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History of Rome Study Guide Ab Urbe Condita This is Livy39s great work that is translated literally to quotBooks since the City39s Foundingquot However it is better known as the quotHistory of Romequot Livy himself ancknowledges that much of what he writes about may not be accurate but it is what the people of Rome believed about their city Livy39s writings tell us about the origins of the city of Rome according to the Roman people themselves However origins are very mythological The date Livy believes was the founding of the city is 753 BC which becomes how the Romans date their years as AUC Acilian Law Aelea iacta est Aemilius Lepidus One of the members of the second triumvirate He controlled Spain for a period of time but he didn39t really do anything Aeneas In the Roman foundation myth Aeneas ees Troy after it is destroyed in 1200 BC He lands in Latium and marries King Latinus39 daughter They have a son named Ascanius who founds the city of Alba Longa The 12th king of Alba Longa Numitor marries Rhea Silvia Numitor39s brother overthrows Numitor and makes Rhea a vestal virgin She is raped and gives birth to Romulus and Remus Thus the founders of Rome are direct descendants of Aeneas Aedile Alba Longa The city founded by Ascanius son of Aeneas The 12th King of Alba Longa was Numitor who was overthrown by his brother Allia River battle Antiochus Ill Appius C Caudex Aquae Sextiae Attalus Ill Augury Augury is the belief that the will of the gods can be viewed through nature An example is haruspicy which was cutting out the liver of an animal in order to interpret it and nd the will of the gods Another example is evaluating the ight patterns of birds Bacchus Battle of Caudine Forks This battle occurred in the 2nd greatest Samnite War The Romans were defeated in 321BC The result was that the Romans changed their ghting structure from leigions to maniples Battle of Zama This battle marked the end of the 2nCI Punic War This battle was when Hannibal was defeated by the alliance of Numidia and Rome thanks to the Numidian cavalry Bona Dea Brennus The Gaul leader who invaded Rome in the Battle of Allia This was the rst Gallic invasion of Rome and was a psychological defeat for Rome In response the Romans built the Servian walls to protect their city Brutus Cannae battle A terrible Roman defeat Hannibal beat Rome in 216 Two consuls were killed Caesar He comes from a wellestablished although obscure family His rst political position is as amen ofJupiter n 698C he becomes a quastor While quastor he builds a network of powerful clients He becomes an aedie in 658C and praetor in 623C In 6OBC he returns to Rome and wants consulship Caesar forms alliance with Pompey and Crassus As Consul Caesar ggives himself proconsuar power for ve years over parts of Europe and begins to publish all of the actions of the Senate When his year as consul was over he gathered his troops and went to Gaul where he wages war without the Senate39s permission After he wins the war Caesar gives himself proconsuar extended proconsuar power for another 5 years Then the triumvirate disbands Caesar seeks consulship to avoid prosecution for going to war without the senate39s commands Pompey and Caesar are now at odds and Pompey sends Caesar an ultimatum and tells him that he must disband his army and return to Rome to face the consequences which Caesar responds to by taking a troop and crossing the Rubicon into Rome Now there is a civil war between Caesar and Pompey Caesar defeats Pompey defeats Egyptians that killed Pompey and defeats the last of Pompey39s supporters Campus Martius Capitoline Triad Carthage Carthage was the city that was involved with the Punic Wars against Rome The Carthaginians called themselves Punic and the Romans called them the quotPurple Peoplequot Going into the war Carthage had the best nava eet and the best sailors but a weak infantry Carthage was ruled by an oligarchy the Barcids The wars with carthage dominate Roman history in the middle and late third century Carthage was very powerful and controlled a lot of territory The rst Punic War broke out because of a three way struggle between Carthage Rome and Syracuse over the city of Messana Catiline Cato the Elder and Younger Cato the Elder was a Roman who strongly opposed Greek culture He supported rigid adhereance to mos maiorum Cato was a consul and 10 years later he was a censor He is known for taxing luxury and many of his acts were controversial Cato was a strong supporter of Rome going to war with Carthage in the Third Punic War Cato was one of the deputies sent to Carthage to negotiate between the King of Numidia and Carthage and he