Cultural Anthro Exam 2 Study Guide
Cultural Anthro Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH2800
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Biocultural Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide Basic Principles 1 Why is erect biped posture considered a master adaptation that set in motion a great social evolution a C The need to carry objects encouraged the development of bipedalism This freed the hands for tool use and carrying The carrying of babies food and tools could enhance survival The erect posture would also make food available that was out of reach before Walking upright also allows humans to better regulate their body temperature because there is less surface area being exposed to the sun Since walking on two feet frees the hands that allows us to carry weapons instead of wasting time looking for rocks to fight with Walking upright is also more energy efficient than if we were to walk on all four 2 How has the human foot evolved physically as an inflexible support structure f g 09939 Supports body Arched transversely as well as front and back Mobility is sacrificed for stability Large heel Long great toe in straight line with other toe i In comparison with gorillas and orangutans Strong wedge shaped tightly articulated tarsals Achilles tendons not shared with apes 3 What are the major physical characteristics of the human forelimb that make it useful in the exploration and manipulation of the environment a b Flexible shoulder girdle allowing us greater mobility of the entire arm Ability to pronate and supernate roate 4 What physical characteristics of the human hand make it an effective organ for gripping and manipulation a b Retention of the 5 digit appendages Flexible hand with a roughened friction surface for gripping i Greater opposability of our thumbs able to touch thumb to each finger ii Greater length of thumb iii 39 of the hand muscles are devoted to the thumb apes 24 iv Very sensitive fingertips with flat ends instead of claws v The most flexible fingers with complete extensibility of the fingers and palms 5 How is eyehand coordination important for the use of the hands a b hands and arms are under control of binocular vision and eye accommodation coadaptation of the hands senses and the association areas of the brain for precise manipulation may be the first basis for the development of human intelligence motor cortex of the brain devoted to the control is greater than that of the ape humans use their forelimbs to explore and manipulate the environment gripping tools and weapons human play may have functioned to develop the part of the brain involved with fine motor control we do a lot of things with our forelimbs and we need to see in order to do them so handeye coordination is very important Think about all the things you do on a daily basis with your hands and arms that would be very difficult without your vision and then you ll understand why this adaptation was so important 6 How has vision evolved into the leading human sense goo9 anrhrb k Large eyes close together and frontally oriented Eyes enclosed in bony orbit Visual area of brain enlarged occipital lobe in the back of your brain Well developed i Stereoscopic vision depth is three dimensional ii Color vision iii Accommodative vision adjusts quickly from near to far iv Eyehand coordination Reduced sense of smell Absence of tactile hairs whiskers Less brain area for smell Reduced snout we don t need it to explore since we use our eyes Vision and hearing help determine human behavior with respect to people places and things 13 of all nerve fibers in the central nervous system brain and spinal cord come from the eye Human eye detects greater detail than other animals 10x that of a cat 40x that of a rat Some of the ability to detect detail could be due to our greater ability to concentrate 7 How did our efficient cooling system benefit the early development of hunters and gatherers a We are relatively hairless b Humans have numerous sweat glands to dissipate heat i No other animal has our ability to sweat ii No significant part of the human body is without sweat glands Humans have a subcutaneous under the skin layer of fat to keep us warm when temperatures drop or when we are less active i Can help when hunting in cold environments Upright posture helps cooling We are able to hunt longer because we can cool ourselves off Animals wear out easier and then will tire out so we could hunt them even after being out for weeks in the hot sun because of our adaptations This aided the early development because humans could utilize the daylight hours when the competition and threat of predators was less Humans could also track and stalk large prey which became tired and overheated This was also beneficial because humans have poor eyesight at night have an indifferent sense of hearing and poor sense of smell compared to animals 8 What is the significance of the long period of infant and child development a b c d e anrh 39993 Long gestation period to insure survival Improved placental efficiency Human infant is helpless at birth Human infants remain helpless for a longer period than other species Greater brain development after birth growing rapidly for 2 years i The brain is only 25 of adult size at birth Sustained by adults for at least 10x longer Males assume responsibility of offspring but not always the biological father 25 of our life is spent maturing Reduced number of offspring at birth One pair of mammary glands high on the chest leading to more intense motherchild bond Protection and feeding of child assures maximum survival A long period of development aids with the transmission of culture from generation to generation i More time to develop social relationships Offers more opportunities to explore the environment through random manipulation Leads to more skilled performance of important activities Possibly leading to greater intelligence Children of all ages interact which is important for personality formation