Chapter 1-4 Study Guide
Chapter 1-4 Study Guide Comm 330
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by BrookeJ on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 330 at George Mason University taught by Professor Samoylenko in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Communication Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Comm 330 Chapter 1 4 study guide Chapter 1 Several definitions of Public Relations It is a process involving numerous subtle and far reaching aspects beyond media coverage It is the management function that identifies establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its various publics It is the strategic management of competition and conflict for the benefit of the organization and its stakeholders or publics What do these definitions each have in common They each talk about Public Relations as a process and management function that helps lead to mutually beneficial relationship between an organization and its publics What two distinct levels to Public Relations professionals operate one Can be found on p6 Focus is on values driven Public Relations The reason is that it is seen as more ethical Public Relations as a process One way to describe the process is the RACE acronym Research Action Communication Evaluation Components of Public Relations Counseling Research Media Relations Publicity Employee member relations Community relations Public affairs Government affairs Issue management Financial relations Industry relations Development fund raising Multicultural relations workplace diversity Special events Marketing communications Ways Public Relations differs from journalism Scope There are many components to Public Relations from counseling to issue management Journalism mainly has two components writing and media relations Objectives Journalists gather and select information for the main intent of providing public with the news and information They are more objective Public relations communication activities tend to be a means to an end They act as advocates on behalf of their client Audiences Journalists target a mass audience Public Relations professionals target a segmented population based on various demographic and psychological characteristics Channels Journalists reach audiences through one channel Public Relations professionals use a variety of channels to reach their target audiences Ways Public Relations differs from advertising Advertising uses a more short term approach while PR uses a more long term approach Advertising works purely through mass media while PR relies on a variety of communication tools Advertising focuses on addressing external audiences while PR focuses on targeting specialized publics Advertising mainly sells goods and services while PR is about creating a favorable environment for an organization39s survival Ways Public Relations differs from marketing Marketing is more concerned with customers and selling goods and services PR on the other hand is more concerned with building relationships between an organization and its publics Chapter 2 A Changing focus in Public Relations Certain skills such as writing are necessary for all areas Public relations practitioners go on to develop specialized skills in fields such as investor relations government affairs or brand management Competition and conflict management are starting to become more essential for organizations How has public relations changed over the years It has broadened beyond media relations and publicity over the years It has expanded into crisis communication counseling Personal qualifications and attitudes 6 essential abilities Writing skills Research ability Planning expertise Problem solving ability Businesseconomics competence Expertise in social media OWU39lbUUNH Cultural literacy It refers to a knowledge of history and practices within a culture as well as cultural norms and popular trends Cultural literacy can be developed by consuming a variety of media traveling the world and interacting with people of different backgrounds Organizational Roles There are two main roles technician and communication manager Practitioners in the technical role primarily are responsible for producing communication products and implementing decisions made by others These people perform at the quottacticalquot level of public relations work Many entry level positions in public relations are at the technical level Communication managers are the public relations experts They make communication policy decisions and are held accountable by others and themselves for the success or failure of communication programs Salaries in Public Relations The average median salary of recent graduates is 32000 National median salaries for practitioners with 7 to 10 years of experience is 85000 Individuals who work for corporations tend to make more money than at a nonprofit 0ne reason for the wage gap between men and women is that the practitioners that get into finance and investor relations are men The value of public relations is being able to explain the individuals organizations and governments to others in a socially responsive manner Chapter 3 Public Relations has roots going as far back as Ancient Rome and Colonial America The 18005 was a period of growth and expansion in the United States It was the golden age of the press agent A press agent is a publicist who works for recognition of an organization or individual Modern Public Relations comes of age It comes of age in the early 20th century It is the time when public relations as a strategic endeavor started to take hold Ivy Ledbetter Lee was the first public relations counselor He started out as a journalist became a publicist and soon expanded that role to become the first public relations counsel When he opened his own firm he issues a declaration of principles that led to a new practice model public information He placed emphasis on the dissemination of truthful accurate information rather than distortions hype and exaggerations that characterized press agentry Ivy Lee is best known for making these contributions to public relations 1 managing open communication with the news media 2 emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business and bringing its public relations down to the community level of employees customers and neighbors 3 dealing with top executives and carrying out no program unless it has the active support of management 4 advancing the concept that business and industry should align themselves with the public interest Edward Bernays is the father of modern Public Relations He conceptualized a model of public relations that emphasized the application of social science research and behavioral psychology This model was used to formulate campaigns and messages to change people39s perceptions and encourage certain behaviors His model essentially focused on advocacy and scientific persuasion 4 models of Public Relations Press agentry publicity one way communication primarily through the mass media Public information one way distribution of information not necessarily persuasion is the goal Two way asymmetric idealized approach that involves two way communication but you use feedback from publics for your own benefit Two way symmetric equal partnership between you and your publics This involves using feedback in a way that39s mutually beneficial to both parties Professionalism Licensing and Accreditation There are considerable differences of opinion about whether public relations is a craft a skill or a developing profession Public Relations does not have prescribed standards of educational preparation a mandatory period of apprenticeship or state law that govern admission to the profession Professionalism Get rid of technician mentality Professional practitioners should have A sense of independence A sense of responsibility to society and public interests Concern for the competence and honor of the profession Higher loyalty to profession than employer Careerist versus