returned to Rome with the warning that Carthage was still powerful Much of what we know about Cato the Elder comes from Putarch39s quotParallel Livesquot CensorCensus Cicero Cincinnatus Cleopatra Clodius Pulcher Comitia Centuriata The Century Assembly Concilium Plebis Consulship Polybius tells us a lot of what we know about the consulship The consuls have power over all the other political of cials They consult with the Senate and then carry out these decrees In terms of military power Polybius believes they have unmeasured control they choose demands on the conquered seect who is eligible to be in the military and to levy soldiers They also have the right of in icting punishment on anyone under their command Corvus This is a Roman invention created in Phase one of the Punic War around 26OBC This invention allows Romans to invade enemy ships during naval battles Because of the corvus Rome is able to win their rst major nava battle at Mylae against Carthage Crassus Cursus Honorum Rome operated as a Republic under a hierarcha system of public of ce called the Corsus Honorum Firsta man had to be a military tribune then he would be a quastor then an aedie then a praetor and then a consul If you served well as consul you could become a promagistrate after your consulship Decemviri Dictator Perpetuo Dido According to the Roman foundation myth Dido was the founder of the city of Carthage Dido and Aeneas fell in love when Aeneas passed through Carthage but he left her there on the island This part of the foundation myth provides a backstory for the con ict between Rome and Carthage Equites Etruia Etruscan Most of what we know about Etruscans comes from archaeology because they did not leave a lot of written history There is disparity among ancient historians over where the Etruscans originated from Etruscans were forebearers for Rome and in uenced them in many ways which is why they are important to learn about in Roman history The Etruscans called themselves quotthe beardless peoplequot the Romans called them quottower peoplequot Today we only have 46 lines of their written language so we are unable to tell much We know the Etruscans operated on a statecity state level and they did not get along with each other The city states formed leagues and the leagues were ruled by a theocracy however each league operated independently One of the greatest things the Etruscans did was good city planning which Rome learns Romans took symbols of power from the Etruscans llike the fascus Women in Eytuscan culture are seen as equal to men The main family unit of Etruscan culture is the 39clan39 extended family Eumenes ll Fasces This is an Etruscan symbol of power that the Romans adopted It is branches tied together and often the Consuls would carry one Fasti Gaius Laelius Gracchi Brothers Both of the Gracchi brothers were of very high patrician heritage T Gracchus was elected tribune in 133BC He tried to institute land reform in order to distribute land to the poor in Rome His goals were to create a larger military because there was a rule that said to be in the military required owning land and to reduce the probability of slave revolts However the senate was very opposed to land reform because they were wealthy and owned most of this land T Gracchus was killed by the senate but his father and brother set up a commission after his death to continue distributing land His brother G Gracchus Hannibal Hannibal became the commander of Carthaginian forces in 221BC He besieges Sagantum and Rome does nothing about it except demand that he be held accountable for his war crimes Hannibal strikes fear into the hearts of Romans when he crosses the Rhone Valley with his army In the beginnings of this war Hannibal is met with many successes For example the Battle of Cannae in 216 was the most important and worst Roman defeat in history At Cannae Rome lost 2 consuls and 50000 men Rome regroups Cuncator develops a Fabian strategy where he shadows Hannibal but doesn39t engage in direct con ict In Phase III of the 2nCI Punic War Rome allies with the Numidian King Hannibal is defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 thanks to the Numidian calvary The Battle of Zama marks the end of the 2nCI Punic War Hamilcar Barca The leader of the Carthaginians in the First Punic war He led an effective guerilla war in Siciliy and reduced the Roman eet by 17 percent Hasdrubal lmperium Italian Allies Jugurtha Latifundia these were vast estates owned by a select elite This concentrated most of the land ownership to a certain number of people Populists sought land reform by redistributing these estates to the poor Lapis Niger Latin League a defensive league to protect