Psychology Exam 3 Review
Psychology Exam 3 Review PSY 2301
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Aneeqa Akhtar Exam 3 Review Chapter 8: Memory Memory is the persistence of learning and knowledge over time o Sensory Memory: fleeting/immediate or initial recording of information o Working Memory: briefly holds information to “work-on”, has to be encoded to go to long term memory 7 items, +/- 2 o Long Term Memory: relatively permanent and limitless store house of information Covers a span that stretches from about 30 seconds ago to your earliest memories Memory involves three main stages: o Acquisition (encoding): getting information into your brain o Storage: retaining information over time o Retrieval: getting information back out of the memory system Primacy vs Recency Effect: we remember things that happened first and most recently Mnemonics: techniques to memorize new material o Depth of Processing: focusing on meaning leads to better memory than focusing on superficialities Ex: “is this printed in capital letters?” vs “Would the word fit in a sentence?” o Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of material without thinking about its meaning Trying to remember a phone number Exam cramming seconds prior to the start of a test o Chunking: combining materials into independent chunks, can be visual or verbal o Narrative Chaining: material is woven into a meaningful story o Key-Word Method; using imagery during encoding to aid retrieval o Songs and Rhymes: alphabet song o First Letter Mnemonics: Roy G Biv PEMDAS Context-Dependent Effects: o Words heard underwater are best recalled underwater o Words heard on land are best recalled on land Meaningfulness: extent to which new information evokes associations with information already in the long term memory o It’s easier to learn material when you have knowledge of the related material o Meaningfulness resides in the leaner, not in the material to be learned Implicit Memory: memories we do not recall consciously; occur without awareness o Ex: procedural memory (riding a bike, driving), classical conditioning Explicit Memory: conscious memory, can be triggered by a direct question and purposely recalled Aneeqa Akhtar o Episodic memory: memory for specific events What did you eat for breakfast? o Semantic memory: general knowledge and facts Flashbulb Memories: vivid memories from emotional events Recognition: the ability to identify previously encountered info o Multiple choice question Recall: the ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material o Fill in the bank questions Misinformation Effect: after exposure to information that is not true, people tend to remember it that way o This suggests that memories can be created, even when an event did not occur o Loftus Car Experiment: subjects were shown the same video of an accident between two cars. Some subjects were asked “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” and others were asked “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Different wording can affect the witnesses’ memories Childhood Amnesia: the inability to remember events that occurred during the first two or three years of life o most of our earliest accurate memories are from when we were 3-4 years old Chapter 9: Thinking Cognition: Mental activity associated with [processing and understanding information Prototype: a “typical” member of a category, one that has most of the defining features of that category Schemas: mental representations that summarize knowledge about an item or a situation o Person Schemas: we use personality categories to classify people (personality, dress style, tattoos) These can lead us to infer properties that aren’t present (prejudice, stereotype) o Place Schemas: Dining in a restaurant: script, sit down, drinks are brought, order, food is served to us Lecturer’s office Automaticity: activities we can do without conscious though o Driving a car, washing hair, reading Stroop Effect: an example of automaticity causing problems o Automatic nature of reading, Ex: trying to say the colors of words Trial & Error o Identify problem: car won’t start o Gather information: is it out of gas? o Try a solution: not out of gas, dry off wires o Evaluate results: car starts Algorithm: logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Aneeqa Akhtar Heuristic: rule of thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently o Usually speedier than algorithms, but more error-prone o Sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics o Shortcuts, throw out all of the YY combinations Representativeness Heuristic: judging something quickly based on how it represents, or matches, a particular prototype o May lead one to ignore other relevant information o Ex: every girls with an expensive handbag is interest in money Availability Heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory o If instances come readily to mine (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common o Ex: people believe crime has increased in the US (due to availability of information) Insight: sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem); the “aha” moment) Mental Set: tendency to approach a problem in a particular way o Usually, this way has been successful in the past o But may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem…”fixed thinking” o Ex: have to combine 3 jugs to measure 100 oz of water Functional Fixedness: tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions o Impediment to problem solving o Ex: matchbox, candle, bulletin board challenge Framing: the way an issue is posed o how an issue is frames can significantly affect decisions and judgements Anchoring: the tendency to use the initial value as a reference point in making a new numerical estimate o Ex: negotiating, menu pricing o Car sales: mention that its fuel efficient and clean before mentioning rust and mileage o Participants asked to calculate in 5 seconds the answer to one of the following problems: o 1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8 o 8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 o They had a much smaller guess for the first list Choice Overload: too many choices can become overwhelming and make decision-making more stressful o Ex: jam tasting, easier to buy an item when there are less flavors to choose from’ Satisficing: to obtain an outcome that is good enough o Instead of spending the time and effort to obtains the ideal option ( as would an optimizer) o Ex: buying jeans or ketchup Chapter 10: Language Aneeqa Akhtar Phoneme: smallest distinctive sound unit in a language o The unique sounds that can be joined to create words o About 40 phonemes in English Semantics: set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language o Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning o May be a word (free morphemes) or a part of a word (bound morpheme) o “Boy” has two morphemes: ‘boy’ and ‘s’ Syntax: rules of grammar; structure of a language o Not the same as meaning. Sentences can be grammatically correct but nonsensical Pragmatics: rules for the appropriate use of language in particular contexts; the social use of language o Reciprocity, disclosure (how much info you disclose), verbosity, speech registers (e.g. formal vs informal speech) Noam Chomsky: language acquisition device (LAD): an innate mental structure that guides the acquisition of language o “Wug” test Critical Period: a limited time in which an event can optimally occur o Learning a language is easiest early in life (neural plasticity) Behaviorist View: language is learned like anything else is learned Nativist View: we are biologically wired to learn language with ease Interactionist View: language is learned in a social context Once an infant’s vocabulary reaches about 50 words it suddenly begins to build rapidly, at a rate of 50-100+ words per month, mostly nouns! o This language spurt occurs around 18 months and is sometimes called the Naming Explosion Whole Object Constraint: a new word labels whole object, not a feature of the object Fast Mapping: the process of rapidly learning a new words imply by detecting the difference between a familiar word and an unfamiliar word o Ex: in a preschool classroom, an experimenter drew a child’s attention to two blocks – asking the child to “get the celadon block not the blue one” -> from the contrast, the child inferred that the name of the color of the requested object was celadon Underextension: using a word too narrowly o Ex: using the word cat to refer only to the family cat Overextension: use of a single word to cover many different things o Ex: open the door, open the fruit, open the shoelaces Overregularization: speech errors in which the children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular o Applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule o Ex: foots, tooths, mouses, sheeps Holophrastic: (12-14 months) o one word represents a complete thought Aneeqa Akhtar o Ex: “up!”, “more!” Telegraphic Speech: combining two words to convey meaning o Omit words not critical to meaning o Ex: “Daddy gone, More cookie” McGurk Effect: our eyes influence what we hear Chapter 11: Intelligence Alfred Binet: Developed tasks measuring the mental age of children on a range of abilities o Goal was to find children in need of help and improve their ability Stern converted mental age to IQ o Intelligence Quotient: defined the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (cs) multiplied by a 100 o IQ=(ma/ca) x 100 Standardization: defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of a pre-tested “standardized group” Reliability: the extent to which a test yields consistent results o alternative forms of test, two halves of test, retesting the same individual Validity: the extent to which a test measures and predicts what it’s supposed to Predictive Validity: success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict o Accessed by computing the correlation between test scores and criterion behavior o AKA criterion-related validity Mental Retardation: condition of limited mental ability o Indicated by intelligence scores below 70 Savant Syndrome: condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an amazing specific skill Factor Analysis: statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test o used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score Fluid intelligence: ability to reason, problem solve and overcome obstacles (independent of knowledge) o Presumed to be heavily influenced by biology Crystallized Intelligence: acquired skills and knowledge o Influenced by environment and culture o Continues to develop over the lifespan Stereotype threat: People often sensitive and reactive to stereotypes o Expectations may create self-fulfilling prophecies General Intelligence(g) o factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities o measured by every task on an intelligence test
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