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Study Guide for Exam 2

by: Krista Hallenbeck

Study Guide for Exam 2 BIOL O1113

Marketplace > Rowan University > Biology > BIOL O1113 > Study Guide for Exam 2
Krista Hallenbeck
General Biology: Human Focus
Dr. Thomas

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About this Document

This study guide reviews chapters 5, 6,7, 8, and 10. These chapters discuss the heart and blood vessels, the cardiovascular system and blood flow, the lymphatic and immune systems, as well as the b...
General Biology: Human Focus
Dr. Thomas
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.


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Date Created: 10/10/15
Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapters 5 6 7 8 and 10 What are the primary functions of the cardiovascular system deliver oxygen and nutrients removes C02 and wastes transports cells of the immune system participates in homeostasis Know the structure of the heat and the path of blood flow through the heart 1 Blood enters right atrium through vena cavae 2 Right ventricle pumps blood through semi lunar valve to lungs via left pulmonary arteries 3 Pulmonary capillaries with in lungs allowing for gas exchange 02 enters and C02 excreted Oxygenated blood returns to heart via 4 pulmonary veins Blood travels through left atrium Left atrium pups blood through bicuspid valve to left ventricle 7 Left ventricle pumps blood into aorta to he body What is considered the pace maker of the heart o Sends electrical signals 0 Impulses travel to atrioventricular AV node 0 Medulla oblongata can alter heart beat What is the difference between arteries and veins 39 carry oxygen poor blood carry oxygen rich blood What is systolic vs diastolic pressure contraction of ventricles top number in blood pressure relaxing of ventricles What is atherosclerosis What diseasecomplications can it cause build up of cholesterol plaque in arteries arteries clog 0 Can cause I Hypertension heart attack or aneurysm What are the two layers of the heart membranous sac secretes fluid mostly cardiac muscle What arteries supply the heart with oxygen rich blood Left pulmonary arteries and arterioles 9 5 What is blood composed of 55 plasma Formed Elements 0 Red and white blood cells erythrocytes and leukocytes Platelets What is An oxygen transporting protein found in red blood cells 0 has 02 bound to home 0 not 02 bound How do the five different types of white blood cells differ in composition and function 0 first to arrive on scene Phagocytize multi bed nucleus 0 Like mast cells produce histamine 0 Engqu allergens fight parasites o Phagocytize micro organisms dead cells and cellular debris o Stimulate white blood cells 0 Vital roles in immune protection I T lymphocytes I B lymphocytes What is the role of fibrin in clotting Traps red blood cells and platelets What is Life threatening clotting disorder Liver fails to produce necessary clotting Hereditary genetic defect What is protein produced in kidneys that stimulates production of red blood cells How are blood types determined What blood type can be given to anyone Determined by glycoproteins antigens on red blood cell membranes 0 Letters A B AB 0 refer to type of glycoprotein present on plasma membrane of red blood cell O is the universal donor In what form is the majority of carbon dioxide carried in the blood Hemoglobin transports 23 of C02 What causes Decrease in 02 transport by the blood 0 Decreasing of number of circulation red blood cells 0 Reduction in red blood cells hemoglobin content iron deficiency o Folic acid deficiency hemolysis rupturing red blood cells I Sickle cell anemia Which organs are part of the lymphatic system Red Bone Marrow Thymus Spleen Lymphnodes What is the role of the lymphatic system Absorb interstitial fluid and return to blood stream absorb fats to form lipoproteins and transport to blood stream Distribution maintenance and production of lymphocytes Help defend body against pathogens What does each of the types of antibodiesimmunoglobulins do 0 Most abundant in blood bind pathogens and toxins 0 Found on surface of immature B cells 0 Triggers inflammation protects against parasitic infections Primary immunoglobulins in exocrine gland secretions O O Produced by newborns first secreted during primary immune response Activates complements and clumps cells What events follow the release of histamine Stimulates arterioles in infected tissue to dilate and increases temperature of wound Dilates and increases permeability of capillaries Swelling results from plasma leaking into injured tissues What is part of innate immunity First line of defense is a physical and chemical barrier Fully functional without previously encountering pathogens What are two types of adaptive immunity What cells are involved in each T cells involved B cells involved What are major histocompatibility complexes Introduce antigens to the immune system What is the difference between active and passive acquired immunity Know examples of each Active results from infection of pathogen o Vaccination that has strains of the virus in it Passive antibodies passed to baby Interleukins made in white blood cells 0 Immunotherapy What is the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic Spreads to a larger than normal number of individuals in a large population occurs worldwide What is a vector Living organisms that transfer a pathogen from one host to another 0 Mosquito Where is HIVADS most prevalent Most common in sub Saharan Africa What enzyme enables His to make DNA from RNA Reverse transcription causes DNA to form from RNA retro virus What types of drugs are used to treat HIVAIDS Early inhibitors used to prevent virus from entering a cell Integrase inhibitors block virus from integration genetic material into host cell What type of cells does malaria infect Infects most liver and red blood cells What are examples of emerging disease and antibiotic resistant bacteria SARS due to infected bats Bird Flu H1N5 Legionnaire s Disease MERS middle eastern respiratory virus MRSA XDR TB tuberculosis What part of breathing is active Passive Active inhalation Passive expiration In what order does air pass through the upper and lower respiratory tract to enter the lungs Air enters upper respiratory tract through nose and goes to nasal cavity and sinuses Air filtered by cilia which sweeps mucus and traps microorganisms Air passes through pharynx and then larynx before entering trachea n lower tract air enters the trachea from larynx then enters lungs via bronci bronciholes and alveoli Air flows through bronchi bronchioles bronchi alveolar ducts and alveoli where gas exchange occurs What is surfactant How is it produced Produced by type 2 alveolar cells Increase pulmonary compliance by reducing surface tension What are the pleurae Two layers of serous membrane that produce serous fluid Held together by surface tension What is Boyle s Law How does it pertain to breathing Govern inspiration States at a constant temperature the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume External vs Internal Respiration refers to gas exchange between air and alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries C02 diffuses out of plasma into lungs exchange of gases between the blood in capillaries and tissues C02 diffuses from tissues to blood How is breathing controlled chemically sensory receptors in the body sensitive to chemical composition of body fluids o Receptors in medulla oblongata and in circulatory system detect changes in pH caused by C02 Where does gas exchange occur Occurs between air in alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries and blood in pulmonary capillaries How is lung function measured the amount of air you can exhale with force after you inhale as deeply as possibly Forced Expiratory Volume What causes asthma Caused by chronic inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles What effect does smoking have on cilia Smoking destroys cilia What risks are associated with smoking during pregnancy Smoking can cause still birth and low birth weight


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