Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 301
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Deal on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. April South in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 7 Evolution and Adaptation 0 Mechanisms of Evolution 0 Mutation random change in nucleotide sequence of DNA I Rare I Beneficial mutations selection 0 Genetic drift occurs when genetic variation is lost randomly due to mating mortality or inheritance I Has bigger difference in small populations I Bottleneck effect a large decline in population size decreases genetic variability 0 Survivors have less genetic variation than original population 0 May prevent future population from adapting I Founder effect small number of individuals limited genetic variation colonize a new area 0 Selection certain phenotypes favored to survive and reproduce I Stabilizing intermediate phenotypes favored o Removes harmful genetic variation 0 Occurs in stable environments I Directional one extreme phenotype is favored I Disruptive both extreme phenotypes are favored o Microevolution evolution of populations 0 Artificial selection selection by humans to achieve some kind of goal 0 Natural selection differential survival and reproductive success due to an individual interacting with its environment 0 Macroevolution evolution at higher levels of organization 0 Phylogenetic trees show evolutionary relationships between organisms o Speciation the creation of a new species I Allopatric most common mechanism of speciation due to geographic isolation I Sympatric speciation occurring without geographic isolation usually due to polyploidy Chapter 8 Life Histories 0 Life history traits Fecundity number of offspring produced per reproductive episode Parity number of reproductive episodes producing viable offspring Parental investment amount of timeenergy parents spend taking care of offspring Longevity life expectancy Slow life history I Long time to sexual maturity I Long life span I Low number of offspring I High parental investment 0 Fast life history OOOOO I Short time to sexual maturity I Short life span I High number of offspring I Low parental investment 0 Plant life history I Ruderals 0 Fast growth 0 Early sexual maturity 0 High amount of energy needed to make seeds 0 Rarer important for vegetative reproduction I Competitors 0 Fast growth 0 Early sexual maturity 0 Low amount of energy needed to make seeds 0 Often important for vegetative reproduction I Stress tolerators 0 Slow growth 0 Late sexual maturity 0 Low amount of energy needed to make seeds 0 Vegetative reproduction is very important 0 Principle of allocation when resources are devoted to 1 body structure physiological function or behavior they can t be allotted to others causing tradeoffs 0 Factors that affect allocation number of offspring size of offspring parental care parental survival 0 Senescence decrease in fecundity and increased probability of mortality due to age 0 Semelparity organisms reproduce once in their lifetime 0 Lots of energy needed for reproduction 0 Iteroparity organisms reproduce more than once in their lifetime 0 Stimuli that cause life history changes 0 Environmental cues availability of light climate 0 Resource availability 0 Predation can cause changes in hatching and sexual maturity 0 Global warming changes in breeding times 0 Humans Chapter 9 Reproductive Strategies 0 Sexual reproduction offspring inherit DNA from 2 parents 0 Costs I Uses lots of energy and resources I Increased risk of predation herbivory and parasitism I Cost of meiosis 50 reduction in amount of parents genes passed down 0 Benefits I Can lose bad genes during meiosis I Variation from each parent increases the fitness of offspring I Red Queen Hypothesis Hosts rapidly evolve to counter evolution of parasites through sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction offspring inherit DNA from 1 parent 0 Vegetative reproduction offspring inherited from nonsexual plant tissues through binary fission produces clones o Parthenogenesis embryo produced without fertilization I Produces females Reproductive strategies 0 Perfect owers have both male and female owers on the same plant 0 Monoecious have separate male and female owers on the whole plant 0 Dioecious whole plant has either male or female parts 0 Hermaphrodites I Simultaneous hermaphrodites have both male and female sexual functions at the same time can selffertilize I Sequential hermaphrodites switch between male and female sexual functions Offspring sex ratios typically 11 0 Sex determination can be due to sex chromosomes or due to fertilization 0 Frequency dependent selection cycle in which rarer phenotypes are favored due to better fitness 0 Local mate competition mate competition in small space causes a skewed sex ratio Mating systems number of mates an organism has and the permanence of the relationships 0 Promiscuity everyone mates with everyone 0 Polygamy one organism mates with multiple others forming longterm bonds I Polygyny 1 male multiple females I Polyandry 1 female multiple males 0 Monogamy one male and one female in a longterm bond 0 Extrapair copulation one male and one female have a longterm bond but they form transient mating relationships with others as well Sexual selection natural selection for sexspecific traits related to reproduction 0 Sexual dimorphism difference in phenotypes for males and females of the same species 0 Primary characteristics characteristics related to fertilization 0 Secondary characteristics phenotypic differences not related to fertilization size color etc o Runaway sexual selection selection for 1 trait is favored and reinforced until no genetic variation exists 0 Handicap principle the higher the handicap the higher the ability to offset the trait Female choice 0 Good genes hypothesis select males with better phenotype 0 Good health hypothesis select males with the best health Sexual con ict mating partners act in their own selfinterest Chapter 10 Social Behaviors 0 Have a