and intergenerational production 9 What is the importance of child development of a neonate stimulation b affect hunger a b Neonate i Formative role in the motivation of the mind ii Neonates touch faces within 9 minutes of birth and turn their heads towards a human face iii Within days they can tell their mother s face from that of a stranger iv Within 3640 hours of birth they are able to discriminate among facial expressions and reflect it Affect hunger i There is a biological need for tactile stimuli which are necessary for newborn pups kittens etc ii This is necessary for the normal growth of dendrites brain cells and a full complement of synapses of the nerve cells 1 Licking rubbing grooming etc iii Spitz research children raised in orphanages where all physical needs were met but there was no affection The children had physical and behavioral problems iv Similar results were found in Harlow s work among monkey s 1 The urge to get an expression of positive feelings from others is a necessary aspect of development positive affect v Imagine if a baby was born and no one ever gave it any attention how would it develop This is what these two topics are looking at 10 Why is it said that the human brain might be an adaptation that made other adaptations unnecessary a Since our brain is more advanced than other animals we don t need to adapt to do other things b Our brain has increased area in certain areas i Occipital lobe vision ii Temporal lobe speech hearing iii Frontal lobe symbolization c We also have higher thought and language development d The nature of our brain became the foundation of human society and culture because it gave us so many advances 11 What conditions are necessary to realize the full potential of the human brain a It must be stimulated and extended to realize its full potential Brain potential is hard to reclaim once it is lost or neglected The brain continually fuses information from the rest of the body with information from the perceived environment which leads to an integrated image of the world in combination with vision and sound plus other appropriate emotions and actions 12 What has been the significance of an omnivorous diet in human evolution a Humans can eat anything that isn t poisonous or indigestible b Human teeth are nonspecialized and are able to process a wide variety of animal and plant foods i Flexible diet Our digestive tract is well adapted to handle a variety of foods We are the only intense meat eating primate We have special kidneys for carrying off protein wastes Omnivory expands the range of the human species It allowed us to adapt to changes in our environment anthQo i A variety of habitats and geographic areas h Variation in diet is important since humans need 50 nutrients daily 13 What were the major biological changes necessary to lead to the development of human speech a Mandible broadened and reinforced with a projecting chin i Allowed more freedom for the tongue ii But maintained the strength for chewing Larynx moved down the throat away from the soft palate Forming an oral chamber which makes resonation for human speech possible Special area for speech in brain enlarged and well developed processing center 999quot Fine motor control of tongue f Fine motor control of breathing i Size of vertebral canal crucial 1 Homo erectus too narrow ii Innervations necessary for breath control which is necessary for articulated speech g Exact neurological basis for speech unknown h Brains are wired for language just as for facial recognition i Broca s arealeft temporal lobe speech production ii Wernicke s areamore posterior region of the temporal lobe interpretation of spokenlanguage i 14 What is the significance of speech and language in human evolution a Speech is the most unique characteristic of humans leading eventually to writing and printing Allows better standardization of behavior Aids origination and invention basis of creativity Aids in cultural borrowing Aids in the ability to learn from past experience Aids in the ability to anticipate the future Aids in the development presentation and modification of ideas and knowledge 907 999939 Frees us from obligate automatic response Allows us to weave a story as we navigate words to express cultural meaning and value J Words are tools i To form concepts ii To recall the past iii To discuss the future v To relate the present 15 What is the phonetic code and what is its importance a System in which short meaningless sounds are combined into meaningful units b Because it is open we can and do create words to meet our needs c Unique to our species 16 What do we mean by the concept of biopsychological individuality a Each individual is genetically unique b Variations occur at all levels of organismal organization i Biochemistry ii Morphological anatomy iii Physiology v Psychology c Less variation occurs in the chemical and physical properties of the internal cellular environment d The statistical chances of 2 individuals having the same genotype is 1 in 10000000 to the 7th power e So called bio racial variation is very minor and of little biological significance 17 Why was the development of human selfconsciousness important in human evolution a Human psychobiology allows us to reflect on the past present and future as well as on life and death b Self awareness is the basis of all forms of social behavior c It integrates and organizes human capacity It allows us to i Learn from experience ii Ponder the future iii Imagine the consequences of our activities e Allows us an awareness of a time dimension to existence and the knowledge that we must die The basis for a religion or moral sense g We are the only animal that is normally and inevitably subjected to psychological stress and conflict h All this should imply responsibility for our behavior 18 What are the 3 biologically determined abilities that are necessary for ethical behavior a Anticipate the consequence of our own abilities b Make value judgments c Choose between course of