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Date Created: 11/05/14
Notes for Bio test Chapter 4 Skin and Body Membranes Two groups 0 Epithelial membranes 0 Connective tissue membranes 0 Epithelial membranes underlain by connective tissue 0 Does not have its own blood supply 0 3 types Cutaneous membranes 0 Skin dry membrane exposed to air 0 Superficial epidermis composed of stratified epithelium Mucous membranes 0 Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior respiratory digestive urinary reproductive tracts Made up of epithelium resting on loose cutaneous tissue Serious membranes 0 Made up of simple squamous epithelium resting on thin layers of areolar connective tissue 0 Lines cavities that are closed to the exterior 0 Connective tissue membranes 0 Synovial membranes Soft areolar connective tissue and contains no epithelial cells Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints Provides a smooth surface Secretes lubricating liquid 0 Functions of the skin 0 O O O 0 External body covering protective Keeps water and needed molecules in the body Also keeps them out of the body lnsulates and cushions Protects entire body from mechanical damages cuts Protects from chemical damage acids and bases Protects from thermal damage UV radiation and bacteria Regulates heat loss and changes Manufactures proteins and synthesizes Vitamin D 0 Structure of the skin 0 0 Skin is made up of 2 kinds of tissue Epidermis outer layer 0 Made up of stratified squamous epithelium Dermis underlying layer 0 Made up of dense connective tissue Below the dermis adipose tissue 0 Subcutaneous tissue that anchors the skin to the organs Epidermis No blood supply of its own Most of the cells are keratonoctes Make keratin produces tough protective layer 0 5 layers inside to out 0 O Stratum Basale deepest Stratum Spinosum o Stratum Granolosum o Stratum Lucidan o Stratum Corneas Dermis o Abundant supply of blood vessels 0 2 major layouts Papillary Layer upper dermal region Contains pain receptors free nerve endings and touch receptors meissners corpuscles Reticular layer deepest skin layer Contains blood vessels sweat and oil glands and deep pressure receptors pacinian corpuscles 0 Contains arrector pili muscles connect hair follicle to dermal tissue 0 Contains collagen for toughness and elastic fibers for elasticity which decrease with age and wrinkles 0 Skin color 0 Pigments 3 pigments contribute to skin color 0 Amount and kind of melanin Amount of carotene carrots in the stratum corneum and surrounding tissue 0 Amount of oxygenrich hemoglobin in dermal blood vessels If produce high enough melanin brown toned skin If less melanin light skin Rosy glow comes from hemoglobin o Emotions Influences skin color 0 Redness embarrassment Paleness stress anemia low blood pressure impaired blood flow 0 Bruises blood has escaped circulation and clotted tissue hematosis tendency to bruise may signify vitamin C deficiency 0 Cutaneous glands o 2 groups Sebaceous oil glands Found all over skin except soles of feet and palms of hand 0 Ducts empty into hail follicles Sweat glands Two types 0 Eccrine glands found all over makes sweat regulates heat 0 Apocrine glands mostly found in axillary and genital areas ducts empty into hair follicles secretion contains fatty acids and proteins 0 Sweat and its functions 0 3layers Medulla central core I Cortex bulky Cuticle overlapping cells toughstrong protects Shaft hair above skins surface primarily dead cells 0 Nails 0 Each nail has Body visible surface area O Nail folds borders of the nail Cuticle thick proximal nail fold Beneath the nail is the stratum basale of the epidermis and is responsible for nail growth Infections and allergies homeostatic imbalances O O O O 0 Athletes foot itchy red peeling condition between toes from fungal infection Balls and carbuncles inflammation of hair follicles caused by bacterial infections Cold sores small fluid blisters itch and sting caused by herpes simplexvirus Contact dermatitis itchy redness and swelling of skin caused by exposure to chemicals and produces an allergic reaction poison ivy Impetigo pink water filled lesions mouth and nose caused by staphylococcus Psoriasis overproduction of skin cells reddened lesions covered with dry scales that itch burn and crack Sometimes they bleed ABCD rule 0 A Asymmetry two sides of pigmented mole do not match 0 B Border irregularity Borders of mole are not smooth 0 C Color different colors in pigmented area 0 D Diameterspot is larger than 6mm in diameter Chapter 5 The Skeletal System 0 Classification of Bones 0 4 main classifications Long Bones longer than they are wide Short Bones cube shaped and mostly spongy Bones of the wrist and ankle patella Flat Bones