from Etruscans and Gauls There was a battle the Battle of Lake Regillus where the Romans claimed they were the leaders of the Latin League After the Battle of Lake Regillus the Latin League dissolved and Rome divided and conquered the latin cities Latins Latin Revolut 34033SBC Rome had become too big upsetting the Latins However Rome squashes the revolt and the Latin League dissolved Afterwards Rome divides and conquers the Latins and integrates them Lake Trasimene Legions Lex Gabinia Lex Julia Lex Plautia Papira Lex Pompeia LicinioSextian Law Lex Titia This was the law that legalized the second triumvirate of Mark Antony Octavian and Lepidus The law gave these three men complete power to restore the Republic I think this law is signi cant because it showed that the Republic was already destroyed The law was passed after the death of Caesar and the Republic was already beyond repair quotLiberatorsquot Livy Lucretia Lupercalia Magistrates Magna Graecia Mamertines Manilian Law Maniples Mark Antony Marius Metellus Messana this country was the reason for the rst Punic War In 264BC Messana was occupied by Italian mercenaries King Hiero of Syracuse besieged the city the mercenaries ask Carthage for help defending themselves The Carthinigians come and take over the island themselves rather than help out so the mercenaries call on Romans Rome sets out to neutralize Syracuse Mithridates VI Mos Maiorum This means quotway of the eldersquot Romans developed a whole set of traditions based on what they believed that their dead ancestors would want them to do This was partly because Rome did not have written law in the beginning so everything was based on custom These customs included things like virtue respect good faith etc This concept helped to uphold the authority of the paterfamilias in the household which is why it was so important that Romans emphasized that their ancestors lived in a patriarchal society Municipia Mylae This is the rst major naval encounter between Rome and Carthage in 260 Carthage had an advantage with their strong navy ut Romans invented a 39corvi which allowed them to defeat Carthage Novus homo Optimates Paterfamilias Family was extremely important in Rome The head of the family was the father or the paterfamilias The paterfamilias was leader of all the occupants of a household and prestige was measured by how many dependents a paterfamilias had The Paterfamilias had authority even over the lives of his dependents For example Aulus Fulvius executed his son because he was involved in a plot to overthrow the government The paterfamilias was expected to protect his family and the family was expected to show him complete obedience This relationship is explained using the Latin word pietas The heads of the state the senate were analogous to the paterfamilias of the state Patricians Patronage Another type of paternalistic relationship in Roman society An individual might ask someone more powerful than himself for advice and protection In return he became a retainer and provided various services for his protector The retainer was called a client and the protector was called a patron This type of relationship reinforced the rule of the few over the many Philip V Phillip V was king of Macedonia In 214 he allied with Hannibal In response the Romans allied with the Aetolians and Pergamum This incites the 1St Macedonian War Rome is brought into this war not because of imperialism but defensive concerns Plebeians Pluta rch Pompey Populares These were politicians of the people that represented the masses and not the elite Early examples include the Gracchi brothers Populists advocated for land redistribution military reform food subsidies and more Eventually the struggle between the Populares and the Optimates would lead Rome to fall apart Populists appealed directly to the people and oftentimes bypassed the Senate as is the case of T Gracchus Punic Wars There were several Punic Wars but the rst two were the main two Rome was practicing defensive imperialism in these wars protecting themselves by conquering other societies Like the US the Romans believed in a concept of Manifest Destiny The Punic Wars were Rome against Carthage because the Carthingians called themselves Punic Carthage has the best naval power but a weak infantry Punic Wars start because Messana was occupied by Italian mercenaries in 264BC King Hiero of Syracuse besieges the city and the mercenaries ask Carthage for help Instead of helping the Carthaginians take over the city themselves so Messana calls to Rome for help Messana was strategically important and Rome does not want Carthage to control it Phase 1 of the war occurs 264262 The turning point was