Unit 2 Study Guide- Digestive system & Cellular Respiration
Unit 2 Study Guide- Digestive system & Cellular Respiration KNR 182
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KNR 182 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Rinaldi-MIles in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II (lecture) in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY KNR 182 STUDY GUIDE for Exam 2 NOTE This guide is to be used a tool to help focus your studying and the test may contain material not specified on this guide You should review all lecture materials and rely heavily on class notes however you are responsible for reading the corresponding text book chapters and all course materials are fair game for the exam including guest speakers Study Guide for Chapter 24 Understand these concepts Substratelevel phosphorylation Occurs when highenergy phosphate groups are transferred directly from phosphorylated substrates metabolic intermediates such as glyceraldehyde 3phosphate to ADP Oxidative phosphorylation The process of ATP synthesis during which an inorganic phosphate group is attached to ADP occurs via the electron transport chain within the mitochondria Glycolysis The breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid an anaerobic process Kreb39s cycle Aerobic metabolic pathway occurring within the mitochondria in which food metabolites are oxidized and C02 is liberated and coenzymes are reduced Electron transport chain A series of compounds that transfers electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons H ions across a membrane Beta oxidation A series of chemical reactions metabolic pathway by which fatty acid chains are made into Acetyl CoA molecules ie prepared for the Krebs cycle Protein DeaminationPyruvatealanine cycle The process in which the amine group NH2 is removed from amino acids before they can be oxidized for energy Study questions 1 Differentiate between an oxidized substance and a reduced substance 0 Oxidized lose electrons energy 0 Reduced gain electrons energy 2 What is metabolism Catabolism Anabolism o Metabolism Biochemical reactions inside cells involving nutrients o The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within a living cell or the ability to produce ATP and use energy 0 Catabolism The energy releasing process by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules 0 Anabolism The energy requiring process by which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules 3 What is a metabolic pathway A series of chemical reactions whereby chemical transformations occur ending up in the formation of ATP 0 All begin with an initial substrate 0 Progresses through intermediates 0 Ends with final products 4 What is an enzyme What are the functions of enzyme with respect to metabolic pathways 0 Enzyme A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction 0 Functions 0 Lower the energy of activation of a chemical reaction I Enhancing chemical reactions I Lower energy of activation make it easier for chemical reactions to occur I Is not changed during the chemical reaction and can be reused in other chemical processes I Does not change the nature of the reaction or final product 5 With respect to chemical reactions what items need to be present 0 Enzymes 0 Amount of substrate or substrates available 0 All or nothing 6 What is the main function of the Kreb39s cycle To produce H2 compounds 7 What are the final products from Kreb39s cycle 0 3 NADH2 molecules yields 3 ATP NADH2 molecule 0 1 FADH2 molecule yields 2ATPFADH2 o 1 ATP 0 2 C02 MULTIPLY BY 2 IF TALKING ABOUT 1 GLUCOSE MOLECULE BECAUSE IT GOES INTO THE KREBS CYCLE 2 TIMES 8 What is the main function of the Electron Transport Chain Synthesis of ATP 9 What are the final products from Electron Transport Chain 0 3 ATP 0 1 H20 molecule 10 What is glycolysis What purpose does it serve or contribute to ATP production 0 Glycolysis 11 What are the final products from glycolysis From 1 glucose molecule 0 2 pyruvic acid 0 2 NADH2 o 4ATP created Yield 2 because you have to spend 2 ATP as activation energy 12 Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis o Aerobic Glycolysis 0 With oxygen 0 NADH2 delivers H atoms to ETC 0 Enters aerobic pathways if oxygen is readily available 0 2 NADH2 o Anaerobic Glycolysis 0 Without oxygen 0 NADH2 unloads back onto pyruvic acid lactic acid 13 Of what significance is glycolysis to the athlete If you re an athlete and you are performing quick max exertion exercises ie sprints then after a little bit of time when your body is trying to keep up and create more ATP it will eventually run out of oxygen to do so SO what happens is anaerobic glycolysis This does yield some ATP not as much as aerobic glycolysis and lactic acid The lactic acid builds up in your muscles causing them to feel tired heavy and sore 14 How is lactic acid formed Anaerobic Glycolysis When oxygen reenters the system lactate pyruvate Krebs cycle metabolic pathways ATP 15 Is lactic acid dead energy No because when oxygen reenters the system the