Midterm 2 study guide
Midterm 2 study guide psych 254
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by kaswimmer on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 254 at University of Vermont taught by Susan K. Fenstermacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Social Development in Psychlogy at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
PSYS 254 Some helpful terms and concepts to know for Exam 2 Chapter 3 (Temperament only) Temperament-an individuals typical mode of responding to the environment Thomas and Chess temperament classifications (Easy, Difficult, Slow to Warm Up) - classifications were defined based on interviews with the mothers. Difficult- hard to put to sleep, dont like changes in routine, cry often just cause Easy (40%)- friendly, happy, adaptable Slow to warm up- (15%) are low in activity level and tended to respond negatively to new stimuli at first but slowly adapted to new things Twin studies of temperament (general findings)- identical twins acted more alike= genetic component most other attitudes= moderate heritability siblings in the same family tend to resemble one another more often for positively toned aspects of temperament. Negatively toned behaviors more often due to non- shared environment Chapter 4 Attachment what is it? -when does it occur? -with whom does it occur? -why is it important to social development emotional bond with a specific individual that is enduring across space and time. Its builds gradually through social interaction. Happens around age 1. Happens with those in frequent and close one-to-one contact. You can attach to any familiar person (usually the mother). Multiple attachments are common. Important because having a good sense of security affects emotional understanding and processing emotional info. Parents + kids who are securely attached display more elaboration of emotion themes in their conversations. Better emotional regulation. Adult Attachment Interview-A structured interview used to assess an individual's past attachment history and "internal working model" of relationships. An instrument used to assess an adult's mental representations of attachment relationships, particularly those with his or her parents during childhood. It is a retrospective clinical interview where adults recall childhood relationships with parents. This is then classified similarly to Ainsworth’s system : Autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied) Alternative care (child care) and attachment- Initial findings – Children in full-time care more likely to have insecure attachment compared with children not in full-time care Attachment intervention programs- Van den Boom, 1994: -low income moms with highly irritable 6 month olds -3 month intervention -Strange situation at 12 months: 63% of intervention dyads securely attached (22% of control) -Follow up at 18 months: 74% vs. 26% Attachment Q-set caregiver sorts cards into piles of most like or least like. can be matched with stranger situation. Good for ages 1-5. The Attachment Q-Set (Waters, 1995) is based on a lengthy observation of the child at home or on the judgment of the parent or other caregiver who knows the child well Attachment security- affects 2 things: 1-Emotional understanding and processing of emotional information (securely attached preschoolers are better at understanding emotions AND Securely attached mothers and children display more elaboration of emotion themes in their conversations) 2-Emotion regulation= At older ages, securely attached children are also better at regulating their emotions in challenging situations Biological influences on attachment (oxytocin, vasopressin, etc.) - -right (positive) and left (neg) hemisphere of prefrontal cortex activity during different attachment types are seen -estrogen levels in young women of childbearing age make them responsive to cuteness in infants - mothers undergo hormonal changes that make them sensitive to infants cries -oxytocin released during breastfeeding is related to more synchronous and sensitive patterns behavior California Attachment Procedure- The California Attachment Procedure (CAP) focuses on how children use the mother as a secure base when they experience stressful events such as a loud noise or scary robot instead of being separated from the mother. Provides a more valid measure of attachment than the stranger situation for kids who are used to the parent being away Caregiver hypothesis of attachment (caregiving styles associated with attachment types)- 4 features of mothers behavior associated with quality of attachment ( Sensitive and responding, behavior guided by babies cues, accepting of baby and minimal frustration, and physically and psychologically available. Insecure resistant- caregiving is inconsistent, seen as unreliable by the child, infant may struggle to gain parents attention Insecure avoidant-impatient, unresponsive or rejecting parents. Overstimulating (though often un-meaning) parents. Disorganized- severely depressed parents, have drug/alcohol problems or suffered a trama. Infants have been abused, neglected, or frightened by parents. Cognitive developmental perspective on attachment- attachment is contingent with object permanence Developmental phases of attachment- 1. 0-6 weeks: Asocial (Bowlby's phase of "preattachment")=infants begin to show preferences for social stimuli (e.g., faces) 2. 6 weeks - 6 -7 months: Phase of indiscriminate attachments (Bowlby's "attachment in the making")=infants begin to show preference for familiar people 3. Specific attachment phase (7-9 months)= First 'genuine attachment' AND infants show distress when attachment figure leaves 4. Phase of multiple attachments (9-18 months) =Infants form attachments with others 5. Reciprocal relationships (18-24 months+) Disorganized-disoriented attachment- act disorganized and look dazed, freeze in the middle of their movements, and could engage in repetitive behaviors such as rocking. They are apprehensive and fearful of their attachment figure and are unable to cope with distress in a consistent and organized even though their mother is available Insecure-avoidant attachment- (20%) show little distress over the mother leaving in the strange situation at least after the first departure and then they actively avoided her on her return. They turned away from their mother, increased the distance from her, and paid her no attention. After the second departure, the kid gets visibly upset and then again avoids the mother. Secure attachment (60-65%) A