at Agrigentum where Rome invades Sicily During the rst phase Rome builds 500 ships in 90 days Romans also build a corvi to invade enemy ships and Rome begins to win at sea Rome continues to extend control into Sicily Victory in the First Punic War led to Rome39s rst permenant commitments outside of Italy thus beginning the Mediterranean empire The Second Punic War began over Spain Romans suffered a great defeat at Cannae in the Second Punic War but they redid their military strategy and recaptured Tarentum depleting Hannibal s army By the year 206BC Rome had overcome all Carthaginian forces in Spain The peace treaty took all of Carthage39s Punic cities away from it and prevented it from waging defensive or offensive war Rome emerged from the second Punic War with a dominant position in central Mediterranean that would continue to grow The Macedonian Wars grew out of the Punic wars After the Third Macedonian War the Macedonian monarchy was ended 168BC Pyrrhus of Epirus Q Fabius Cunctator Q Sertorius Regulus Respub ca Rex Sacrorum Robigo Romulus amp Remus These are the key gures in the foundation myth of Rome According to legend Romulus and Remus were the direct descendants of the Trojan War hero Aeneas Aeneas ed Troy in 12008C and landed at Latium where he married the King39s daughter Together they had a son named Ascanius who founded the mythical city of Alba Longa The 12th king of Alba Longa Numitor was overthrown by his brother Amilius and his wife was made into a Vestal Virgin Legend says that Rhea Silvia was impregnated by the god Mars and gave birth to twins Romulus and Remus The pair were rescued by a shewolf and then found by a shepherd Romulus and Remus each founded their own cities but Romulus ended up killing Remus Thus the city of Rome was founded by a direct descendent of Aeneas Rubicon R Sabines Saturninus Scipios Senate Senatus Consultum Ultimum Servius Tullius The sixth king of Rome in the late 500 BC He was the rst to institute a national levy and conscript all adult males into the army At rst there were only 4 legions each containing 6000 men This army fought using the Phalnx until 390 BC Socii The socii were the autonomous tribes of the Italian peninsula These were former enemies of Rome who had been given partial citizenship There were bene ts to this arrangement but the socii began to rebel eventually because they were unable to vote thus leading to the social war Spartacus Struggle of the Orders 494287BC This was a struggle between the patricians which were the original senators versus the plebians This is not a struggle in the Marxist sense because many of the Plebians were actually very wealthy However plebians did not have equal access to of ceholding and the patricians who only made up 10 percent of the population held almost all the of ces Plebians wanted to have the same rights as patricians The seccession of the plebians was the key to their success In 494BC plebians ed Rome to the Sacred Mound which is how they had their demands met In 494 the Tribune of the Plebs was created In 471 another great seccession led the plebs to be organized into tribes which drastically reduces patronage Sulla Sulla came from an old patrician family and was a veteran of the Jugerthine War Sulla wants more power and so he fabricates a foreign threat in order to gain military prestige ln 88BC Sulla invades Rome which is the rst time a Roman has invaded Rome and expels Marius and Sulpicius He then leaves to ght Mitridates in the East When he returns he marches on Rome a second time and wins the Battle of Colline Gate In Rome Sulla issued proscriptions which were the names of people he considered enemies of the state and gives himself the of ce of dictator 823C Then Sulla calls on a series of reforms he doubles the size of the senate says the Plebs cannot pass laws without senatorial approval grows the Senate to 600 page equites are sti ed puts limits on of ceholding and eliminates grain subsidies This is known as Sulla s Reign of Terror which set a precedent for the use of Roman forces against Rome After Sulla39s death his own followers annul his reforms which had done nothing to restore the Republic Tarquins The last tyrant of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus He raped Lucretia and she kills herself after telling her husband what happened Lucretia39s husband kicks Tarquin the proud out and vows that Rome would be ruled as a Republic Tarquinius Collatinus and Junnius Brutus are the founders of the Republic in 509 BC and they are the rst set of consuls Tigranes ll TQ Flaminius Treaty of Lutatius This was the treaty that ended the rst Punic War This was negotiated between Gauis Lutatius and a proxy of