Study Guide and Practice Questions NO.2
Study Guide and Practice Questions NO.2 Psych 105
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Johnathan Preszler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Psych 105 Study Guide Exam 2 ProfessorJonathan Preszler Consciousness is your immediate awareness of your internal states your thoughts sensations memories and the external world around you William James 1892 described consciousness as a stream or river and allows people to integrate past present and future guide future actions Attention has a limited capacity it is selective the cocktail party effect if you are at a party and hear your name in the background noise you will look around to find who is saying your name 0 Misdirection O Inattentional blindness O Inattentionaldeafness 0 Change blindness not noticing when something changes a friends hair cut Circadian Rhythm a cycle that is roughly 24 hours long The Superchiasmatic nucleus the body39s clock 0 Cluster of neurons in hypothalamus O Governs circadian rhythm 0 Bright light helps regulate sleep 0 Jet lag the body is out of rhythm are out of synchronization O 242 hours Modern sleep research began with electroencephalography recorded that the brain remains active during sleep patterns of activity differs from waking state some areas are active and some are not Yawning increases activity levels because then we take in more oxygen and it is contagious Sleep paralysis is when someone wakes but their body is paralysis from sleeping 45 sleep cycles occur in sleep and more rem cycles increase in length 90100 minutes one cycle Sleep and memories new memories are strengthened memories from the day are reactivated in sleep emotional memories are preserved Sleep deprivation studies micro sleep too little sleep diminished concentration weight gain slow reflexes when it sleeps again spend longer time in REM Sleep deprived brains reacts to negative and positive extremes Freud dreams are unfulfilled aggressive or sexual wishes which could not be filled during the day Hobson amp McCarley Activation Synthesis Model different things are activated so the brain has to make sense of it this is why dreams are like stories Neurocognitive Theory of Dreaming regular thinking with the addition of generated sensory data Sleep disorders Dyssomnias parasomnias O Dyssomnias sleep disorders involving disruptions in the amount quality or timing of sleep 0 Insomnia from anxiety wake up too early difficulty falling asleep 0 Obstructive sleep apnea stop breathing for a moment which wakes up 0 Narcolepsy and cataplexy falling asleep when excited or being paralyzed when experiencing an intense emotions O Parasomnias are undesired arousal or actions during sleep 0 Sleep sex abnormal sexual arousal during sleep often aggressive 0 Night terrors sensation of being choked crushed or falling intense fear or panic 0 Sleep walking someone who walks in sleep o Hypnosis cooperative social interaction in which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotists suggestions with changes in perception memory and behavior What Hypnosis does 0 Sensory changes 0 Profound changes in subjective experience of consciousness detachment from body relaxation timeliness 0 Behavior outside the hypnotic state when a hypnotist leaves someone with an afterthought 0 Increased confidence in incorrect memories doesn39t help with regular memories 0 Addiction compelled to take a drug Steps of addiction 0 Physical dependence body and brain physically adapted to a drug Drug tolerance Withdrawal symptoms unpleasant physical reactions to lack of drugs Drug rebound effect withdrawal system are opposite of drugs action Drug abuse recurrent drug use resulting in disruption of academics social or occupational 0 Change in reward circuitry normally reinforcing experience of everyday life 0 Learning is a process of that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience 0 Conditioning is a basic form of learning 0 The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses 0 Classical helps explain stimuli trigger an automatic response 0 Process of learning an association between stimuli o Unconditioned stimulus natural stimulus that reflexively produces a response without prior learning 0 Unconditioned response unlearned reflexive response 0 Conditioned stimulus originally o Conditioned response 0 Operant helps explain how we acquire new voluntary actions conditioning based on consequences 0 Factors that affect conditioning 0 Timing affects the strength of response Frequency of the paired stimuli Stimuli generalization similar to the original conditioning Stimulus discrimination Extinction when the conditioned is not used together anymore bell does not food anymore 0 Spontaneous recovery reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus 0 John Watson was pioneer in application of classical conditioning principles to advertising applied conditioning to humans little albert 0 Robert Rescorla classical conditioning depends on the information the CS provides about the UCS the conditioned stimulus must be reliable 0 Former drug users crave drugs when they39re in an environment or with people that reminds them when they have done them before 0 Taste Aversion getting sick from a food even once means you get sick any time you see that food now 0000 0000 o Operant conditioningquot O Thorndike39s puzzle box placed hungry cat in a box where it does random behaviors until the door opens and it gets food once it learns how to open the door it will do it immediately Reinforcement occurs when an event follows an operant and increases the likelihood of the behavior to be repeated Positive Reinforcement operant is followed by the addition of a reinforcement stimulus Negative Reinforcement operant is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus o Aversive stimulus physical or psychological discomfort Punishment behavior is followed by an aversive 0 Positive punishment something is added to punish given a speeding ticket 0 Negative punishment something is removed to punish a child has a toy taken away for having a tantrum o More effective when it immediately and consistently follows behavior 0 Intense punishment may produce undesirable results passivity fear Continuous reinforcement pattern in which the desired behavior is reinforced after every occurrence Partial Reinforcement only reinforced some of the time Partial reinforcement effect partially reinforced behaviors to tend to be more resistant to dog begs for food after only getting table scraps once 0 Latent Learning 0 O 0 Edward Tolman realized the rats made a quotcognitive mapquot of the maze When something is learned without realizing it o Observational Learning 0 0 Learning takes place by watching other people Bandura and the bobo doll experiment Side Note Adenosine blocked by caffeine Questions These are some questions to quiz yourselfothers on about the material above These questions have answers in the notes above and may help you remember other smaller details from the class Good Luck What is consciousness What is the cocktail party theory and what part of the mind does it apply to What are the different categories of being inattentive Can you describe each one What is circadian rhythm How many hours is it What does the superchiasmatic nucleus do Especially in relation to bright light What does yawing do and why Is it actually contagious How many sleep cycles does a person usually have in a good night s sleep What happens to the REM during these cycles How long do they usually last What is sleeps relation to memories What are the effects of having too little sleep What is sleep paralysis What did Freud propose in relation to dreams What was Hobson amp McCarley s Activation Synthesis Model What is Neurocognitive Theory of Dreaming What is a Dyssomnias Can you name some Can you name what they do What is a Parasomnia Can you name some Can you name what they do What is Hypnosis What are some effects of Hypnosis What is Addiction What re the steps in addiction What is learning What is classical conditioning You should be able to thoroughly describe Pavlov s dogs What is Operant Conditioning What factors effect conditioning What re the differences between positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment What is partial reinforcement What is Latent Learning What is observational learning What does caffeine block to help people stay alert
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