thin flattened and usually curved Most of skull ribs and sternum Irregular bones Vertebrae and hip bones Long Bones 0 Contain mostly compact bone 0 Examples Femur Humerus 0 Contains mostly spongey bone 0 Examples Carpals and tarsals 0 Thin flattened and usually curved 0 Ex Skull ribs and sternum Irregular bones 0 Don39t fit into the other bone classification categories and are irregular shaped 0 Ex Vertebrae Hip bones 0 Skull 0 Cranium 8 parts Frontal Parietal 1 Partietal 2 Occipital Sphenoid Ethmoid Facial bones 14 of them 0 O Maxillary Palatine Zygomatic Lacrimal Nasal Vomer Inferior nasal Mandible Total of 26 vertebrae 0 5 parts of vertebrae O O O O O Cervicle Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx Thoracic cage 0 3 main parts Sternum flat bone Ribs Thoracic vertebrae 0 Shoulder girdle O O 0 Joints Clavicle Scapula o 3 types Fibrous joints mostly moveable United by fibrous tissues Cartilaginous joints immobile and slightly movable Bone ends are connected by cartilage pubic and pelvis spine Synovial joints freely moveable bone ends are separated by joint cavity containing synovial fluid Scapula knee joint carpals and tarcels Bursac flattened fibrous arcs Chapter 6 Muscular system 0 Muscle function produces movement Primary function is to contract or shorten 0 3 types of muscle 0 Skeletal muscle Body muscles 0 Smooth muscle Has no striations and is involuntary Form contractile tissue found in walls of hollow visceral organs 0 Cardiac muscle Only found in heart makes heart walls Like skeletal muscle in that it is striated Like smooth muscle in that it is involuntarily Special features uninucleated one nuclei special junctions called intercalated disks 0 Comparison of skeletal cardiac and smooth muscles slide 4 and 5 0 Sacromeres 0 Basic unit of a muscle composed of muscle cells that contract pulling the muscle 0 Zline line that separates each sarcomere region unit Skeletal muscle cells cont 0 Myrofibrilsz Actin thin filaments 0 Contractile protein plays a role in allowing or preventing myosin head binding to actin o Myosin Contains ATP and enzymes when split ATP to generate power for muscle contractions Contraction of a muscle occurs when the myosin head attaches to the binding site cross bridges and they pivot to the center of the sarcomere sliding filament theory 0 Contractions can t be stopped How is contraction started 0 Motor unit one neuron and all the skeletal cells it stimulates o AcH is the neurotransmitter that is needed to stimulate a skeletal muscle acetycholine o This upset generates an electrical current called an action potential Its unstoppable travels entire surface of sarcomere results in contraction of the muscle Skeletal muscle cont 0 ATP is the only energy source directly responsible for muscle fiber concentration 0 Muscles store very limited supply 46 seconds worth 2 types of muscle contractions o lsotonic Contractions Same tension Sliding filament theory occurs thus shorteningcontracting the muscle and movement occurs Most familiar o Isometric contractions Same length Myosin filaments are spinning And tension keeps increasing Occurs when pushingpulling against an immovable muscle 0 Prime mover muscle that causes movement 0 Antagonist opposes muscle movement 0 Origin attachment of muscle to bone 0 lntercostal muscles between ribs 0 Muscles of the abdominal girdle o Rectus abdominals 0 External oblique 0 Internal oblique 0 Transverse abdominals Chapter 7 Nervous System 0 Functionalclassification o Sensory division afferent to CNS impulses to CNS from senses eyes and nose Keeps CNS informed of events in and out of body 0 Motor division efferent away from CNS Carries impulses from cns to organs 0 Supporting cells 0 PNS schwann cells Satellite cells o CNS Neuroglia nerve glue also called glia or glial cells Neuron conveys incoming messages 0 Dendrites hundreds toward body Ganglia collections of cell bodies outside the CNS Reflexes o 2 types Somatic reflexes stimulates skeletal muscle Autonomic reflexes blood pressure digestion 0 Must be minimum of 2 neurons involved for reflex to occur Brain stem 0 3 structures Midbrain vision and hearing Pons control of breathing Medulla oblongata heart rate blood pressure breathing etc Protection of the CNS 0 Layers that protect the CNS Dura matter outermost Arachnoid matter middle Pia matter delicate innermost PNS o 12 pairs of cranial nerves 0 31 pairs of spinal nerves Autonomic nervous system 0 Sympathetic fight or flight Chapter 8 Parasympathetic active at rest and not in danger Tarsal glands inside of eyelid produce eye lube Conjunction o Delicate membrane that lines eyelids and covers part of eyeball o Secretes mucus to lube the eye and keep it moist Lacrimal apparatus