Hamilcar Barca who refused to discuss peace with Rome himself The treaty said Carthage must give up all Italian trade the area of Sicily and pay a huge indemnity This unreasonable treaty set up the pretext for the next Punic War Trebia River battle Tribes every Roman citizen belonged to a tribe based on their place of residence Those who lived inside Rome itself lled four 39urban39 tribes while those who lived elsewhere belonged to a 39rural39 tribe By 241 BC there were 31 rural tribes Tribune of the Plebs In early Republican Rome Plebians far outnumbered patricians but were not allowed to hold political of ce The plebians began to protest this because they wanted equal rights The plebian method of protest was seccession In 490 a plebian seccession to the sacred mound led to their demands being met and the creation of a Tribune of The Plebs which was basically a representative body for the plebians The Tribune set up their own meeting site on Aventine Hill at the Temple of Ceres Triumph A triumph was a celebration ceremony of a Roman general If you were a Roman general your goal was to get a triumph The procession route followed the quotvia sacraquot In order to get a triumph a general must have killed 5000 people The triumph displayed the spoils of war and the general dressed as Jupiter and painted his face red Triumvirate I II Venus Victrix Veii Veii was the primary Etruscan city The fall of Veii to Rome in 396 marks the beginnings of Roman expansion Vercingetorix A general who united the Gauls against the Romans in the last stages of Caesar39s Gallic Wars Gallic resistance to Rome was ended at the Battle of Alesia when Caesar managed to defeat Vercingetorix During the Battle of Allia Caesar and his troops built a wall around the city trapping the Gauls inside After his victory the Senate refused to give Caesar a triumph which led to further civil problems Vestal Virgins The W were protectors of the sacred ame This was a strange position because usually Roman women did not receive any type of recognition or of cial title However the VV were very highly respected There were six of them and they were granted 30 years of service and guaranteed retirement with a state pension They were chosen when they were very young Vini Vidi Vici Zama XII Tables A set of laws created around 4508C that talks about values that Romans thought were important and is evidence of a very agricultural society These were the rst laws that Rome created and also the earliest surviving example of Roman literature 21 April 753 BC 146 BC This marks an important year in Roman history because it is the year that both Corinth and Carthage are defeated by Rome This is also the year that ends the era of Roman expansion and some historians argue that it was the beginning of Rome39s demise 15 March 44 BC The Ides of March This is the date thatJulius Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators who considered themselves liberators This group was headed by Brutus and Cassius and stabbed Caesar a total of 23 times After the murder the liberators ed the city because the people were angry about Caesar39s death Caesar39s death led to an eventual civil dispute between Antony and Octavian who were left to deal with Rome in the midst of chaos 21 April 753 BC 509 BC Nature of Roman Kingship they possessed the highest authority in all matters They were assisted by The patresquot which are where we derive patricians from This comprised the senex which literally means old men This is the beginning of class distinction that continues to grow Trace Roman expansion in the Mediterranean and across Italy The conquest of Italy occurred over 5092648C The rst important victory for the Romans was their defeat of the powerful Etruscan city of Veii in 396BC This victory made them the preeminent city in the region Afterwards they made alliances with states that were more powerful than their Etruscan and Latin neighbors and in the process succeeded in extending their power over all of Latium and northern Campania During the fourth century the Samnites were the strongest group in the central highlands The Samnite War led Rome to overtake central Italy and occurred throughout the late 4th and early 3rCI centuries 343290 The Samnite Wars were Rome39s biggest challenge to date The Samnites were mountain people who used guerilla warfare The 2nCI Samnite War was considered the quotGreatquot Samnite War In this war the Greeks appealed to Rome for help with the Samnites This is also the war where Rome suffers their greatest defeat at Caudine Forks 321BC which leads them to change their ghting structure Italy was a dangerous place because there were Etruscans to the North ltalians