Crim Exam 2 Study Guide
Crim Exam 2 Study Guide CJA2225-01
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Peter Wright on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJA2225-01 at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Joshua Battin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
theory Durkheim this is the backbone of the next exam 0 Always a macro theory no exception Explains control and networks in society and how it impact behavior Collective efficacy theory Robert Sampson If you have enough valued social ties and the willingness to intercede impacts what happens in society Consider this What are you interested in and why What caused you to like what you like Or get interested in something 0 Early history Revitalization period 0 Contemporary history Another prime example of this was yet again the industrial revolution when everyone was moving in and out all the time in large ux in urban settings Durkheim contributed to this theory with the principal of informal control social control outside of the law like family being a mediator for delinquency Model for this Environment the characteristics of a community Social control Delinquencycrime either appearance or lack thereof Chicago School Robert Sampson again 0 Ideal setting for the breakdown of informal social control due to The population in this city for a time doubled every ten years quotCrime does not always occur due to disjunction of mans and goalsquot Anomie theory 0 People accept social goals but lack means to accomplish them So they look for alternatives maybe crime 0 Social setting can deter or cause crime Explains connection between poverty and crime quotAn Anomic Society is hard to identify What does it mean to youquot Social Structure Social paradigm 1 you should concentrate on Anomie and strain 0 Social disorganization Collective efficacy 0 quotDeals with the social environment and is a macro level explanationquot Social Process Social paradigm 2 you should concentrate on 0 Social control 0 Social learning 0 Differential association Strain theory types Anomie theory Durkheim Institutional anomie Messner and Rosenfeild General strain theory Agnew quotSocial class is the main focusquot Durkheim 1893 Said that rapid changed led to strain in a community Strain in community lead to anomic conditions anomie Assumes society maintains balance between goals and means Anomienormlessness breaks down prosocial goals and means Making it dif cult to identify proper goals and was to obtain them Anomie disrupts the means and goals balance quotWe need a mechanical society vs an organic societyquot Mechanical society No need for a special workforce anyone can do any task Organic society The opposite of mechanical Everything requires a specialized workforceindividual Merton 1938 0 Universal focus on economic success and overall limited availability to achieve it causes strain Social adaptation varieties Conformist Agreeing to the means and goals and perusing both Innovator Accepting the goals but ndscreates new means Ritualistic Rejects the goals but still buys into and follows the means Retreatist Rejects both the goals and the means of society Rebellion Rejects both the goals and the means and instead creates their own P PWF quotInnovator and rebellion are most likely to cause crime but not alwaysquot Criticism of Merton39s work 0 Why is wealth the only goal Success can come in many forms 0 The goal and means in the end do not matter 0 What we care about is the outcome and other disjunctions like crime 0 Aging out of crime desistance quotConsider according to Merton an anomic society focuses more on the goal than the legitimate ways to achieve the goalquot Unit of analysis The unit you are analyzing what you are measuring Society and the person Merton offered individual adaptation to the strain theory Dif cult to measure and prove a disjuncture between goals and means 0 Can be easily measured with an individual but not an entire society Cohen 1955 Developed this theory because of the criticism against Merton Societal goal standard behavior ICaIIed 0 De ned by Academic achievement ambition rationality and courteousness industrious not just out to get money Cloward and Ohlin 1960 Deprivation of means and strain 0 Once this happens a differential opportunity is presented Without this crime does not occur Subcultures can occur criminal con ict retreatist ect Agnew 1992 Said that all this strain and anomie theorizing was getting way to speci c 0 Strain has a variety of sources and causes of crime lack of adequate coping is a big one Everyone one has strain in some way Agnew tried to simplify this theory 0 This became the general strain theory called general for the obvious reason 0 A good theory to explain crime for every class no matter how rich or poor First complete test of social disorganization Sampson and Groves 1989 The start of contemporary history Exogenous sources Low socio economic status ethnic heterogeneity residential mobility family disruption urbanization leads to Intervening constructs social ties Sparse local friendship networks unsupervised teenage peer groups ow organizational participation eads to Outcome measures crime and delinquency Theory of collective ef cacy Sampson Ravdenbush Earls 1997 Attempted to improve the social disorganization theory First half of the complete model Concentrated Disadvantage all but residential mobility which was a separate category As this goes up so does crime positive relationship Collective efficacy The second half of the complete model As it goes up crime goes down negative relationship Informal social control willing to intercede Gibson Zhao Lovrich and Gaffney 2002 Willingness to intervene Likelihood of adult accountability and police contact Socia cohesion and trust
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