safe ratio of wanting to go out and explore, but also come back if it seems uncertain or stressful. In the SS, these kids would sought contact after the stress of her departure in an unfamiliar setting and were quickly comforted by her even though they were initially quiet upset. They explored and used the mother as a secure base. They did not whine and cling to her but actively Insecure-resistant attachment- (10-15%) become VERY upset when mother leaves them in the stranger situation but were oddly ambivalent or resistant toward her when she returned; they were likely to seek contact with her and then angrily push her away Environmental influences on attachment- mothers as “secondary reinforcers’ who provides feeding and care Ethological perspective on attachment- children are biologically predisposed for attachment as means to survival. Emphasis on the active role played by the infants early social signaling systems. Attachment is a DYADIC relationship. Internal working models of attachment- early attachment experiences create "schemas" for self and others that are applied to relationships throughout life. Sensitive caregiving= positive working model of self and others (secure attachment) Negative self + positive others=resistant positive self + negative others= avoidant negative self+ negative others= disoriented Learning perspective on attachment Presentation Group 2’s articles on attachment security in adopted children, children in foster care, and children living with biological parents Paper 1- children with same sex or different parents had SAME developmental outcomes Paper 2- male + male parents = least amount of gendered play. Female + female parent= less gendered play. Heterosexual= most gendered play. Children w/o a parent of the same gender showed the least amount of gender-type play. Psychoanalytic perspective on attachment- Feeing is key (oral stage) and Trust vs. mistrust (both disproved by Harlow monkey study) Sensitive period for attachment- : first 6 months otherwise prone to develop: Reactive attachment disorder: inability to bond to adoptive or foster parents Synchronous interactions- appropriate responsiveness when caregiving. You are not over stimulating or neglecting your child but instead referencing what they want/seem to want and acting accordingly Temperament hypothesis of attachment (arguments for/against) - The belief that children form secure attachments simply because they have a more 'easy' temperament from birth, whereas innately difficult children are more likely to form insecure attachments and later relationships. Proposed by Kagan. Challenges against- Different attachment patterns to different individuals, Twin studies indicate environmental influences, Changing caregiver behaviors can improve attachment Chapter 6 Bronson & Merryman article (“See Baby Discriminate”) Collective self- refers to the persons concept of self within a group such as race, gender, or ethnicity Cultural (individualist/collectivist) differences in self-concept- Individualists identify themselves based on their own characteristics. They see themselves as an individual before a group member ( I am someone who likes pizza). Collectivists focus on their niche in the family/society and identify themselves based on group traits ( i am a son, I am brother) Development of self-concept from early childhood to late adolescence- Preschoolers= focus on physical attributes, preferences, possessions Middle childhood = Shift toward inclusion of enduring traits, beliefs, values. Relationships with peers and social comparisons Adolescence= Inconsistencies Emulation-kids will imitate over emulate, or come to their own conclusions/procedures. Kids will imitate over emulation due to an adaptive functioning Ethnic identity - refers to the sense of belonging to a certain race or ethnic group. It emerges gradually over childhood and adolescences. Extended self- Mature self-representation where we are able to integrate past, present, and unknown future self-representations into a notion of ‘self’ that endures over time False belief tasks- display theory of mind, passed around 4 or 5 year (smarties task - do others know what's in the box because you do?) infants can pass a looking task by around 15 months Horner & Whiten research on imitation and emulation in chimpanzees and human children- Kids will imitate over emulate Identity formation (diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement)- diffusion- no exploration/no commitment foreclosure- no exploration but already made a commitment Moratorium- is exploring, but no commitment Achievement- having already explored, they can commit Imitation- kids will imitate over emulate. Kids will imitate over emulation due to an adaptive functioning. Imitation is the direct mimicking of anothers actions Individual self- refers to aspects of the self that make a person unique. example- a person may see themselves as hard working, fit, and confident. Integrated self- Joint attention- when the child is paying attention to the parent and vise versa. Attention shared by two persons toward an object after one person has indicated interest in the object to the other person; this social interaction is limited or absent in people with autism spectrum disorder, but true for those MAM Observational learning - A form of learning in which behavior is modified as a result of watching others. Personal agency- the idea that you have control/effects on your environment- a satisfying feeling for infants. This happens at around 2 months Present self- my current self is detached from who I was in the past. 18m-3.5 years kids wont remove a sticker on themselves after seeing themselves in a video recording from just a few minutes before (they don’t recognize that they are the same person as the one in the video and that the past and present them are different) Presentation Group 4’s articles on social cognition and peer relationships 1- Kids that were more popular usually judged motive over outcome. There IS a relationship between socio-cog skills and popularity 2- Socialization of depressive symptoms in group CAN predict social group 3- More accepting by peers= more empathy by students 4- NA Relational self- refers to aspects of the self that involve connections to other people and develops out of social interactions Self-awareness A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions Self-concept- perceptions of one’s unique combination of attributes Self-esteem (what is it, developmental trends, gender differences, criticisms