in the middle Greeks to the South Rome had to take on a doctrine of defensive imperialism in order to protect themselves and acquire more land Rome was so successful because they had good timing and none of their neighbors thought to team up against them Rome39s neighbors were the Latin League At the same time the Samnite Wars were going on the Latin war also marked the end of autonomy for Latin cities Rome claimed themselves as leaders of the Latin League which led to the Battle of Lake Regillus Rome smashes the Latin revolts and integrates the Latins into Rome Throughout 3001OOBC Rome established 50 new colonies in Italy These colonies each had a forum and a capitol and were laid out like a military camp and built in strategic areas There were two types of colonies Roman and Latin latin were secondary This colonization gave Rome increased manpower and allowed them to maintain control of foreign policy The next war was the Pyrrhic War 280275 Tartentum asked Pyrrhus for help combating Roman Expansion which led to a series of battles and a Roman victory The victory of the Pyrrhic war con rmed Rome as a military powerhouse and secured their position in Italy for the next 700 years The Pyrrhic War also shifted the balance of power from Carthage to Rome The Punic Wars started in 264 The turning point of this war was the Battle at Agrigentum in 2623CThe results of the First Punic War was that Rome lost 17 of its male population and lost 700 ships However Rome made Carthage give up Sicily and all ltalian trade and Rome gained provinces a navy and annual income from Carthage However these terms of peace were outrageous and led to the Second Punic War Between the two wars Rome had annexed Carthage and fought with the Gauls looking to expand further The War outbroke in 221BC when Hannibal became commander of Carthaginian forces Hannibal crosses Rhone Valley and tries to take the war to Rome He ghts Rome at the Battle of Cannae in 216 which is the worst Roman defeat in history Rome regroups and changes their military strategy They recapture Syracuse in 213 and also recapture Capua Under Scipio Rome invades Africa and allies with the Numidian King Masinissa Hannibal follows Rome to Africa and is defeated in 202 at Zama The Battle of Zama marks the end of the 2nCI Punic War Scipio gains the name Scipio Africanus and becomes wildly popular in Rome but hated by the Senate The terms of peace for the 2nCI Punic War are that Carthage must reduce army pay indemnity cannot wage war and must evacuate empire The result of the Punic War was that Carthage is completely destroyed in 1463C and Rome becomes an Empire gaining control of a lot of overseas land It could be argued then that the Punic War sowed the seas for Rome39s demise since the empire is what ultimately weakened the Republic Rome now becomes masters of the Mediterranean for the next 600 years Through a series of wars and battles Rome progressed from a citystate to a Mediterranean Empire They called the Mediterranean Sea quotMare Norstrumquot our sea The Romans attempt to teach all of these newly acquired land about their culture While Rome was overcoming Italy they were also meeting victories in Greece The Macedonian Wars started in 214BC Rome was brought into this war because of defensive concerns There are four total Macedonian Wars until Rome nally wins in 148 and annexes Greece The Third Macedonian War ends with capture of Corinth in 146BC the same year the Third Punic War ended with capture of Carthage This year marked the end of an era of Roman expansion Another development in Roman expansion was Pergamum39s King leaving Rome his entire kingdom at the time of his death in 133BC Results of the Samnite Wars and the fall of Veii Romans had united Latium parts of Campania Veii and other neighbors emerging as the most powerful state in Italy TIMELINE Veii 396gtSamnitesLatins400300gtPyrrhic War280ishgtPunic Wars264gtMacedonian Warsended 168gtThird Punic War149146 What was the Roman army like during the Republican period Rome was a militaristic society Why was Rome so successful militarily The timing Italian tribes never really banded together against Rome Was Caesar the reason for the Republic s demise What were the reasons for the Republic s demise All of the expansion brought new land led the a growing gap between rich and poor and it also was the main policy difference between the optimates and the populares Trace the changes in politics throughout the Roman Republic Before the emergence of the Republic a date typically identi ed as 753BC Rome was ruled by Kings After the last King was dethroned Rome began to be ruled by Consuls Rome eventually created a hierarchy of of ces called