genetic basis and are subject to natural selection 0 Selection acting on behavior with one s own species 0 Groups 0 Benefits I Dilution effect reduced probability of one individual being preyed on I Resource acquisition more individuals searching for resources I Lek location where a group of males show off to mate with females 0 Makes finding mates easier 0 Costs I Groups are more conspicuous does not usually outweigh the benefits of the dilution effect I Sharing of disease and resources I Aggression o Territories area defended against the intrusion of others 0 Dominance hierarchy social ranking determined by competitions of strength or skill 0 Types of social interactions 0 Cooperation donor and recipient of a social behavior experience increased fitness 0 Selfishness donor experiences increased fitness while recipient experiences decreased fitness 0 Spitefulness both donor and recipient experience decreased fitness I Does not occur naturally o Altruism type of social interaction in which donor experiences decreased fitness recipient experiences increased fitness 0 Direct fitness fitness gained from passing genes on to offspring 0 Indirect fitness fitness gained from helping relatives with the same genotype pass on genes to offspring o Altruistic individuals do not receive any direct fitness so it most likely evolved due to indirect fitness achieved 0 Coefficient of relatedness numerical probability of an individual and relatives carrying copies of the same genes from a recent common ancestor 0 Indirect fitness benefit BR I B benefit to recipient relative I R coefficient of relatedness C direct fitness cost to donor Altruism favored when BRgtC o Eusocialty o 4 necessary characteristics I Several adults living together in a group I Overlapping generations of parents and offspring living together I Cooperation in nest building and brood care I Reproductive dominance by 1 or a few individuals 0 Why it has evolved I Cost of leaving eusocial group is greater than foregoing reproduction I Haplodiploid systems one sex is haploid one sex is diploid 0 Examples bees mole rats termites Chapter 11 Population Distributions 0 5 main characteristics 0 Geographic range I Endemic live in a single isolated region I Cosmopolitan cover multiple large areas 0 Abundance number of individuals existing in a defined area Density number of individuals per unit area 0 Dispersion spacing of individuals with respect to each other in respect to their geographic range I Clustered individuals form discrete groups I Evenly spaced individuals keep uniform distance between each other I Random individual placement is independent from one another 0 Dispersal movement of individuals from their origin I Dispersal limitation absence of population from a suitable habitat due to barriers to dispersal o Ecological niche modeling process of determining suitable habitat conditions for a species 0 Quantifying individuals 0 Census counts every individual 0 Survey counts population subset o Areavolume based survey identifies sample areavolume and counts every individual in that zone 0 Markrecapture survey capture a sample of individuals and mark them after a predetermined amount of time recapture a sample and count the marked individuals initially captured marked recaptured O population size n total captured 0 Line transect survey count every individual encountered moving along a line 0 Ideal free distribution individuals distribute themselves among different habitats in a way that allows them to have the same per capita benefit 0 Assumes individuals know about other habitats 0 Models of spatial structure When individuals disperse a lot among subpopulations whole populations function as a whole 0 Basic metapopulation model patches of suitable habitat are embedded in a matrix of unsuitable habitat I Assumes all suitable patches are equal 0 Sourcesink metapopulation model accounts for the fact that all suitable patches of habitat are not of equal quality I Source population comes from high quality habitats and serve as a source of dispersion I Sink population comes from a low quality habitat and relies on source populations to maintain a subpopulation 0 Landscape metapopulation model considers quality differences in suitable habitats and quality of surrounding matrix Chapter 12 Population Growth and Regulation 0 Population demography 0 Age structure pyramids show population growth patterns Broad base population is growing Narrow base population is declining Straight sides population remains steady 0 Life tables based on female offspring per female in population Xage class Nx number of indiViduals in each X after population produces offspring 5x survival rate from 1 X to the next bx fecundity of each age class NxSx number surViVing to next age class X Nxbex number of new offspring produced Survivorship always 1 for 1St age class 0 lx1sx1survivorship szxbx lxbx Generation time o Survivorship curves Type 1 O 0 Low mortality early in life increased mortality later in life 0 Mammals Type II 0 Constant mortality throughout life 0 Birds I Type III O 0 High mortality early in life low mortality later in life 0 Insects and plants 0 Growth models 0 Exponential Nt Noe I Nt future population size I No current population size I r intrinsic growth rate I t time o Geometric Nt Nollt I Nt 2 future population size I No current population size I 7 ratio of population size at time of interest to previous size dN N o Log1st1c d T N1 0 Population doubling lo 2 o Exponent1a1 t i lo 2 o Geometr1c t i loge 1 0 Analyzing growth 0 When population decreases kltl and rlt0 0 When population increases kgtl and rgt0 0 When population is constant kl and FD 0 Limitations to population growth 0 Density dependent affect size in relation to density I Negative density dependence rate of growth decreases as density increases due to competition I Positive density dependence rate of growth increases as density increases 0 Density independent affect population size regardless of density
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