lactate is converted back to pyruvate which enters the Krebs cycle and turns into ATP most chemical reactions are reversible 16 What is Beta Oxidation What purpose does it serve or contribute to ATP production A series of chemical reactions metabolic pathways by which fatty acid chains are made into Acetyl CoA molecules ie prepared for the Krebs cycle 17 Be able to calculate final products from Beta Oxidation o of Acetyl CoA N2 o 12 ATP per Acetyl CoA o NADH2 amp FADH2 N21 o 3 ATP per NADH2 o 2 ATP per FADH2 0 Add 19 ATP to answer for the energy yield from the glycerol backbone 18 Is ATP formed in the same way from glycerol and fatty acids 0 Glycerol glycerol backbone goes to Glycolysis o The Fatty acid chains go through Beta Oxidation 19 What is deamination What purpose does it serve or contribute to ATP production 0 Deamination The process in which the amine group NH2 is removed from amino acids before they can be oxidized for energy When proteins go through deamination their end product varies depending on the type of protein acetyl CoA pyruvate or acetic acid intermediate 20 Be able to explain the following quotFats burn in a carbohydrate amequot 0 Lipid catabolism is dependent on a continual background usage of glucose catabolism o Lipid catabolism only if sufficient oxaloacetic acid is available to combine with Acetyl Co A formed in Beta Oxidation o In order for lipids to be broken down affectively we must have carbohydrates being broken down in the background 0 Because of the Krebs cycle oxoacetic acid byproduct of pyruvate pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis 21 What is gluconeogenesis What is its importance 0 Gluconeogenesis The process by which glucose is produced from a source other than a carbohydrate o The central nervous system only runs on glucose so when the body is going through a period of fasting or when you have a low carbohydrate intake situations where carb intake is minimal the body uses gluconeogenesis to get the glucose it needs in order for the nervous system to function properly 22 What is RER How can we tell by RER if CHO or lipids are the main energy source 0 RER Respiratory Exchange Ratio The ratio between the amount of C02 exhaled to the amount of 02 inhaled in one breath 0 Carbs 0 Ratio 6C0260210 o Lipids 0 Ratio 16 C02 2302 07 0 Difference in each oxygen used in each carbon that is produced to metabolize lipids you need to have more oxygen Study Guide for Chapter 23 Digestive System Anatomy to know FIGURE IN NOTES 3 Layers of alimentary canal Unique characteristic of each of the organs Oral cavity 0 mouth pharynx tongue palate teeth salivary glands esophagus Stomach 0 cardia fundus body pyloris lesser curvature greater curvature gastric rugae gastric pits gastric glands Small intestine 0 duodenum common bile duct pancreatic duct jejunum ileum ileocecal valve villus Large intestine 0 teniae coli cecum verniform appendix ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum anus anal sphincter Liver 0 right and left lobe hepatic portal system Gallbladder 0 cystic duct common bile duct Pancreas 0 head body tail Terminology to know Ingestion Mastication The act of putting food Chewing The process by which food is crushed into your mouth and ground by teeth T he rst step of digestion deglutition Digestion The action or process of The process by which food is broken down into swallowing useable nutrients and is assimilated into the body absorption for use The process by which the Peristalsis products of digestion pass Adjacent segments of alimentary tract organs through the alimentary tube alternately contract and relax which moves food mucosa into the blood or along the tract distally Contraction and lymph re uxation to move the chime through the tube defecation Segmentation Elimination of the onadjacent segments of alimentary canal contents of the bowels tract organs alternately contract and relax intestinal motility moving the food forward and then backward The movements of the Food mixing and slow food propulsion occurs digestive system and the Wavelike contractions that break apart chime transit contents within it haustral churning mass movement Segmenting Formation of feces Occurs mainly Usually follows meals in the rst part of the large intestine large intestine movement of chime Studv Questions 1 What is the principle function of the digestive system To take in substances and break them down into useable molecules for energy 2 What are the two major functions processes of digestive system 0 3 Anatomically and functionally the digestive system can be divided into two sections What are these two areas and what are the organs associated with each 0 Alimentary Canal GI Tract o Digests and absorbs food 0 Long tube that goes from mouth to anus I Mouth I Pharynx I Esophagus I Stomach I Small intestine I Large intestine o Accessory Organs I Teeth I Tongue I Gall bladder o Digestive glands I Salivary glands I Liver I pancreas 4 What are the functions of the accessory organs 0 Teeth 0 Mechanical I Break apart food making it smaller