the Corsus Honorum that spread power throughout the upperclass In times of emergency Rome had the ability to appoint a dictator for 6 months A struggle of the orders characterized the beginnings of the Republic The plebians got a Tribune in the 4905 Struggle of the Orders occurred 494 287BC Patricians were only 10 percent of the population Patronage essentially ends with 471AD when the plebians are organized into tribes because they now have to vote with their tribe Early Republican Rome did not have written laws and the rst example of any type of law is in 450 BC with the 12 Tables Role of the Senate changed At rst plebians could not hold any of ce but they were given some power with the Tribune of the Plebs In 367BC there is a law passed LicianSexton law that says that one of the consuls must be a plebian In 287BC the Lex Hortensia is passed which stipulates that plebian laws also apply to patricians o By the time the Lex Hortensia is passed more people are eligible for of ce and political competition increases which distracts from the important issues The tribune of the plebs was able to veto anything that they wanted to which led to political gridlock All the of ces were only held for 1 year which meant constant campaigning and disagreements without focusing on issues There was no enforcement to keep laws upheld For example whoever had the army really had the power Even though they may not have been legally able to run for consul twice in a row many people still did As years went on the senate exercised more and more power Blood politics were introduced when T Gracchus was killed by the Senate after this politics are very violent Expansion made patricians even more powerful and made poor people even poorer Expansion went along with an increase in consolidated political power to an elite few Populist politics began to emerge in the second century These politicians based their position on their ability to court Roman citizens rather than on their standing with fellow senators How could Roman expansion have hurt Rome Rome went from a small citystate to a vast empire in a very short amount of time Roman expansion in Italy took only 200 years while Mediterranean expansion took a mere 100 years This huge growth in such a small amount of time carried consequences that may have eventually led to the end of the Republic Rome39s government system was equipped to rule a citystate not an empire They had to gure out how to consolidate their new territory and control the citizens Along with the acquisition of new types of people there was also an in ux of new traditions that con icted with longstanding Roman traditions In fact historian Sallust pinpointed Roman expansion as the beginning of political problems in Rome Long periods of warfare also devastated the city itself Land was ruined and when soldiers returned from ghting they oftentimes had nowhere to go Land that was con scated became owned by a select few in the forms of latifundia or massive estates This would cause later problems in politics over whether or not land should be distributed to the poor Disagreement over land redistribution would lead to the assassination of T Gracchus which was the beginning of political violence in Rome Also Roman expansion occurred during a time of internal disagreement in Rome The Struggle of the Orders was a longstanding battle over the upper and lower classes and as Rome grew so did the social discontent The long period of expansion and warfare imposed changes that disrupted the political and social makeup of their state Expansion changed Rome39s politics and population The city became overpopulated and Rome eventually had to subsidize its grain beginning 123BC Many Romans didn39t agree with the philhellinistic culture that was overtaking the empire and there were cultural upheavals over mos mairoum and philhellenism Also Rome gave many of its conquered enemies citizenship but it also enslaved many of them This turned Rome into a slave society where a vast percentage of the population was enslaved Because there were so many slaves and especially because these slaves had once been free people there were an increasing number of slave revolts All of these problems led to politicians who had different ways of going about seeking change These new types of politicians called populists were at odds with the Senate The disagreement in politics transcended into civil wars that ultimately led the Republic to fall apart Trace the changes in Roman societyincluding family military tradition etc Summarize the emergence of the Roman Republic and discuss the society at the beginnings of Roman Republic
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