of self- esteem programs)- Evaluation of self worth based on assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept. Is associated with a number of emotional and behavioral outcomes. Wide-ranging individual as well as group differences, Criticisms include: allowing us to "skip over the work", pros of self esteem are ignored like being able to bounce back after a failure or traumatic event, bullied kids show less self esteem and bullies are secure and low anxiety. Adults with an inflated self esteem have interpersonal problems, Interrupt others, Disrupt conversation with angry/hostile remarks, Talk ‘at’ people instead of to or with them. Girls have lower self esteem than boys from middle childhood and especially in adolescences. Self-recognition (what is it, what does it tell us, when does it happen, what is it associated with)- Ability to recognize self in a mirror or photograph accompanied by conscious awareness that it is “me”. Around 18-24 months: consistently pass the ‘rouge test’/’mark test’ and this happens. Includes kids with no prior experience with mirrors. Mentally aged Matched kids can pass as well as typically developing chimps (NOT adolescent chimps raised in isolation) Social categorization- The assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on the characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has experienced in the past. This can result in stereotyping, but can also allow people to access information that can be useful about others. Social cognition- Ways in which we process information about self and others. Encompasses what we notice, think about, and remember Stereotyping and prejudice- Stereotyping - a label applied to members f a racial, ethnic, or religious group without appreciation that individuals within the group are different from one another. Prejudice- people who are prejudice define all members of a group not just as similar, but also as bad. The role of autobiographical conversations in forming self-concept- the more parents facilitate an autobiographical memory, the more the child develops a sense of what they did and who they are Theory of mind (what is it, when/how does it develop, what can influence development, associated brain activity, desirebased vs. belief-desire) understanding that people are cognitive beings with mental states that guide their behavior and are not always accessible to others. 6-9 months. Joint attention behaviors are seen. Prior to 3.5 – 4: ‘desire-based’ ToM= Actions are a reflective of a person’s desires only. Still ‘egocentric’; believe all people share same beliefs 4-5 year olds: ‘belief-desire’ ToM = People may have different interpretations of reality. Both beliefs and desires can motivate behavior Influences include: Exposure to discussions of motivations, beliefs, intentions, and other mental states, Language development, Pretend play, Older siblings, Developmental disorders (e.g., Autism Chapter 7 Authoritarian parenting- is emotionally rejecting and highly demanding. Outcomes for middle childhood include average cognition and social competency. Adolescence= avg academic and social skills; more conforming than peers of permissive or authoritative parents. Authoritative parenting - is emotionally available for child and still demanding (best style). middle childhood= high cognition and social competency. Adolescence= high self esteem, social skills, strong moral/prosocial behavior, high academic performance Behavioral control- Attempts to regulate conduct through firm discipline and monitoring of behavior =better behaved and socialized children and adolescents Child effects model of socialization- children influence parents (e.g., temperament, evocative g-e interactions) Coparenting – is ideal when both parents are involved and caring and demanding but work together Cultural and SES influences on parenting- Authoritarian styles more likely in low SES =Lower-SES often report valuing conformity in children while Higher-SES more likely to report wanting children to become self-directed and autonomous. May also reflect differences in stress, living environments (Family Distress Model- economic hardship-> E. pressure-> parental distress-> disrupted family relationships-> child adjustment Authoritarian parenting: - Chinese and first-generation Chinese-American families - Spanish-speaking Mexican-Americans experiencing acculturation stress - Urban African American adolescents (“no-nonsense” parenting). Affluent families- More likely on average than low-SES to use authoritative style, however: - More internalizing (depressed/anxious) than national avg - More problem behaviors (drug/alcohol use) beginning at earlier ages - Less likely to receive therapy or treatment for substance abuse - Report just as much feeling of emotional distance from parents as low SES Direct and indirect influences on socialization Helicopter parenting (Gibbs article) "like a helicopter, hovers closely overhead, rarely out of reach whether their children need them or not"; high in acceptance and demand but seem to sabotage autonomy Kinship support- this can serve protective functions in families with multiple stressors. This predicts good psychological adjustment, academic performance, less behavioral problems in disadvantaged kids. Parent effects model of socialization- parents influence children (e.g., Baumrind’s model, Watson) Permissive parenting- emotionally positive, but low in control Middle childhood= low cognitive and social competency. Adolescence= poor self control and academic performance; more drug use than teens of authoritative or authoritarian parents ( your "Mean Girls" mom). Presentation Group 3’s articles on gender development in children of same-sex parents Children grew up just as healthy and didn’t develop any social abnormalities Psychological control- Attempts to regulate behavior by using psychological tactics such as ignoring, withholding affection, inducing shame/ guilt (more anxiety/depression, poorer academics, antisocial conduct) Socialization- families are systems for socialization which means that family members channel children's impulses into socially accepted outlets and teach kids the skills and rules they need to function in society. Transactional model of socialization- parents and children influence one another reciprocally Uninvolved/Rejecting-neglecting parenting- not emotionally there or demanding. Child develops with low social skills, low self esteem, impulsive, aggressive, may be delinquent
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