making it easier to swallow and fit into your mouth 0 Chemical I Increases surface area for enzymes to work on allowing digestion to happen more readily o Tongue o Repositioning and mixing food during chewing 0 Forms food into a bolus o Initiation of swallowing taste and speech 0 Composed of interwoven muscular fibers Gallbladder Salivary glands o Secrete saliva I Cleanses mouth I Moistens and dissolves food chemicals I Aids in bolus formation I Contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of starch I Begins carb digestion salivary amalyse 0 Liver 0 Produce glycogen from glucose Breaks down glycogen into glucose 0 Convert noncarbs to glucose 0 Oxidizes fatty acids Synthesizes lipoproteins phospholipids and cholesterol Converts carbs and proteins into fats Delaminating amino acids Forms urea Synthesizes plasma proteins Converts some amino acids to other amino acids Stores iron glycogen and vitamins A D B12 Phagocytosis of red blood cells and foreign substances Removes oxygen and certain toxins like alcohol and certain drugs from the blood 0 PRODUCES BILE o Pancreas o Endocrine gland o exocrine glad I secrete digestive juice called pancreatic juice 5 Identify and know the functions of the tissue layers tunics that make up the gastrointestinal tract Inside to Outside o Mucosa 0 Lines the lumen o Epithelial tissue very smooth 0 Secretes mucus digestive enzymes and hormones o Absorbs end products of digestion o Protects against infectious disease 0 Submucosa 0 Layer above mucosa layer 0 Dense connective tissue 0 Blood and lymphatic vessels 0 Aids in absorption so that cells can make ATP 0 Muscularis Externa o Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis 0 Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers 0 Nerve plexus o Sphincters in some regions 0 Serosa o Outermost layer lines outside of alimentary canal 0 Strong Fibrous tissue 0 Produces a lubricant that reduces friction 6 What is the function and location of chief cells parietal cells and mucous cells 0 Chief Cells 0 Stomach o Secrete I Pepsinogen o Inactive enzyme 0 Activated to pepsin by HCl and pepsin itself positive feedback mechanism 39 Pepsin o Digestive enzyme 0 Protein digestion 0 Can also activate pepsinogen to change its form to pepsin 0 Only want pepsin active When there is food present Otherwise it Will start breaking down your stomach 0000000000 0 Parietal Cells o Stomach o Secrete I HCl most important secretion of parietal cells 0 Enzyme is only activated in the presence of HCl 0 Drastically increases the acidity of the stomach Defense mechanism to kill microbes entering your system via food and cross contamination o pH 1535 denatures protein in food activates pepsin and kills many bacteria 0 Breaks protein down in order to get the monomers o Mucous Cells 0 Secrete mucus I Layer of bicarbonaterich mucus I Helps to increase pH I Tight junctions between epithelial cells I Provides protection of stomach mucosa from digestion from pepsin 7 How and where are carbohydrates fats and proteins digested and absorbed 0 Carbohydrates o Digestion begins in the mouth via Salivary amylase o Pancreatic amylase o Absorbed in the small intestine 0 Fat 0 Duodenum o Pancreatic lipase o Digested in the small intestine and absorbed in the small intestine 0 Protein 0 Digestion begins in the stomach via HCl 0 Pepsin finishes breaking down protein in the stomach o Trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidease o Digested in the small intestine and absorbed in the small intestine 8 What are the two types of digestion and how do they differ 0 Mechanical Digestion o Mastication aka chewing o Partially voluntary partially involuntary 0 Physical movements 0 Chemical Digestion o Salivary amylase begins carb digestion in the mouth 0 When enzymes act on the digestive process 9 Describe how smooth muscle contraction in the small intestine is regulated and explain the function of segmentation 0 Smooth Muscle Contraction o 0 Segmentation o Mixing o Wavelike contractions that break apart chyme 10 What is the function of the large intestine 0 Has little or no digestive function Absorbs water and electrolytes Secretes mucus Houses intestinal ora Forms Feces 0 Carries out defecation 11 Describe the physiological relationships among the liver gallbladder hepatic ducts cystic duct and common bile duct 1 Chyme with fat enters the duodenum 2 Cells from the intestinal mucosa secrete the hormone CCK into the blood stream 3 CCK stimulates muscular wall of gallbladder to contract 4 Bile passes down the cystic duct and the bile duct to the duodenum 5 Hepatopancreatic sphincter relaxes and bile enters the duodenum 12 Identify the digestion processes that occur in the mouth 0 Chewing mechanical digestion 0 Salivary amylase breaks down carbs chemical digestion 13 Explain the swallowing mechanism 1 Voluntary stage chewed food is mixed with saliva 2 Swallowing begins and the swallowing re ex is triggered 3 Peristalsis transports food in the esophagus to the stomah
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