professional values Licensing Edward Bernays was an advocate for this He believed that licensing would protect the profession and the public from incompetent shoddy opportunists who do not have the knowledge talent or ethics required of public relations professionals Advocates Defines PR unifies curricula unifies standards protects clients protects practitioners and raises practitioner39s credibility 0pponents Violates lst amendments malpractice laws exist states license but Pr works nationallyinternationally ensures only minimum competenceethics increased credibility not ensured expensive Chapter 4 Public Relations Departments Public Relations is expanding for its traditional functions to exercise influence in the highest levels of management Public Relations is about IIbuilding good relationships with strategic publics Ideally professional public relations people assist top management in developing policy and communicating with various groups Organizational Factors Determine the Role of Public Relations Research indicates that the role of public relations in an organization often depends on the type of organization the perceptions of top management and even the capabilities of the public relations executive Companies such as IBM and General Motors are sensitive to policy issues and public attitudes and have a vested interest in establishing a solid corporate identity They tend to place more emphasis on news conferences formal contact with the media executive speeches and counseling management In contrast a small scale organization that offers a standardized product or service feels few public pressures and faces little governmental regulatory interest Public Relations in such organizations has little or no input into management decisions and policy formation But research also indicates that the type of organization may be less significant in predicting the role of public relations than are the perceptions and expectations of its top management Top level management in a lot of organizations perceives public relations as primarily a journalistic and technical function for media relations and publicity In large scale organizations of low complexity there is a tendency to think of public relations as merely a support function of the marketing department The most reputable Fortune 500 corporations tend to think of public relations as a strategic management tool The primary indicator of a department39s influence and power however is whether the top communication officer has a seat at the management table How Public Relations Departments are Organized A department is usually divided into specialized sections Public relations personnel may be so dispersed throughout an organization that an observer can have difficulty ascertaining the true extent of public relations activity The way public relations departments are organized Leader titles Reporting hierarchy Size of departments Common divisions found in large corporations Media relations investor relations consumer affairs government relations community relations marketing communications and employee communications Line and Staff Functions Public relations is a staff function Public relations professionals are experts in communication The power and influence of a public relations department usually result from access to top management which uses advice and recommendations from the remainder of the organization to formulate policy Levels of influence Advisory management has no obligation to request or act on communications Purely advisory practitioners are often ineffective Compulsory advisory management is required to listen to public relationsI perspective before acting Concurring authority PR and others must agree on an action Sources of friction Ideally public relations is part of the managerial subsystem and contributes to organizational strategy Public relations is IIthe management of communication between an organization and its publics Other staff functions are included in the communication process with internal and external publics In addition internal friction can occur Internal friction often involves the relationship between public relations and legal human resources advertising and marketing departments The sources of friction are Legal Legal staff members are always concerned about the possible effect of any public statement on current or potential litigation As a result they often frustrate public relations personnel by taking the attitude that any public statement can potentially be used against the organization in a lawsuit There are conflicts about which information to release and when This can cause the organization to seem unresponsive to public concerns Human resources Human resources personnel believe that they should control the flow of information However public relations administrators counter that by stating that satisfactory external communications cannot be achieved unless effective employee relations are conducted simultaneously Differences regarding employee communications Advertising They often compete for funds to communicate to external audiences Philosophical differences can tend to interfere Marketing Marketing personnel similar to advertising staff think solely in terms of one type of public customers or potential buyers The trend toward outsourcing A major trend among US corporations has been the outsourcing of services ranging from telecommunications advertising engineering to even legal services Public Relations firms will be the main beneficiaries of this trend as they can now use multiple firms for various projects It is mainly used as a way for corporations to get outside PR 0utsourcing getting resources from other areas Crowd sourcing getting resources from public Public Relations firms Regardless of size each firm gives counsel and performs technical services to carry out an agreed upon program American public relations firms have proliferated in proportion to the growth of the global economy Many corporations felt a need for public relations firms that could provide them with professional expertise Public relations firms ads beginning to discard the term public relations as a part of their official name Other firms use the term communications to describe their business Public relations firms are increasingly emphasizing the counseling aspect of their services though some of their revenues come from implementing tactical aspects Services provided by Public Relations Firms are Marketing communications Executive speech training Research and evaluation Crisis communication Media analysis Community relations Events management Public affairs Branding and corporate reputation Financial relations Specialty services Digital media security or litigation public relations Global reach International presence is important as most major public relations firms generate substantial revenues from international operations Rise of Communication Conglomerates Large conglomerates get PR firms for several reasons First it allows the integration of various communication disciplines into IItotal communication networks Second it is purely for economics Companies may find PR firms to be an attractive investment Structure of a counseling firm A small public relations firm may consist only of the owner and an assistant who is supported by an administrative assistant Recent college graduates tend to start as assistant account executives One they learn the firm39s procedures and show ability promotion to account executive may occur within 6 18 months After 2 3 years it is not uncommon for the account executive to be the account supervisor Pros and cons of using a Public Relations firm Pros objectivity skills and expertise extensive resources problem solving skills credibility and offices throughout the country Cons superficial knowledge part time commitment need for long briefing resentment by staff need for direction high costs and need for information and confidence
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