Standards Measurements Group order ranking Exhibit 125 Group Order Ranking Distribution PowerPoint 1212 Requires that employees be ranked in top x or bottom x Advantage is that it prevents you from inflating employee evaluations so everyone looks good or equalizing the evaluations so everyone is rated near average As size of the work force increases validity of relative scores as an accurate measure increases Weakness is the zerosum requirement the percentages must equal 100 even if it means Relative Standards Measurements forcing some employees into categories in which they don t belong Individual ranking Requires that employees be listed in order from highest to lowest performer Assumes that differences between people are universal no ties Assumes one best one worst and all other in between Weakness is that because of the uniform differences the method magnifies and overemphasizes them Potential Errors in Appraisals Leniency error Positive leniency occurs when the rater rates everyone high Negative leniency occurs when the rater rates everyone low Halo error A tendency to rate an individual high or low on all factors due to the impression of a high or low rating on some specific factor Assumes that if a person has one bad or one good trait then all of his or her other traits are bad or good Potential Errors in Appraisals Similarity error When appraisers rate other people giving special consideration to those qualities that they perceive in themselves Recency error When raters give greater importance to employee job behaviors that have occurred near the end of their performancemeasuring period Potential Errors in Appraisals Central tendency error Assign all ratings around the average or midpoint range avoiding both the excellent and the unacceptable categories By suppressing differences employees work performances appear more homogeneous than they are Inflationary pressures Has become more prevalent in recent years Stems from a growing fear of retribution from disgruntled employees who fail to achieve exceHentra ngs Leadership defined The ability an individual demonstrates to influence others to act in a particular way through direction encouragement sensitivity consideration and support Goes beyond formal positions Leader vs Supervisor LEADER SUPERVISOR Appointed or Appointed emerge from Legitimate power Within a QFOUP to reward or Influences others punish to perform Formal authority BEYOND actions inherent in the dictated by formal position authority Six traits of effective leaders Drive I Relevant Desire to Knowledge Influence Others Intelligence Honesty and Moral Character l SelfConfidence Ability to create a realistic credible airlift visio n of the Mil for an organization or organizational unit Vision will fail if it does not offer a tiger view of the future that is better for the organization Leadership skills Technical skills Conceptual skills Networking skills Human relaticn skills Technical skills The tools procedures and techniques that are unique to your specialized situation You need them to become an expert to be perceived as in the know People will follow you if they have confidence in you Conceptual skills Your mental ability to coordinate a variety of interests and activities Visionary skills a must for any leader Ability to see the big picture Ability to make sense out of chaos and envision what can be Networking skills Ability to socialize and interact with those not associated with your unit Used to take care of your people to get them the things they need to do the job Having good political skills good connec ons With such skills your employees know they can depend on you Human Relations skills Ability to work with understand and motivate those around you Ability to effectively communicate with and listen to your employees Includes coaching facilitating and supporting others Honesty and the values by which you live Needed to influence others IEIIDERSIIIP BEHAVIOURS amp STYLES Task centred Behaviour Autocratic leader T Centralized decisionmaking Gives orders and expects results Negative reinforoers Common in all types of organizations including business government military Behaviours Peoplecentered leader Emphasizes interpersonal relations with subordinates Or39entat39on KNOW THE 3 STYLES nput from followers is actively sought Entire work group participates in planning and problemsolving May allow followers to have a say in what is decided Peoplecentred Behaviours C eparticipative leader Same as participative leader but makes the final decision him or herself leader Gives employees total autonomy to make the decisions that will affect them Empoyees free to establish their own plans for achieving their goals Does not imply lack of leadership rather that leader is removed from daytoday activities but is available to deal with exceptions Empowerment Employees are given decisionmaking authority over operations directly affecting their work Downsizing makes empowerment a necessity Tasks employees are empowered to do include Schedang Evaluations Controlling inventories Solving quality issues Budge ng External Forces of Change 1 Marketplace Competitors Customers Suppliers ZGovernment regulations More and more laws Often difficult and costly to comply with External Forces of Change 3 Technology Can make your product obsolete overnight Can speed up your operations Can reduce your costs Can replace your workers with machines 4 Economic forces Price shifts in highdemand resources Government spending and taxing policies Credit availability interest rates and unemployment and inflation rates etc Internal Forces of Change 1 Longrange plans Always involves change of one type or another Involves trying to predict the future 2 New equipment For example from typewriters to word processors New equipment could replace some workers and create the need for additional training for others Internal Forces of Change 3 Work force Always changing in terms of age education gender diversity A major challenge to today s supervisor 4 Compensation and benefits New reward structures must be designed to more closely align rewards with performance and to reflect the needs of a diverse workforce 5 Employee attitudes Company policies practices must change in order to reflect the everchanging needs and expectations of employees Stimulating Innovation Creativity the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas Innovation the process of taking creative ideas and turning them into useful product service or method of operation What is involved in Innovation Ina Handy b nbvqcn an ointorccn com Perception l J How you see things Y i lncuba on Sitting on an idea The main of ce sent us a microwave I i O n oven for our heirbaked ideasquot When all your efforts come together lnnova on Turning inspiration into something useful How can a supervisor foster innovation Structure flexible Resources easy access Communication fluid Organization s culture Relax acceptance of ambiguity Supports new ideas Tolerance of the impractical Tolerance of risk Tolerance of conflict Focus on ends rather than on means Human Resource people who are well trained current in their fields and secure in theujobs
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