consists of ducts that drain into nasal Lacrimal glands release tears into eyeball 0 Tears contain salt solution mucus antibodies lysosomes enzymes that destroy bacteria 0 Tears flush across eyeball into lacrimal canuliculi then into lacrimal sac and finally into nasalcrinal duct which empties into nose Structure of the eye is the fibrous layer Sclera 0 White connective tissue layer 0 Seen as the white of the eye Cornea 0 Transparent central anterior position 0 Allows light to pass through 0 Repairs itself easily Rods o Allows dim light Cones 0 Color vision 0 Densest in the center of the retina o Fovea centralis lateral of blind spot o No photoreceptor cells are at the optic disk or blind spot Accommodation the lens must change shape to focus on close objects less than 20 feet away Eye reflexes 0 Photo pupillary internal muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system 0 Bright light causes pupils to construct through action of radial circular and ciliary muscles 0 Viewing close objects causes accommodation 0 Viewing close objects also causes convergence Myopia near sighted o Distant objects appear blurry 0 Light from those objects fails to reach the retina and are focused in front of it 0 Results from an eyeball that is too long Hyperopia farsighted 0 Near objects are blurry while distant objects are clear 0 Distant objects are focused behind the retina 0 Results from an eyeball that is too short or from a lazy lens External ear 0 Pinna auride Shell shaped structure surrounding the canal opening Middle ear 0 2 types Static equilibrium receptors maculae in the vestibule Report changes in head position Dynamicequilibrium Receptors in the semicircular canals Responds to angularrotary movements Deafness o Sensorineural deafness Damage to receptor cells in the corti cochlear nerve or to the neurons of the auditory cortex Sense of smell 0 Olfactory receptors responsible for smells Taste 0 Taste buds on tongue soft palate and cheeks 0 10000 taste buds total 0 5 taste sensations Sweet Sour Bitter Salty Umami beef taste Taste and smell 0 Both use chemoreceptors Stimulated by chemicals in solution Taste has 4 types Smell can differentiate a large range of chemicals 0 Both senses complement each other and respond to many of the same stimuli Chapter 9 endocrine system 0 3 classifications 0 Amino acid based molecules proteins peptides and aminos o Steroid based hormones made from cholesterol sex hormones o Prostaglandin made from highly active lipids released from cell membranes 0 Hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands 0 Most common stimuli o Endocrine glands are activated by other hormones Humoral stimuli of endocrine glands 0 Changing blood vessels of certain ions stimulate hormone release 0 Humoral indicates various body fluids such as blood and bile Neural stimuli of Endocrine glands o Nerve impulses stimulate hormone release 0 Major endocrine organs 0 Pituitary glands Has 2 functional lobes Anterior pituitary is master endocrine gland o Hormones of the anterior pituitary Growth hormone Affects skeletal muscles and long bones determines final body size Prolactin PRL stimulates breast milk production Similar to the GH Adrenocorticotropic ACTH Regulates endocrine activity of cortex portion of adrenal gland Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH Influences growth and activity of the thyroid gland 0 Gonatropic hormones begins at puberty o Regulates hormonal activity of gonads o Follicle stimulating hormone FSH Stims follicle dew in the ovaries produces estrogen and eggs are readied for ovulations Stims sperm development in testes o Luteinizing hormone LH Triggers ovulation and produces progesterone and some estrogen Stimulates testosterone production 0 Hormones of the posterior pituitary o Oxytocin released during childbirth and nursing o Antidiuretic hormone ADH Inhibits or prevents urine production Homeostatic imbalances Diabetes insipidus hypo secretion of ADH 0 Continuous thirst excessive urine 0 Thyroid gland 0 At base of throat o Hormones body39s major metabolic hormone Regulates basal metabolic rate BMB and regulates the rate of metabolism of all body cells Calcitonin released in response to high blood calcium to enhance bone calcium deposition 0 Adrenal glands o 3 major groups of steroid hormones called cortico steroids Mineralocorticolds blood mineral content Glucocorticoids promotes normal cell metabolism Sex hormones produced in small amounts 0 Hormones Insulin decreases blood glucose levels Glucagen regulates blood glucose opposite insulin 0 Pineal gland Secretes melatonin for sleep 0 Thymus gland Thymosin makes white blood cells and immunity responses 0 Gonads 0 Makes sex hormones identical to ones made