action 19 Why is the cortical control of human sexual behavior important in human evolution a Human sexual readiness is biologically constant lack of estrus b Important for sexual urges to be controlled by the brain i Allows for regulation of sexual activity ii Reduction of sexual competitiveness due to social custom may have encouraged cooperation iii Lead to a calm period for child development iv Less potential trauma such as neglect and abandonment 20 What is menopause and why did it likely evolve a Menopause is the complete cessation of reproductive potential before old age and it is unique b No good evolutionary explanation c Some suggest it is a part of old age but why only females May be related to older woman s importance in provisioning and caring for children of relatives e Or the accumulated knowledge status and economic resources of old females could play a valuable role in group survival 21 What is meant by the concept of human behavioral plasticity a Profit from experience b Can adapt to situations c Modify problems d Learn even into old age 22 Why are humans referred to as obligatory social animals a Humans need social interactions even from birth Babies cannot survive without having those interactions with their mothers or a caregiver because they will not develop properly If we were to go throughout life and never talk to or see another person we would never develop correctly and we wouldn t survive As humans we need social interaction to survive 23 What is the possibly advantage of humans having great longevity a Elders can teach the young and carry down culture from each generation which can be necessary to survival i Elders that survive into old age have the knowledge to get the young ones to survive through tough life conditions as well We can learn into old age which gives us advantages for knowledge and furthering ourselves When we reach a certain age when we might not be able to work we can then help out the younger generations with looking after the young In modern societies the increasing numbers of older individuals may create economical social and political stress characterized by the competition for the scarce resources available between the young and the old Biology and culture interact 1 What do we mean by the idea that biology and culture interact a Human biological capabilities and limitations developed over billions of years of evolution All humans have evolved a capacity for culture but no specific culture Without the evolution of the brain culture could not have emerged or developed Symbol and learning activities depended on the physical composition and organization of the brain Sociocultural activities only occur because of our evolved minds that enable us to learn and build on our earlier culture Anatomical and physiological adaptations are important for culture i Vocal trait ii Bipedal posture iii Manual abilities iv Throwingaiming projectiles 2 How can gene frequencies be affected by cultural practices a Rules of mating and mate selection b Casteclass relations C Migration d Survival of pathological genotype e i PKU cystic fibrosis etc War and invasions Everyone s genes are 99 the same but that 1 makes a huge difference in the way we look the diseases we get our cultural preferences etc If someone came into a new country carrying a deadly disease that those people had never encountered and then started spreading it around those people most likely wouldn t survive because of their genetics 3 How can culture influence developmental plasticity anhrbslosrsv Exposure to exercise loss or gain of muscle Nutritional inputs Growth and development Exposure to disease Exposure to violence personal TV etc Poverty and differential morality Some cultures live in bad neighborhoods so their exposure to certain things like violence would be higher They might have different nutrition problems which would then affect their growth 4 How do cultural practices alter and modify individual biological features 09939 Plastic surgery Skull shaping Scarring or tattoos Broken noses from activities tanning 5 How can cultural practices reshape the biophysical environment and thus influence biological adaptation a b c d e Housing clothing etc Environmental contamination leading to fetal loss autism cancer and other disabilities Group or individual movement from one ecosystem to another Ecosystem destruction for profit Materialistic wasteful use of resources 6 Why are humans referred to as partially formed mammals at birth a Thee9939 Environmental factors impact our developmental biology Vision needs light Muscles and bones needs exercise Brain needs stimulation Intellectual development needs challenge Emotionalsocial development needs touch attention loving care positive reinforcement 7 In what sense are anger and aggression natural phenomena a All emotions are naturally occurring and are affected by the hormones that flow through our body Testosterone is in males and females and there have been positive correlation studies that show testosterone can cause us to become angry or aggressive but it is natural b The amygdala in our brain controls our response to danger but it can cause us to become angry 8 Why are anger and aggression a significant part of human behavioral evolution a Anger and aggression are a part of our evolution because they evolved in a species where showing these behaviors or emotions would increase survival rate With men being angry or aggressive can show that they are being strong and tough and that they can survive 9 How did aggression possibly shape the human hand a b c The hand evolved as a punishing weapon Aggression as well as tool use shaped the hand A clenched fist explains hand proportions i Short fingers ii Longer stronger thumb than apes Clenched fist protects fingers from bending and breaking unlike a palm shape Fist foes greater damage than a slap Humans shorter fingers shorter palm and longer stronger thumb than the chimpanzee fist
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