by adrenal cortex 0 Classified as steroids 0 Hormones of the ovaries estrogen and progesterone o Hormones of the testes androgens testosterone Chapter 10 Blood 0 Function 0 Basic function To regulate body temp To transport nutrients To regulate pH 0 Formed elements 0 Leukocytes WBC o 2 major classifications Granulocytes granule containing WBC s Neutrophils most numerous active phagocytes rapid Eosinophil number increases during allergies and infections by parasitic worms kills with digestive enzymes Agranulocytes lack granules Lymphocytes makes antibodiesfights tumors and viruses 2 numerous part in the IS 0 Monocytes active phagocytes longterm cleanup o Largest part of the WBC 0 Comp and functions Platelets 0 300000 per cubic mil 0 Fragments of multinucleate cells called megakaryocytes o Hemostasis Human blood groups 0 Over 30 common red blood cell antigens Abo blood groups 0 Based on 2 antigens A or B Absence of both results in type 0 no agglutination Chapter 11 Cardiovascular system 0 Anatomy of the heart 0 Coverings serious membranes Fibrous pericardium superficial sac surrounding heart 0 Protectscovers the heart and anchors to diaphragm and sternum Serious pericardium layer between sac and heart wall Attaches to large arteries and makes a U turn and covers heart sunace 0 Heart wall 3 layers Epicardium 0 Outer part of heart wall Myocardium Thick bundles of cardiac muscle Endocardium Thin sheets of endothelium that lines the heart chambers 0 Great vessels Superior and inferior venae cavae Brings O2 deprived blood Pulmonary arteries 0 Carries blood to lungs Pulmonary veins 0 Carries blood from lungs to heart Aorta Delivers O2 rich blood to body from heart 0 Valves 0 Atrioventricular AV Valves Located between the atrial and ventrical chambers on each side 0 Left AV valve bicuspidmitral 2 flaps of endocardium Right AV valve tricuspid 3 flaps of endocardium Prevents backflow into the atria when ventricular contract Cordae tendineae Anchors flaps of valves to the walls muscle of the ventricular Physiology of the Heart 0 Intrinsic Conduction System Heart Rhythm in sequence Sinoatrial SA mode highest rate of depolarization 0 Starts each heart beat and sets the pace for the heart 0 Pulses travel from SA node to AV node and contracts atrium Atrioventricular AV Node 0 Then pulses pass through AV bundles bundle branches and purkinje fibers resulting in the contraction of the ventricles Atrioventicular AV bundle bundle of his Bundle branches Purkinje fibers 0 Final stage that transmits depolarization over the vent Causing them to contract Homeostatic imbalances 0 Heart block Impaired transmission of the impulses from the atrium to the ventricles o lschemia Lack of adequate blood supply to the heart muscle 0 Fibrillation Irregular uncoordinated contraction of the heart muscle 0 Tachycardia rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute o Bradycardia slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minute 0 The heart cardiac cycle and heart sounds Cardiac cycle 3 recognizable waves 0 P wave Indicates atrial depolarization o T wave Indicates vent repolarization Heart sounds 0 Heart sounds 2 distinct sounds occur during the cardiac cycle lub and dub The first sound is caused by the closure of the AV valves The second sound is caused by closure of the semilunar valves 0 Homeostatic imbalances Murmurs Abnormal or unusual heart sounds 0 Cardiac output CO 0 Cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each side of heart per min 0 CO HR X SV Average adult 0 CO 75 beatsmin X 70mlbeat Normal adult blood volume is 6000 ml Congestive heart failure CHF Pulmonary edema Blood vessels 0 Capillaries Connects smallest parts of the arteries and veins Exchange nutrients gases wastes and other substances between blood and tissue cells 0 Blood vessels have 3 coats or tunics Tunica lutima Tunica media Tunica externa Varicose veins Thrombophlebitis Circle of willis separate blood route to the brain 0 Feta circulations 0 One umbilical vein Carries bloodnutrientsoxygen from placenta to fetus Hepatic portal circulation o Circulatory route detour that runs from digestive tract to the liver 0 Hepatic blood nutrients are distributed to the blood 0 Pulse 0 Average is 76 beats per minute 0 Brachial arteries at elbow Chapter 12 Lymphatic and Immune System Lymphatic Vessels o Lymphatic vessels form elaborate drainage systems that pick up excess tissue fluid and retains it to the blood 0 The vessels 0 Lymph Excess watery fluid collected from the tissue spaces Flows one way only toward the heart 0 Body defenses o Innate defenses Surface membrane barriers First line of defense 0 Skin mostimportant Keratin provides resistance against acids alkair bacterial enzymes 0 Mucous membrane Lines all body cavities open to the exterior Internal defenses cells and chemicals 0 Second line of defense 0 Phagocytes Engulfs and ingests foreign materials 0 Inflammatory response Nonspecific response triggered when body tissue is injured 0 Histamine and kininz are released to cause blood vessels to dilate activate pain receptors and attract phagocytes o Antimicrobial proteins Enhances innate defenses Interferon proteins 0 Binds to foreign cells stimulating proteins that interfere with the virus s ability to multiply o Protects uninfected cells from viral infection The immune system 0 Antigens 0 Any substance that mobilizes immune system against threats 0 Foreign intruders not normally present in body Cells of the adaptive defense system ADS 0 Lymphocytes o 2 types B cells makes antibodiesoversees overall immunity T cells cellmediated arm of the defense system 0 Humoral immune response antibodymediated o Called humoral immunity when antibodies are present in blood Antibodies Formed in response to large number of an gens All antibodies have the same structure 0 Cell mediated immune system o 4types 1 is important Memory cells 0 Remains behind to provide a memory for each antigen letting it respond quickly to exposures 0 Other responses 0 Vaccinations Injection of weakened pathogens to produce an immunity Disorders of immunity 0 Allergies o Abnormal vigorous responses in which the immune system causes tissue to be damaged or it fights off a perceived threat 0 Most common overreaction of the immune system 0 Development 0 Newborns have no functioning lymphocytes at birth only passive immunity from the mother Chapter 13 Respiratory System 0 Function 0 The nose Moistens warms filters the air Contains the olfactory receptors for sense of smell Nasal cavity 0 Anteriorly hard palate bone 0 Posteriorly soft palate muscle fibers 0 Pharynx Muscular passageway for food and air 0 Larynx Formed by 8 rigid hyaline cartilages and flap of elastic cartilage Elastic cartilage is the epiglottis o Flap of tissue that protects opening of larynx and from food entering the trachea Vocal folds vibrations of vocal folds allow for speech 0 Slit like passage between vocal folds in the glottis o Lungs Structure 0 Apex narrow superior portion 0 Base broad lung base 0 Divided into loves by fissures 0 Left has 2 lobes right has 3 supplying O2 to the heart 0 Lung surface is covered with a visceral membrane 0 Makes fluid to let lungs glide over thorax wall during breathing movements 0 Membrane 0 Simple diffusion occurs 02 passes from alveolar air into capillary blood and Co2 leaves blood to enter gas filled areas 0 Simple diffusion Where a substances passes through a membrane without aide from an intermediary Mechanics of Breathing 0 Inspiration Results when the intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract and expand the chest cavity o Expiration Air leaves the lungs Process depends on elasticity of lungs 0 Volumes and capacities Tidal volume TV 0 Amount of air inhaledexhaled with a normal breath lnspiratory reserve vol IRV Amount of air that can be taken into lungs forcibly Expiratory reserve vol ERV Forced exhale Vital capacity 0 Max amount of air that can be inspirated and expirated Dead space volume 0 Air that stays in the conducting zone pathways and never reaches the alveoli and blood 0 Gas transport in blood O2 transport 0 Most attaches to hemoglobin in RBC s to make Oxyhemoglobin C02 transport mostly transported in plasma as a bicarbonate ion which helps the blood buffering system 0 Control of respiration Neutral Regulation setting the basic rhythm The medulla and pons set the rhythm of breathing and contains a pace maker 0 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Emphysema Alveoli enlarge and the walls break causing chronic inflammation the walls are replaced with fibrous tissue 0 Infant respiratory distress syndrome IRDS Inadequate surfactant production 0 Fatty molecule made by the alveolar cells 0 Lowers surface tension of alveolar sacs so alveoli do not collapse between breaths 0 Usually occurs in premature babies before week 28 Chapter 14 Digestive System 0 Organs of the Alimentary Canal 0 Mouth oral cavity macronutrient breakdown begins here A mucous membrane lined cavity that food enters Simple carbohydrate digestion occurs here 0 Stomach Storage tank for food site for food breakdown Creates a strong acidic environment under specific conditions Chemical breakdown of proteins begin here 0 The stomachs main digestive function Stomach cells make gastric juices to help breakdown food 0 The chief stomach cells pepsinogens and parietal cells 0 Pepsin initiates the chemical digestion of protein 0 Parietal cells produce corrosive hydrochloric acid The stomach lining is protected from stomach acid by mucus Food enters the cardoesphageal sphincter to the fundus to the narrow pyloric antrum and finally to the small intestine through the pylorus at the pyloric sphincter gate keeper 0 Pyorus o Acts like a meter holding 30ml of chime allowing only liquids and small particles to pass 0 Small intestine muscular tube Body s major digestive organ 3 subdivisions Duodenum 5 food enters from stomach 0 Jejuum 40 0 lleum 60 Enzymes are produced by the pancreas and ducted into the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts In the same area bile made by the liver is carried through bile ducts which aids in the digestion of lipids and fats lleum contains peyer s patches located in the walls 0 Lymphoid tissue helps prevent bacteria from reaching blood stream 3 structures that increase absorption 0 Microfibril tiny projections of the mucosa cells that carry enzymes that digest proteinscarbs 0 Vii o Fingerlike projections of the mucosa that assist in nutrient absorption 0 In each villi s is rich capillary beds 0 Large Intestine Dries indigestible food by absorbing water and turns it into shit Cecum saclike first part of large intestines hanging from the cecum is the appendix Accessory digestive organs 0 Teeth o lncisor cuts food 0 Pancreas makes enzymes that break down digestible food 0 Liver largest in the body most important 0 Covers stomach produces body 0 Maintains proper glucose fat and protein concentration in blood 0 Overview of gastrointestinal process 0 Absorption Transports digested end products from the G1 tract to the blood or lymph nodes 0 Activities of large intestine o The propulsion of residue occurs by haustral contractions Slow segmented movements lasting about one minute and occurs every 30 minutes Chapter 14 Digestive System continued 0 Nutrition and Metabolism o Lipidsfats triglycerides Most concentrated source of energy 0 Proteins amino acid polymers Incomplete proteins are found in legumes nuts seeds grains and vegetables 0 Vitamins Needed for growth good health and are crucial for helping the body use nutrients Metabolic Pathways o Glycolysis The anaerobic process of breaking down glucose to pyruvic acid Occurs outside the mitochondria Fat metabolism 0 Fat products are broken down into acetic acid then oxidized within the mitochondria for ATP synthesis Fat oxidation is incomplete and some byproducts such as acetoacetic acid and acetone may build up in the blood causing blood to become acidic a condition called acidosis or ketoacidosis Role of the liver in metabolism 0 Gluconeogenesis If needed the liver can make glucose from noncarbohydrates such as fats o Liboproteins Transports made by the liver 0 Fatty acids fats and cholesterol are insoluble in water so must be transported LowDensity Liboproteins Transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells to be used in various ways 0 Body Energy balance 0 Metabolic Rate Energy expended by the body per unit time Basal metabolic rate 0 Energy supply the body needs to perform essential life functions like breathing Total metabolic rate 0 Amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities 0 Saturated fats are BAD Chapter 15 Urinary system Includes 0 Kidneys o Ureters 0 Urinary Bladder o Urethra Function of Kidneys o Disposes of nitrogenous wastes and excess ions 0 Regulates blood s volume and chemical make up so there is a proper balance between water and salts and acids and bases are maintained Also helps regulate blood pressure by producing the enzyme renin and stimulating red blood cell production in bone marrow o Excretes urea Kidneys 0 Structure 3 regions Renal cortex outer region light colored o Nephrons Structural and functional units responsible for forming urine Over a million of them 2main structures Glomerulus knot of capillaries Renal tubule tube in which filtration occurs o Proximal convoluted tubule PCT which are composed of cells with numerous microvilli and mitochondria Reabsorbs water and solutes from filtrate and secretes substances into it 0 Urine formation 0 3main processes Glomerular filtration water and solutes are forced thin The capillary walls and pores of the glomerular capsule into the renal tube Tubular reabsorbption water glucose amino acids and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate to the tubule cells then the cap Blood Tubular secretion H K creatine and other drugs are removed from the blood and secreted by the tubule cells into the filtrate Maintaining acidbase balance in blood 0 Renal mechanisms kidneys Rids body of acids generated during metabolism Regulates blood levels of alkaline substances
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